Myocardiodystrophy is a non-inflammatory lesion of the myocardium characterized by dystrophy of the contractile cells of the heart muscle, structures of the cardiac conduction system and manifested by symptoms of a violation of the basic functions of the heart (automatism, contractility, conduction, excitability).
The causes of myocardial dystrophy are exposure to bacterial toxins (for example, in chronic tonsillitis), industrial poisons (for example, leaded gasoline) and a number of chemicals used in everyday life, ionizing radiation; overdose of certain drugs (quinine, alupenta, asthmopenta, etc.); chronic alcoholism ; long-term deficiency in the diet of a number of substances necessary for the body (proteins, vitamins). The excess or lack of any biologically active substances underlies myocardial dystrophy, which develops in many non-communicable diseases. The so-called thyrotoxic heart is a consequence of severe myocardial dystrophy, which occurs under the influence of an excess of thyroid hormones in the blood, and myocardiodystrophy in hypothyroidism is due to a lack of these hormones. Hormonal myocardial dystrophy also occurs during pathological climax. Myocardial dystrophy may be due to myocardial overload (with hypertension, heart defects, physical overstrain in athletes, etc.), especially if overload is combined with hypoxia; hypoxia also explains the development of myocardial dystrophy in severe anemia. After elimination of the causative factor, the trophicity of the affected cardiomyocytes can fully recover, but if it acts for a long time, some of these cells die and are replaced by connective tissue, that is, cardiosclerosis is formed.
Clinically, myocardial dystrophy manifests symptoms of impaired myocardial contractility (shortness of breath, tachycardia , often mild and occurring only during exercise), automatism, cardiac conduction and excitability, which is reflected in various cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders (extrasystole is most often detected), detected on an ECG or auscultation. Often, patients hear systolic murmur on the base or in the apex of the heart, sometimes muffled I tone; The ECG often has a reduced voltage of the teeth. In severe myocardial dystrophy, for example, in thyrotoxic heart, chronic alcoholism, heart failure is more pronounced, especially if atrial fibrillation develops, shortness of breath and tachycardia are observed at rest, the liver increases, and edema appears. In such cases, there is a need for a differential diagnosis with myocarditis, coronary heart disease, which, as a rule, is possible only when examining a patient in a specialized cardiology department.
Prevention and treatment come down primarily to the elimination of the causative factor. In all cases, they recommend the appointment of a complete diet rich in proteins, multivitamins, potassium orotate, riboxin , and sometimes anabolic hormones (methandrostendiol, nerobol, retabolil) are used. If necessary, they treat heart failure and arrhythmias.