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Soap production

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236. Easy way to prepare simple solid and liquid soap. 237. Preparation of toilet soaps.
238. Coloring toilet soaps. 239. Marble toilet soaps. 240. Perfumery toilet soaps.
241. Soaps for removing stains.
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236. Easy way to prepare simple solid and liquid soap.

To prepare solid soap, take 2 kg of caustic soda, dissolve in 8 liters of water, bring the solution to 25 | C and pour it into the melted and cooled to 50 | C lard (lard should be unsalted and take 12 kg 800 g per specified amount of water and soda). The resulting liquid mixture is thoroughly stirred until the whole mass is completely homogeneous, then poured into wooden boxes, well shrouded in felt, and put in a warm dry place. After 4-5 days, the mass hardens and the soap is ready. If they want to have a more frothy soap, then another 400 g of purified potash is added to the specified amount of water, or they take 2 kg less fat and add the same amount of coconut oil.
To prepare liquid soap, dissolve the same amount of unpurified potassium hydroxide in 2 kg of water, bring the solution to 25 | C and mix it thoroughly with 8 kg of unsalted lard, previously melted and cooled to 50 | C. in the future come as stated above.

237. Preparation of toilet soaps.

I. Hot way. As a basis for toilet soaps, you can take greasy soap, cooked with soda lye, or cook it separately, using for this purpose lard in conjunction with coconut oil.
Coconut oil should be of the highest quality, and pork fat exclusively fresh and well refined. The fat is cleaned as follows: fresh fat is washed several times in cold water, cut into pieces and put into a bag, which is suspended in a kettle with water and boiled. When the water boils and the lard dissolves, it is slightly squeezed, with most of the fiber remaining in the bag along with the garbage, the bag is removed. For each kilogram of fat mixture with water, 4-5 g of common salt and 1-2 g of alum in powder are put, with a strong boil of the liquid and constant stirring. After some time, boiling is suspended and allowed to float to the surface. The formed scum is carefully removed, filtered through the sheet into a clean vat and allowed to harden. Thus, the prepared fat can be stored without change in a cool place for a long time.
For a good toilet soap for every 10 g of fat take 5-20 g of coconut oil. The latter is added not only for the purpose of cheapening, but also in order to "pour" it with plenty of water. The cooking of the soap itself is carried out in the usual way, it is only necessary to ensure that the resulting soap is neutral, i.e. so that there is no excess alkali in it. To this end, it is salted several times and then boiled again. After the last extraction, boiling is continued until the sample taken with a glass rod on the plate is completely satisfactory, i.e. when squeezing the mass between the fingers should be hard plates that should not break.
In order to have a completely clean soap, it is stirred with a pole, removed from the foam and poured into the mold while it is transparent. The soap mass remaining at the bottom of the boiler will be less transparent and clean, and therefore it should be allowed to harden separately.

Ii. Cool way. Preparing toilet soaps in a cold way by stirring is distinguished by many advantages, which mainly boil down to the fact that here coloring and perfumery are performed simultaneously, making up as if one operation, after which only the hardened soap mass remains to be cut and molded.
To prepare the soap in a cold way, take coconut oil, previously cleaned from accidental dirt, and saponify it with strong sodium liquor at low temperature and constant stirring. In order for the resulting soap to be neutral, it is necessary to make several preliminary tests and accurately determine the proportion of fat and alkali. When the saponification process reaches the state that the contents of the boiler turn into a homogeneous and difficult to stir mass, then coloring and perfuming substances are added to it, which, after prolonged stirring, are evenly distributed throughout the mass.

Iii. Remelting. The preparation of toilet soaps by melting is performed as follows: an ordinary sound soap is cut into pieces and thrown into a kettle inserted into another kettle with boiling water (water bath). So much water should be poured into the soap so that the sample taken has a good consistency, after which the soap is poured into molds and mixed with coloring and perfuming agents. The amount of water added for remelting depends on the quality of the soap: for solid hard soap, you need to take more water than when other varieties that contain an already large amount of water are used. Water is generally poured so much that when cooled it turns out solid soap, foaming heavily in the water. If the soap taken for remelting is heavily polluted, it must be melted with a large amount of water (50-60%), then salted and boiled down.

