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Soap production

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236. An easy way to prepare a simple solid and liquid soap. 237. Preparation of toilet soaps.
238. Coloring of toilet soaps. 239. Marbling of toilet soap. 240. Perfumery of toilet soaps.
241. Soap for stain removal.
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236. An easy way to prepare a simple solid and liquid soap.

To prepare a solid soap, take 2 kg of caustic soda, dissolve in 8 liters of water, bring the solution to 25 | C and pour it into molten and cooled to 50 | C fat (the fat should be unsalted and take it 12 kg 800 g for the specified amount of water and soda). The resulting liquid mixture is thoroughly stirred until the whole mass becomes completely homogeneous, after which it is poured over wooden boxes well enveloped in felt and placed in a warm dry place. After 4-5 days, the mass hardens and the soap is ready. If you want to have a more foamy soap, then add 400 g of refined potash to the indicated amount of water or take 2 kg less fat and add the same amount of coconut oil.
For the preparation of liquid soap, 2 kg of water is dissolved in the same amount of unrefined potassium hydroxide, the solution is brought to 25 | C and mixed thoroughly with 8 kg of unsalted fat pre-melted and cooled to 50 | further arrive, as indicated above.

237. Preparation of toilet soaps.

I. Hot way. As a basis for toilet soaps, you can take a sebaceous soap cooked with soda liquor, or cook separately, using for this pork fat in conjunction with coconut oil.
Coconut oil should be of the highest quality, and the pork fat is exceptionally fresh and well-purified. The fat is cleaned as follows: fresh fat is washed several times in cold water, cut into pieces and put in a bag, which is suspended in a pot with water and boiled. When the water boils and the fat breaks, it is slightly squeezed, with most of the fiber remaining in the bag along with the garbage, the bag is taken out. For each kilogram of a mixture of fat and water, 4-5 g of table salt and 1-2 g of alum in powder are placed, with strong boiling of the liquid and constant stirring. After a while, boiling is stopped and the fat is allowed to float to the surface. The resulting scale is carefully removed, filtered through a cloth into a clean vat and allowed to harden. Thus, the cooked fat can be stored unchanged in a cool place for a long time.
To get a good toilet soap for every 10 g of fat take 5-20 g of coconut oil. The latter is added not only for the purpose of cheaper, but also to "pour" it with a lot of water. The cooking of soap is done in the usual way, only it is necessary to make sure that the soap obtained is neutral, i.e. so that there is no excess of alkali in it. To this end, it is repeatedly salted and then boiled again. After the last salting, the boiling is continued until the sample taken by the glass rod on the plate is completely satisfactory, i. E. when squeezing the mass between the fingers, solid plates should be obtained, which should not break down.
In order to have a perfectly clean soap, it is stirred with a pole, removed with foam and poured into the molds while it is transparent. Soap mass, left at the bottom of the boiler, will be less transparent and clean, and therefore it must be allowed to harden separately.

II. Cold way. The preparation of toilet soaps in a cold manner by stirring is distinguished by many advantages, which are mainly reduced to the fact that coloring and perfuming are performed simultaneously, constituting one operation, after which only the hardened soap mass is left to be cut and molded.
To prepare the soap in cold fashion, take coconut oil, previously cleaned from accidental dirt, and saponify it with a strong soda lye at low temperature and constant stirring. In order for the resulting soap to be neutral, it is necessary to make several preliminary samples and accurately determine the quantitative ratio of fat and alkali. When the saponification process reaches the condition that the contents of the boiler become a homogeneous and difficult to mix material, then coloring and perfuming substances are added to it, which after a long stirring are evenly distributed throughout the mass.

III. Remelting. Preparation of toilet soaps by melting is performed as follows: ordinary soap is cut into pieces and thrown into a cauldron inserted into another boiler with boiling water (water bath). To soap it is necessary to pour in so much water that the taken sample had a good consistency, after which the soap is poured into molds and mixed with coloring and perfuming substances. The amount of water added for remelting depends on the property of the soap: for a solid strong soap, you need to take more water than when other varieties containing already plenty of water come into play. Waters in general are poured so much that when cooled down, a solid soap that strongly foams in the water turns out. If the soap taken for remelting is heavily soiled, then it must be melted with a large amount of water (50-60%), then poured and boiled.

