Infectious disease of humans and animals. Typical fever, intoxication, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, joints, skin. Tendency to wave-like course with exacerbations and relapses. The causative agent belongs to the family of enterobacteria, the genus Yersinia. The role of various animals as a source of infection is unequal. The reservoir of the pathogen in nature is small rodents that live both in the wild and synanthropic. Cows and small cattle, which are acutely ill or secrete a pathogen, are a more significant source of infection for humans. The main route of transmission of the infection is alimentary, that is, through food, most often vegetables. They suffer from yersiniosis at any age, but more often children in 1-3 years. Sporadic cases of the disease predominate, autumn-winter seasonality is observed.
Symptoms and course:Extremely diverse. Signs of damage to various organs and systems are revealed in one sequence or another. Most often, yersiniosis begins with acute gastroenteritis. In the future, the disease can proceed either as an acute intestinal infection, or generalized - i.e. common throughout the body. All forms have common symptoms: acute onset, fever, intoxication, abdominal pain, upset stool, rash, joint pain, enlarged liver, tendency to exacerbations and relapses. Given the duration, acute (up to 3 months), prolonged (from 3 to 6 months) and chronic (more than 6 months) course of the disease are distinguished.
The incubation period of 1-2 days, can reach 10 days. Symptoms of intestinal damage in the form of gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, enterocolitis, terminal ileitis, acute appendicitis are most constantly manifested. Abdominal pain of a constant or cramping nature, of various locations, nausea, vomiting, loose stools with mucus and pus, sometimes blood from 2 to 15 times a day. Symptoms of general intoxication are manifested in the following: high temperature, in severe cases - toxicosis, dehydration and a decrease in body temperature. At the beginning of the disease, a point or small-spotted rash on the trunk and limbs, liver damage, meningeal syndrome may appear. In a later period - mono or polyarthritis, erythema nodosum, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, iritis. These manifestations are regarded as an allergic reaction. In peripheral blood there is a neutrophilic leukocytosis, increased ESR. The disease lasts from a week to several months.
Recognition:Bacteriological examination of feces, serological reactions in paired sera.
Treatment:In the absence of concomitant diseases, in cases of mild and obliterated course of yersiniosis, patients can be treated at home by an infectious disease specialist. It is based on pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy aimed at detoxification, restoration of water-electrolyte losses, normal blood composition, suppression of the pathogen. Medications - chloramphenicol at the rate of 2.0 g per day for 12 days, from other drugs - tetracycline, gentamicin, rondomycin, doxycyclip and others in normal daily dosages.
Prevention:Compliance with sanitary rules at public catering enterprises, cooking technology and shelf life of food products (vegetables, fruits, etc.) Timely identification of patients and carriers of yersiniosis, disinfection of premises.