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Here they are the criminal faces of the microworld

Мафия микромира

Everyone has repeatedly come across them, but not many would have dared to meet face to face. Here they are the criminal faces of the microworld!

Canine flea on developmental stage

Собачья блоха на стадии развития - Мафия микромира

Flea canine (lat. Ctenocephalides canis) - a type of flea from the family Pulicidae (Archaeopsyllinae). It occurs everywhere. A dangerous parasite of dogs, cats, rodents, humans and other animals, bites can cause ctenocephalosis. Transporter of flatworms Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758) (dipilidiosis), trypanosomes Leptomonas ctenocephali (Fantham) Woodcock, 1914 and other parasitic organisms. They can also contain plague pathogens, leprosy sticks, rat rickettsiosis and Marseilles fever.

Marine Polychaete Nereis sandersi

>Морская полихета Nereis sandersi - Мафия микромира

Marine polychaete Nereis sandersi under the electron microscope. Deep-sea worm living in hydrothermal vents.

Polychaete worms, or polychaetes (lat. Polychaeta, from the Greek. Πολύς - many, Greek. Χαίτη - hair) - a class of ringed worms. Currently this class has more than 10 thousand species. The most famous representatives are: sand skin Arenicola marina and Nereid Nereis virens.

Rotif larvae

Личинка коловратки - Мафия микромира

Rotifers (lat. Rotifera) - a type of multicellular animals, previously attributed to the group of primary-cavity worms. The main characteristic feature is the presence of the so-called rotation apparatus - a ciliary formation at the front end of the body, which is used for feeding and movement.

About 1500 species of rotifers are known, in Russia - about 600 species [1]. These are mainly freshwater inhabitants, but they are also found in the sea and in moist soils. Most rotifers are free-moving, but there are also attached forms. The vast majority of species are free-living, but parasites and commensals are also found.

In size, rotifers do not exceed 2 mm (much less on average). The representative of this type of Ascomorpha minima is the smallest multicellular animal, its size is about 40 microns. Due to the small size of the tissue often acquire syncytial structure. For the type as a whole, eutelium is characteristic - constancy of the cellular composition, that is, a constant number of cells in all individuals of the same species. Some rotifers can fall into cryptobiosis.

Fly fly larva

Личинка мясной мухи - Мафия микромира

Gray meatflies, or sarcophagids (lat. Sarcophagidae) - family of dipterans. Bole more than 3,000 species distributed worldwide. In the Palaearctic - 500 species, in Russia - about 300. Their scientific name (from the Greek. Σαρκο- - flesh, meat and φάγος - eater) indicates their habit of breeding on the corpses of vertebrate animals.

Larvae of the water beetle Dytiscidae

Личинка водного жука Dytiscidae - Мафия микромира

Diving floss (lat. Dytiscidae) is a family of aquatic insects from the order of Coleoptera. In the world fauna there are more than 4000 species of these beetles. In the Russian fauna there are about 300 species of 14 tribes.

Wood beetle head

Голова древесного жука - Мафия микромира

Coleoptera, or beetles (lat. Coleoptera) - a detachment of insects, whose representatives are characterized by the modification of the front wings into hard, strongly sclerotized, or leathery elytra, devoid of venation, with the retained webbed rear (lower) wings serving for flight and in a calm state folded under elytra (very rarely the wings and elytra are reduced). Representatives of the detachment are characterized by a gnawing and chewing mouth apparatus, a developed front part of the chest, a movable joint of the prothorax with its middle part. The shape and size of the body are very diverse: from 0.3-1.0 mm to 171 mm.

Moth caterpillar

Гусеница моли - Мафия микромира

The caterpillar is a larva of insects from the order Lepidoptera (butterflies).

Sluggish

Тихоходка - Мафия микромира

Slow paces (lat. Tardigrada) is a type of microscopic invertebrates, close to arthropods.

For the first time the representative of these animals was described in 1773 by the German pastor I. A. Goetz as kleiner Wasserbär (German is “little water bear”). In 1777, the Italian scientist Lazaro Spallanzani gave them the name il tardigrado (with Italian. - "slow moving"), whose romanized form is the name Tardigrada (since 1840).

Silkworm caterpillar

Гусеница шелкопряда - Мафия микромира

Silkworm (lat. Bombyx mori) is a butterfly from the family of real silkworms, which plays an important economic role in the production of silk. Domesticated in China about 3000 years BC. e. A close view, and possibly the original form of a domesticated silkworm - wild silkworm - lives in East Asia: in the northern regions of China and the southern regions of the Primorsky Territory of Russia.