IV. Planing. Preparation of toilet soap is planed as follows: the sound soap is turned into chips with a special machine, collected in a wooden trough, mixed with coloring and odoriferous substances and then on the kneading machine is converted into a homogeneous mass. The machine consists of a horizontal cylindrical drum, on the circumference of which there are 4-8 knives. Above the drum, driven by a rotary movement, there is an inclined plane on which soap strata are laid for planing. The soap presses its own weight on the drum, the knives of which continuously cut the shavings from the soap layer. Knives are installed under a significant slope and therefore can cut chips with a thickness of writing paper.
Here are a few recipes for toilet soaps, cooked in different ways.
Almond soap. To prepare it take 4 kg of white soap, finely scrape it and pour a little milk. The mass is poured into a cauldron, put on moderate fire and stir until it thickens and begins to stretch. After cooling, add bitter-almond oil and pour the soap into a flat wooden box, on the bottom of which is laid linen. The soap is allowed to cool, harden and then cut into pieces of the desired shape. The factories prepare almond soap from good strong liquor with twice the weight of fat, coconut or palm oil, which must be boiled until the extracted sample placed on a cold smooth plate quickly hardens.
Pink soap. To prepare this soap, take 64 parts of coconut oil, 40 parts of greasy soap, 30 parts of water and heat this mixture for 2-3 hours, knead and add a little eosin for tinting. Then remove from the heat and mix the artificial rose oil. Soap is molded in molds.
Violet soap. To prepare this soap, giving extraordinary softness to the skin, take 100 parts of white sound soap, 10 parts of the violet root, 10 parts of dew incense. Soap is mixed with water, stained in purple and added to the violet essence. Then add as much starch as necessary to give the soap hardness, after which the soap is put into molds.
Lemon soap. Mix with light heating 1 part white greasy soap, 1 part starch, color yellow and add lemon essence. From the received mass form soap in special forms in the form of a lemon and tint from above in yellow-lemon color, having dipped it in a paint, like Easter eggs.
English round soap. To make this soap it is necessary to cut into small pieces of 200 parts of a good white sound soap and then grind in a heated china mortar, adding to the mass I the part of camphor. 100 parts of starch are added to the resulting batter, colored in different gentle tones and perfumed. Of this mass, flat-round pieces are formed.
English soap for shaving. This soap is prepared as follows: 100 parts of white soap finely ground and dissolved in water to the consistency of liquid jelly. Then 10 parts of talc and 10 parts of alum in powder are added, stained in cream color and perfumed with musk and orange oil. The soap is cast in a cylindrical shape.

238. Coloring of toilet soaps.

The coloring agents used to tint toilet soaps may be different. The main conditions that they must satisfy: be strong enough, mix well with soap and do not have harmful effects on the skin. Such paints can be divided into two groups: soluble and insoluble. The former deserve a preference over the latter because they do not leave behind an insoluble powdery precipitate; In addition, soluble paints are distributed in the soap more easily and evenly insoluble.
Red color. For clear soaps - alkane, fuchsin, eosin. For opaque - cinnabar, suriar.
Yellow. For transparent soaps - extract of turmeric and picric acid. For opaque - chrome yellow paint.
Orange color is made up of a mixture of red and yellow colorants.
Green color. For a transparent soap - green aniline or a mixture of indigo-carmine and picric acid. For opaque - chrome green paint.
Violet color is made up of a methyl-violet or a mixture of red paint and indigo-carmine.
Brown - from a light or dark brown aniline paint or burnt sugar.
As for the very color of soaps, it is made as follows: solutions of paints in water or in alcohol poured into soap shavings, which then enter the kneading machine and there turn into a uniformly colored mass.
Insoluble paints are applied in the form of a fine powder, which is sprinkled with shavings entering the drawer of the planer. Then a new layer of shavings is applied to the chips, which are sprinkled with paint again, etc. When the soap is thus prepared, the chips are mixed and passed through a kneading machine to obtain a uniformly colored mass.