Iv. Planing. Preparation of toilet soap by planing is done as follows: sound soap is turned into chips using a special machine, collected in a wooden trough, mixed with coloring and odorous substances and then turned into a homogeneous mass on a kneading machine. The machine consists of a horizontal cylindrical drum, on the circumference of which there are 4-8 knives. Above the drum, set in rotation, is an inclined plane on which lay layers of soap for planing. Soap with its own weight presses the drum, the knives of which continuously cut chips from the soap layer. The knives are set under a significant bias and therefore can cut chips as thick as writing paper.
Here are some recipes for toilet soaps, prepared in different ways.
Almond soap. To prepare it, take 4 kg of white sound soap, finely planed it and pour a little milk. Mass is poured into the pot, put on a moderate fire and stirred until it thickens and begins to reach. After cooling, add bitter-almond oil and pour the soap into a flat wooden box, on the bottom of which a canvas is laid. The soap is allowed to cool, harden and then cut it into pieces of the desired shape. Plants prepare almond soap from a good strong liquor with double the amount of fat, fat, coconut or palm oil, which should be cooked until the sample taken on a cold smooth plate does not harden quickly.
Pink soap. To prepare this soap, take 64 parts of coconut oil, 40 parts of greasy soap, 30 parts of water and heat this mixture for 2-3 hours, knead and add a little eosin to tint. Then removed from the heat and added artificial rose oil. Soap is cast in forms.
Violet soap. To prepare this soap, which gives an extraordinary softness to the skin, take 100 parts of white sound soap, 10 parts of violet root, 10 parts of dewy incense. The soap is mixed with water, stained purple and violet essences are added. Then add as much starch as necessary to impart hardness to the soap, after which the soap is put into molds.
Lemon Soap 1 part of white fat soap, 1 part of starch is mixed at light heating, painted in yellow color and add lemon essence. From the resulting mass, the soap is molded in special forms in the form of a lemon and tinted on top in a yellow-lemon color, dipping it into paint, like Easter eggs.
English round soap. To prepare this soap, you need to cut 200 pieces of a good white sound soap into small pieces and then grind it in a heated porcelain mortar, adding part I of camphor to the mass. In the resulting batter add 100 parts of starch, dyed in different gentle tones and perfumed. Flat and round pieces are formed from this mass.
English shaving soap. This soap is prepared as follows: 100 parts of white soap are finely struck and dissolved in water to the consistency of liquid jelly. Then add 10 parts of talcum powder and 10 parts of alum powder, dyed a cream color and perfumed with musk and orange oil. This soap is cast in a cylindrical shape.

238. Coloring toilet soaps.

Coloring agents used to tint toilet soaps may be different. The main conditions that they must meet: be strong enough, mix well with soap and not have a harmful effect on the skin. Such paints can be divided into two groups: soluble and insoluble. The former deserve preference over the latter because they do not leave behind an insoluble, powdered precipitate; in addition, soluble dyes are distributed in the soap more easily and evenly insoluble.
Red color. For transparent soaps - alkanine, magenta, eosin. For opaque - cinnabar, minium.
Yellow. For clear soaps - turmeric extract and picric acid. For opaque - chrome yellow paint.
Orange is composed of a mixture of red and yellow coloring matter.
Green color. For transparent soap - green aniline or a mixture of indigo carmine and picric acid. For opaque - chrome green paint.
The purple color is made up of methyl violet or a mixture of red paint and indigo carmine.
Brown color - from light or dark brown aniline dye or burnt sugar.
As for the color of the soap itself, it is made as follows: solutions of paints in water or in alcohol are poured into soap shavings, which then enter the kneader and there turn into a uniformly colored mass.
Insoluble paints are used in the form of fine powder, which is sprinkled with chips coming into the box of the planer. Then, a new layer of chips is put on the sprinkled chips, which are again sprinkled with paint, etc. When the soap is prepared in this way, the chips are stirred and passed through a kneader to obtain a uniformly colored mass.