Earthworm

Дождевой червь - Мафия микромира

Earthworms or earthworms (lat. Lumbricina) - a suborder of small-necked worms from the order Haplotaxida. They live on all continents except Antarctica, but only a few species initially had a wide range: the distribution of a number of representatives occurred due to human introduction. The most famous European earthworms belong to the family Lumbricidae.

Mite

Клещ - Мафия микромира

Mites (Latin Acari) - a subclass of arthropods from the arachnid class (Arachnida). The most numerous group in the class: more than 54,000 species are currently described, including 144 minerals. Ticks reached such a flourishing due to the fact that in their historical development they acquired microscopically small dimensions, which allowed them to master the upper layers of the soil, rich in decomposing plant residues.

The section of zoology that studies ticks is called acarology.

Beetle larva

Личинка жука - Мафия микромира

The larva is the phase of the life cycle of insects.

Coleoptera, or beetles (lat. Coleoptera) - a detachment of insects, whose representatives are characterized by the modification of the front wings into hard, strongly sclerotized, or leathery elytra, devoid of venation, with the retained webbed rear (lower) wings serving for flight and in a calm state folded under elytra (very rarely the wings and elytra are reduced). Representatives of the detachment are characterized by a gnawing and chewing mouth apparatus, a developed front part of the chest, a movable joint of the prothorax with its middle part. The shape and size of the body are very diverse: from 0.3-1.0 mm to 171 mm.

Spider

Паук - Мафия микромира

Spiders (Latin Araneae, Aranei, ancient Greek ἀράχνη) - a group of arthropods, the first in the number of known species in the class of arachnids (previously considered the second after ticks, when all ticks were combined in one team). Representatives of the squad are common everywhere. Spiders are obligate predators, feeding primarily on insects or other small animals. Only one exception is known - the spider-horse Bagheera kiplingi, feeding on green parts of acacias. The detachment includes about 42 thousand modern and about 1.1 thousand fossil species. On the territory of Russia and the countries of the former USSR 2888 species inhabit. The science that studies spiders is called arachnology.

Mascot larva

Личинка маскита - Мафия микромира

The larva is the phase of the life cycle of a number of animals. Usually, the presence of the larvae is said in cases where, during the individual development of the individual, it undergoes transformation, or metamorphosis, a significant change in structure.

Mosquitoes (lat. Phlebotominae) is the subfamily of long-winged insects of the gnus complex. Distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Unlike mosquitoes, mosquito larvae develop in moist soil, not in water. It includes several genera, in particular, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World, which include a total of more than 700 species. Representatives of these genera are carriers of diseases between people and animals, in particular - leishmaniasis, bartonellosis, pappatachi fever (mosquito fever). Mosquito bites cause phlebododermia.

Polyheta

Полихета - Мафия микромира

Sea mouse (lat. Aphrodita aculeata) is a species of marine polychaete worms from the family Aphroditidae. The Latin name is derived from the name of the ancient Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite, and the Russian name is associated with numerous bristles covering the dorsal side of the body, resembling felt.

Ant

Муравей - Мафия микромира

Ants (lat. Formicidae) - a family of insects from the ant family, the order Hymenoptera. They are social insects forming 3 castes: females, males and working individuals. Females and males are winged, working individuals are wingless. Antennae articulated, in females and working individuals 11–12-segmented, in males 12–13-segmented, in a number of species 4-, 6- or 10-segmented. The main segment of the antennae (scape) is usually much longer than all the others. The posterior part of the chest (epinotum) is the first abdominal segment, merged with the posterior loom. The abdomen proper joins the epinotum with a stalk formed by the first or second segments. Ants of some subfamilies (myrrhizins, ponerins, and others) have a developed sting. Wings with reduced venation.

Ants live in families in nests called anthills, which are arranged in soil, wood, and under stones; some construct anthills from small plant particles, etc. There are parasitic species that inhabit the nests of other ants, ants are “slave owners” containing in their nests “slaves” - ants of other species. A number of species adapted to dwell in human dwellings. Some species are valued for controlling the number of insect pests, others may be considered pests.

They feed mainly on plant sap, padua, aphids and other sucking insects, while feeding on larvae - mainly insects. There are also species that feed on seeds (reaper ants) and cultivated mushrooms (leaf cutter ants).

