Infectious disease of humans and animals. Typical fever, intoxication, damage to the gastrointestinal tract, joints, skin. Tendency to undulating course with exacerbations and relapses. The pathogen belongs to the family of epterobacteria, the genus Yersinia. The role of various animals as a source of infection is uneven. The reservoir of the pathogen in nature are small rodents living both in the wild and synanthropic. A more significant source of infection for people are cows and small cattle, which are sick or acutely cause a pathogen. The main mode of transmission is nutritional, that is, through food, most often vegetables. They suffer from yersiniosis at any age, but more often children are 1-3 years old. Mostly sporadic cases of the disease prevail, autumn-winter seasonality is observed.
Symptoms and course:Extremely diverse. Signs of damage to various organs and systems are detected in one sequence or another. Most often yersiniosis begins with acute gastroenteritis. In the future, the disease can occur either as an acute intestinal infection, or generalized - i.e. common throughout the body. All forms are characterized by common symptoms: acute onset, fever, intoxication, abdominal pain, upset stool, rash, joint pain, liver enlargement, tendency to exacerbations and relapses. Considering the duration, acute (up to 3 months), prolonged (from 3 to 6 months) and chronic (more than 6 months) disease course are distinguished.
The incubation period of 1-2 days, can reach 10 days. The most constantly manifested symptoms of intestinal lesions in the form of gastroenteritis, gastroenterocolitis, mesenterrial lymphadenitis, enterocolitis, terminal ileitis, acute appendicitis. Pain in the abdomen of a constant or cramping character, of different localization, nausea, vomiting, loose stools with mucus and pus, sometimes with blood from 2 to 15 times a day. Symptoms of general intoxication are manifested in the following: high temperature, in severe cases - toxicosis, dehydration and a decrease in body temperature. At the onset of the disease, a pinpoint or small-spotted rash on the trunk and extremities, liver damage, and meningeal syndrome may appear. In a later period - mono or polyarthritis, erythema nodosum, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, iritis. These manifestations are regarded as an allergic reaction. In the peripheral blood neutrophilic leukocytosis, increased ESR is observed. The disease lasts from a week to several months.
Recognition:Bacteriological examination of feces, serological reactions in paired sera.
Treatment:In the absence of concomitant diseases, in cases of a mild and erased course of yersiniosis, patients can be treated at home by an infectious disease doctor. The basis is pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy aimed at detoxification, restoration of water electrolyte losses, normal blood composition, suppression of the pathogen. Drugs - levomycetin at the rate of 2.0 g per day for 12 days, from other drugs - tetracycline, gentamicin, rondomycin, doxycyclip and others in usual daily dosages.
Prevention:Observance of sanitary rules at catering establishments, technology of preparation and shelf life of food products (vegetables, fruits, etc.). Timely identification of patients and carriers of yersiniosis, disinfection of premises.