239. Marble toilet soaps.

It is made with the aim of giving them the appearance of spotted or sinewy marble. To do this, pour liquid soap into the mold to a known height, sprinkle the surface with its coloring powder or pour it with paint solution, then pour a new layer of soap, this operation is performed until the form is filled. A wooden spatula is dipped into the soap mass, with which it is stirred, moving it parallel to the walls of the mold. If they want to get a wavy marbling, then move the spatula along curves or spiral lines. For variegated marbling various colors are used.

240. Perfumery toilet soaps.

Along with the first-class completely neutral soap base (sound soap), in the manufacture of toilet soaps, larfumination plays a particularly important role. The fact is that the perfume should not only be very pleasant, but also should keep its smell for a long time and even, if possible, should improve when lying and drying the soap. Starting to perfume, you need to distinguish which varieties of soap you want to perfume, and in accordance with this select the necessary odorous substances. Toilet soap is usually divided into those that are produced in a hot way, in a cold way, by re-melting, by planing. Therefore, when perfuming, it is necessary to solve three questions: first, at what temperature should soap be perfumed. Secondly, what is the effect of alkalis on the odorous substances used. And finally, thirdly, whether odorous substances are well preserved in alkalis. On the solution of these three cardinal issues is based all the art of skillful perfume toilet soaps. Toilet soap, manufactured by hot method or by melting, are mostly cheap grades. It is impossible to spend a lot on their perfume, so that these soaps do not cost too much. Therefore, to perfume such varieties of soaps, you can only choose cheap odorous substances, but which, nevertheless, have a stronger smell, since it is in these varieties of soaps that it is often necessary to kill some unwanted foreign odor. For this purpose, Mirbanov oil, saffrol, citronella oil, artificial bitter-almond oil are mainly consumed.
For the second category of cold-made toilet soaps, that is, for good grades of coconut soaps, you can use better-smelling odorous substances and the choice among them is wider. Although coconut soaps, which also include almond soaps, have recently been pushed into the background with sharpened soaps, however, good and clean coconut soaps are bought very well, especially in areas where the water is lime, because sharpened soaps are badly washed. Coconut soaps can be perfectly perfumed with the help of numerous natural and artificial odorous substances. You can also significantly improve the quality of these soaps by adding lanolin or paraffin to them. Even soaps with the addition of Japanese wax are a great success, as they look perfectly like planed soaps. They should not just be left in shape for a long time, otherwise they become too hard and very difficult to press.
From odorous substances, anise aldechite can be recommended, having a very delicate odor; bornyl acetate, which is good in coconut soaps; citronella oil, which is especially suitable for honey soaps. Then a good effect can be achieved with coumarin, eugenol and geranyl acetate. You can also recommend nerolin, and especially terpineol. Cinnamon aldechite is also used with great success. The smell of violet can be achieved by ionone II with the addition of terpineol, and brilliant results are obtained from the use of artificial non-cerium oil.

241. Soaps for removing stains.

The composition of such soaps can be very diverse, depending on what kind of stains it is intended for.
Soap for fatty spots is made from a good white soap, which is dissolved in a small amount of water with moderate heating, tartaric salt or potash is added there (3%), boiled down to thickness and rolled into balls. Warm water - with strong friction contributes to the destruction of stains.
Soap for all stains. To prepare it, take 4 parts of white soap, 1 part of the tartaric salt, 1 part of potash, 1 part of ammonia (in powder), dissolve in vodka and boil. The resulting precipitate is used to remove stains from the canvas and cloth, and light liquid - for silk fabrics.
Another way is to take 20 parts of white soap, 10 parts of starch, 3 parts of bovine bile. All this rolls into balls and add a little lemon juice. To remove stains, first wash the fabric with warm water, rub it with a soap ball and rinse again with warm water.