Distributed throughout the world, with the exception of Antarctica and some remote islands, forming 10-25% of the terrestrial biomass of land animals. The success of ants in many habitats is due to their social organization and ability to change their habitats and use a variety of resources.

One of the first researchers who described the social life of ants in his scientific works was the entomologist Erich Vasmann, who is also one of the founders of myrmecology.

There are more than 14,000 species in the world and 485 genera (including extinct), distributed mainly in the tropics. In the Palearctic about 1350 species from 94 genera, in Russia, more than 260 species from 44 genera were recorded.

The science that studies ants is called myrmecology.

Red ant

Рыжий муравей - Мафия микромира

The red forest ant (Latin Formica rufa) is a species of medium sized ants of the genus Formica (Formica) from the Formicinae subfamily of the Formicidae family.

Black wasp

Черная оса - Мафия микромира

The wasps are the name of some insects of the suborder stalk-like gab (Apocrita) of the order of the hymenoptera, which has no strictly scientific definition. In principle, these are all stinging stalked inlets, not related to bees and ants.

Wasps, unlike bees, in defense against external factors that threaten their existence, use not only their stings, but also the jaw apparatus, biting the object of anxiety. Their sting, unlike bees, does not have chipping, so when stinging, they do not cripple their sting. Like bees, close-in individuals react to the smell of poison and can join the attack.

Beetle deer

Жук олень - Мафия микромира

The stag beetle (lat. Lucanus cervus) is a large beetle of the genus Lucanus in the family of stag beetles. It is the largest beetle living in Europe: individual individuals of males of the nominative subspecies can reach lengths of up to 86–91 mm with an average length of males 70–74 mm. It is also the second largest beetle (after the relic woodcutter) living in the CIS.

Deer beetle is found in oak and deciduous forests with oak in Europe, Western Asia, Turkey, Iran and North Africa. Males are distinguished by well developed and enlarged mandibles, which are transformed into the so-called "Horns." The larvae develop in the wood of dead deciduous trees, mainly in the wood of oak, for 4-6 years.

Deer beetles are found predominantly rarely and locally. The species range is reduced, in connection with which it is listed in the security documents and the Red Books of many European countries, including Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Belarus, and since 1982, the stag beetle is listed in the second application of the Bern Convention. The main reasons for the decline of the deer beetle population are massive deforestation, sanitary “cleansing” of forest land, the uncontrolled collection of beetles by collectors and random individuals.

Ant

Муравей - Мафия микромира

Ants (lat. Formicidae) - a family of insects from the ant family, the order Hymenoptera. They are social insects forming 3 castes: females, males and working individuals. Females and males are winged, working individuals are wingless. Antennae articulated, in females and working individuals 11–12-segmented, in males 12–13-segmented, in a number of species 4-, 6- or 10-segmented. The main segment of the antennae (scape) is usually much longer than all the others. The posterior part of the chest (epinotum) is the first abdominal segment, merged with the posterior loom. The abdomen proper joins the epinotum with a stalk formed by the first or second segments. Ants of some subfamilies (myrrhizins, ponerins, and others) have a developed sting. Wings with reduced venation.

Ant

Муравей - Мафия микромира

Ants live in families in nests called anthills, which are arranged in soil, wood, and under stones; some construct anthills from small plant particles, etc. There are parasitic species that inhabit the nests of other ants, ants are “slave owners” containing in their nests “slaves” - ants of other species. A number of species adapted to dwell in human dwellings. Some species are valued for controlling the number of insect pests, others may be considered pests.

They feed mainly on plant sap, padua, aphids and other sucking insects, while feeding on larvae - mainly insects. There are also species that feed on seeds (reaper ants) and cultivated mushrooms (leaf cutter ants).

Mantis

Богомол - Мафия микромира

Flea

Блоха - Мафия микромира

Flea

Блоха - Мафия микромира

Stick Knife

Палочник - Мафия микромира

Stick Knife

Палочник - Мафия микромира

European bacillus (Bacillus rossius) is an insect from the group of stick insects of the order Prividen'evye. The body length of females is up to 10.5 cm, males - up to 6 cm.

This species is endemic to the northwestern Mediterranean: Spain, Southern France, Italy and the Balkans [3].