239. Marbling of toilet soap.

It is produced in order to give them the appearance of spotted or wiry marble. To do this, pour liquid soap into a form to a certain height, sprinkle the surface with its coloring powder or pour a solution of paint, then pour a new layer of soap, this operation is performed until the form is filled. In the soap mass, a wooden spatula is lowered, which is stirred and moved parallel to the walls of the mold. If you want to get undulating marbles, then move the spatula along curves or spiral lines. For variegated marble used a variety of colors.

240. Perfumery of toilet soaps.

Along with a first-class, completely neutral soap base (soap), larfification plays an especially important role in the preparation of toilet soaps. The fact is that the fragrance should not only be very pleasant, but it should also retain its odor for a long time, and even, if possible, it should improve when lying and drying soap. When starting perfumery, it is necessary to distinguish which types of soap they want to perfume, and in accordance with this select the necessary odoriferous substances. Toilet soaps are usually divided into those that are made in a hot way, in a cold way, by remelting, by planing. Therefore, with perfumery it is necessary to solve three questions: first, at what temperature should soap be perfumed. Secondly, what is the effect of alkalis on the used odorous substances. And, finally, thirdly, whether these odoriferous substances remain well in alkalis. The solution of these three cardinal issues is based on the whole art of skillful perfuming toilet soaps. Toilet soaps, made by hot method or by melting, are in the majority of cheap varieties. Spending a lot on their perfumery is impossible, so that these soaps are not too expensive. Therefore, for perfuming such varieties of soaps, only cheap odoriferous substances can be chosen, but which nevertheless have a possibly stronger odor, since it is with these types of soaps that often it is required to kill some unwanted foreign smell. For this purpose, mainly use mirban oil, safrole, citronella oil, artificial bitter-almond oil.
For the second category of toilet soaps, manufactured in a cold way, that is, for good varieties of coconut soaps, you can use odorous substances of higher quality and the choice among them is wider. Although coconut soaps, also referred to as almond soaps, have recently been pushed into the background by planed soaps, but good and clean coconut soaps are bought very well, especially in places where the water is calcareous, as planed soaps do not wash well. Coconut soaps can be perfumed perfectly with the help of numerous natural and artificial odorous substances. You can also significantly improve the quality of these soaps by adding to them lanolin or paraffin. Even soap with the addition of Japanese wax is a great success, because they look quite like planed soaps. They should not only be left in shape for long, otherwise they become too hard and difficult to press.
From an odorous substance it is possible to recommend an aniseed aldechitis, which has a very tender smell; Bornyl acetate, which is good in coconut soaps; citronella oil, which is especially suitable for honey soaps. Then a good effect can be achieved with coumarin, eugenol and geranyl acetate. You can also recommend nerolin, and in particular terpineol. With great success, cinnamon aldehitis is also used. The smell of violets can be achieved by ionone II with the addition of terpineol, and brilliant results are obtained from the use of artificial neroli oil.

241. Soap for stain removal.

The composition of such soaps is very diverse, depending on what kind of stains it is intended for.
Soap for fat stains is made from a good white soap, which is dissolved in a small amount of water with moderate heating, add there tartaric salt or potash (3%), boil until thick and roll into balls. Warm water - with strong friction helps to destroy stains.
Soap for all stains. For its preparation, take 4 parts of white soap, 1 part of the wine-salt salt, 1 part potash, 1 part ammonia (in powder), dissolved in vodka and boiled. The resulting sediment is used to remove stains from the cloth and cloth, and a light liquid - for silk fabrics.
In another way, 20 parts of white soap, 10 parts of starch, 3 parts of bovine bile are taken. All this is rolled into balls and adds a little lemon juice. To remove stains, first the cloth is washed with warm water, rubbed with a soapy ball and rinsed again in warm water.