Description of the medicine: Galantamine (Galanthaminum)
Alkaloid, first isolated from the tubers of snowdrop Voronov (Galanthus Woronowi A. Los.), Fam. Amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae); it is also found in other species of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis var. gracilis) and plants close to it.
Available in the form of galantamine hydrobromide (Galanthamini hydrobromidum).
Synonyms: Nivalin, Galanthaminum hydrobromicum, Galanthamini hydrobromidum, Nivalinum.
White crystalline powder of bitter taste. It is soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol. Aqueous solutions (pH 5.0 - 7.0) are sterilized at +100 ° C for 30 minutes.
By pharmacological properties, galantamine is close to physostigmine. It is a strong (reversible) cholinesterase inhibitor, increases the body's sensitivity to acetylcholine. It facilitates the excitation in neuromuscular synapses and restores neuromuscular conduction blocked by curariform antidepolarizing drugs (tubocurarine, diplacin, etc.); the action of depolarizing substances (dithilin) enhances. Galantamine crosses the blood-brain barrier, at appropriate doses it facilitates the conduction of impulses in the cholinergic synapses of the central nervous system and enhances the excitation processes, causes an increase in smooth muscle tone and an increase in the secretion of digestive and sweat glands. Similar to physostigmine, the pupil narrows, but when a galantamine solution is introduced into the conjunctival sac, a temporary conjunctival edema may occur.
The peripheral muscarinic-like effects of galantamine are removed by cholinolytic substances (atropine, etc.), and nicotine-like ones are curare-like and ganglion-blocking substances. Comparatively with physostigmine, galantamine is less toxic.
Galantamine hydrobromine is used in case of myasthenia gravis, progressive muscular dystrophy, motor and sensory disorders associated with neuritis, polyneuritis, radiculitis, radiculoneuritis, with residual effects after cerebrovascular accident, with psychogenic impotence and other pathologies. In the recovery residual period of acute poliomyelitis and in cerebral palsy, the use of galantamine, especially in combination with other activities (therapeutic exercises, etc.) leads to an improvement and restoration of motor processes and a general improvement in the condition of patients. According to reports, the use of galantamine in complex therapy for spastic forms of cerebral palsy not only improves neuromuscular conduction and increases muscle contractility, but also positively affects mnemonic functions.
Galantamine can be used for atony of the intestine and bladder, as well as for functional X-ray diagnostics for diseases of the stomach and intestines.
Galantamine is prescribed under the skin in the form of an aqueous solution.
Doses of the drug are set individually depending on the age of the patient, the nature of the disease, the effectiveness and tolerability of the drug.