Hornet

Шершень - Мафия микромира

Hornets (Latin Vespa, letters. "Wasp") - a genus of the largest representatives of the so-called public wasps. The largest representatives of the genus (Vespa mandarinia) have dimensions of up to 55 mm in length.

They are very useful insects for the forest and the garden, as they use as food pests of garden and forest crops: aphids, leafs, ticks. Locusts, flies, wasps, which are bee hunters after the season of honey harvesting, also feed on old and sick bees. In the European Union countries, hornets are under state protection, and large fines are levied for the destruction of their nests.

Forest horse

Скакун лесной - Мафия микромира

The forest horse (lat. Cicindela sylvatica) is a species of beetles from the family of ground beetles and the subfamily of horses.

Barbel

Усач - Мафия микромира

Barbels, or woodcutters (lat. Cerambycidae) - an extensive and numerous (fifth in the number of species) family of beetles (Coleoptera). One of the most characteristic and distinctive, albeit conditional, signs of the representatives of the family are long segmented mustaches, often significantly exceeding the length of the body, sometimes 2–3, and even 4–5 times.

Ant

Муравей - Мафия микромира

Distributed throughout the world, with the exception of Antarctica and some remote islands, forming 10-25% of the terrestrial biomass of land animals. The success of ants in many habitats is due to their social organization and ability to change their habitats and use a variety of resources.

One of the first researchers who described the social life of ants in his scientific works was the entomologist Erich Vasmann, who is also one of the founders of myrmecology.

Ant

Муравей - Мафия микромира

There are more than 14,000 species in the world and 485 genera (including extinct), distributed mainly in the tropics. In the Palearctic about 1350 species from 94 genera, in Russia, more than 260 species from 44 genera were recorded.

The science that studies ants is called myrmecology.

Flea

Блоха - Мафия микромира

Fleas (Latin Siphonaptera - ancient-Greek. Σίφων - pump, ἄπτερον - wingless. Synonyms of Latin. Suctoria, Latin. Aphaniptera) - a detachment of blood-sicking insects with full transformation, often carriers of various pathogens of human and animal diseases. Fleas again wingless. They completely lost their wings in the process of adaptation to ectoparasitism in the imaginal phase. Fleas have a highly specialized oral apparatus designed to pierce the integument of the host and suck blood.

Currently, scientists have described 2086 species, including 4 fossil species (Zhang, 2013). The detachment includes more than 200 clans, united in 15 families. The family of ordinary fleas (Pulicidae) includes species of economic and medical importance: Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, Xenopsylla cheopis are fleas of humans, cats, dogs, rabbits and rats, respectively. The British Museum has a collection of fleas collected by a British banker and entomologist Charles Rothschild.

Weevil

Долгоносик - Мафия микромира

Weevils, or elephants (lat. Curculionidae), is one of the largest families of beetles, numbering more than 50 thousand species (more than Stafilidae), of which most inhabit the tropical regions of the Earth (presumably more than 70 thousand species); in Russia there are about 5,000 species. A characteristic feature of weevils is an elongated front part of the head, the so-called rostrum, thanks to which they received Russian names.

Weevils are divided into two sections: short-trunk (Adelognatha) and long-trunk (Phanerognatha), which differ from each other in the length of the rostrum and the arrangement of the oral organs. The larvae of most long-trunk animals develop inside the plant tissues, less frequently feed on the surface of the leaves of plants or on the soil, while the larvae of a larger number of short-trunk animals develop in the soil.

The vast majority of weevil species in the imaginal and larval stages are phytophagous, less common are phytosaprophagous. Their connection with plants is very diverse. It is difficult to find a plant species with which weevil species would not be associated. Most weevils develop at the expense of plant tissues inside them. Less commonly, the larvae feed outside on parts of a leaf or flower (Hyperini, Cionini). Many develop in the soil, feeding on plant roots, less often on litter. Few feed on rotting wood (Cossoninae). The vast majority of species are associated with herbaceous vegetation, most with dicotyledonous. Connections with monocots are a little less, with spore ones even less.

Mite

Клещ - Мафия микромира

Mites (Latin Acari) - a subclass of arthropods from the arachnid class (Arachnida). The most numerous group in the class: more than 54,000 species are currently described, including 144 minerals. Ticks reached such a flourishing due to the fact that in their historical development they acquired microscopically small dimensions, which allowed them to master the upper layers of the soil, rich in decomposing plant residues.

The section of zoology that studies ticks is called acarology.

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