CANDIDOSIS (Thrush) is a fungal disease of the skin, mucous membranes, nails and internal organs, caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. Its development is promoted by hypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, carbohydrate metabolism disorder associated with pancreatic hypofunction, disorders of liver protein-educational function, and intestinal dysbacteriosis, which occurs more often with prolonged treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. With a decrease in body resistance, candidiasis can occur due to injuries of the skin and mucous membranes, skin maceration when in contact with acids and alkalis, fruit juices, essences, as well as under the influence of a warm and humid climate, adverse working conditions, as a result of violations of the rules of collective and personal hygiene and others
Candidosis of the oral mucosa (yeast stomatitis, or thrush) is more common in infants and the elderly, especially those who are weakened by chronic, severely illnesses. Redness and dryness of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity first appear, then numerous dotted whitish patches on the palate, tongue, cheeks. When they merge, large, whitish-gray films are formed, which later can be easily separated, and surface "dry" erosion is found below them. On the mucous membrane may also be observed whitish areas resembling leukoplakia.
In candidal vulvitis and vulvovaginitis, itching, burning, and slight soreness in the region of the external genitalia are noted. Detachable creamy, sometimes on the walls of the vagina and on the external genital organs are found tiny crumbs. The disease has a protracted course, especially in patients with diabetes.
Candidosis of the skin of the inguinal-femoral and interdigital folds, axillary fossae, folds under the mammary glands, interdigital folds has the appearance of lesions of red color with a slightly damp surface. On the periphery, the lesions are surrounded by a border of exfoliating epidermis of whitish color; often there are small rashes in the form of bubbles, which, when the tires break, form surface erosion, prone to fusion; Often there are cracks in the corners of the mouth (candida zaeda), the red rim of the lips is affected - candidal cheilitis, which is characterized by dryness, a feeling of stinging and burning, the appearance of scales of a grayish color.
Candida paronychia (damage to the nail cushions) and onychia (damage to the nail plate) are common. Nail rollers swell, redden, with pressure, scant discharge appears from under them. In the absence of treatment, the nail plates are involved in the process, with the nails becoming thinner, transverse grooves are formed on them, their color becomes yellowish-brown.
For candidal sore throat is characterized by the appearance in the depth of the follicles of the tonsils white, shiny plugs. Tonsils are hyperemonans, painless. The body temperature does not increase, there is no pain when swallowing.
Chronic generalized candidiasis usually occurs in children with immunodeficiency, parathyroid function deficiency. It manifests itself, as a rule, in early childhood in the form of thrush, candidal cheilitis. The nail plate, especially the fingers, are often involved in the process at the beginning of the disease. They thicken, as a result of which the nails become deformed, become lumpy, and in a number of patients they crumble. On the skin often appear erythematous-squamous, psoriasiform, scarlet-like rashes or lesions resembling pyoderma, and sometimes elements of the hillock-ulcerative nature, after the resolution of which there are scar changes. Recurrent candidal pneumonia and candidal enteritis may occur. Sick children lag behind in physical development. The disease lasts for years.
Candidiasis of the respiratory system is characterized by lesions of the larynx, which is accompanied by coughing episodes, a change in the tone of voice, the release of mucopurulent sputum, sometimes mixed with blood. Quite often, candidal pneumonia occurs as a complication after long-term treatment with antibiotics. Candidiasis of the lungs is manifested by bronchitis, small-focal pneumonia, cavities are sometimes formed.
The diagnosis of typical manifestations of mucosal candidiasis, skin, okolonogtevogo rollers, nails, candidal sore throat is not difficult. To clarify the diagnosis, microscopic examination of the pathological material (skin flakes and nail pieces, detachment of ulcers, pus, etc.) and obtaining a culture of yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida when seeding the material on culture media is necessary. If you suspect visceral candidiasis conduct microscopic, cultural, serological studies.
Treatment is carried out with antifungal agents (nystatin, levorin, nizoral, etc.). Externally used aqueous and alcoholic 1-2% solutions of aniline dyes and 1% solution or cream canesten (clotrimazole). In chronic candidiasis also conduct immunotherapy.