Lubricating oils and ointments
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188. Preparation of machine oil. 189. Cleaning of lubricating oils. 190. Oil for machine wheels.
191. Grease for sewing machines. 192. Grease for broaching on presses. 193. Grease for sealing the cranes.
194. Lubricant used in drilling very hard steel. 195. Grease used for cutting screws.
196. Wheel Ointment. 197. English wheel ointment. 198. Belgian wheel ointment. 199. Hoofed ointments.
188. Preparation of machine oil.
Various small machines require very pure oil to lubricate their metal parts, and bone oil is usually recommended for this. However, not to mention the fact that it is relatively expensive, it is not always easy to get it. In view of this, we consider it necessary to give the following simple method of preparing a very good engine oil. Take a high glass jar, pour into it 2/3 of good vegetable oil (for example, sunflower) and immerse the lead plate there: the larger the surface of the latter, the better, and therefore it is most expedient to give it a cylindrical shape (a piece of pipe) . The height of the plate must correspond to the level of the oil, and the oil must touch the entire surface of it. Then close the container tightly with a lid and put it on for 2-3 months in a place where it would be shaken: during this time all the sewage will settle partially on the surface of this plate, partly on the bottom of the vessel. Then gently remove the plate and drain the oil into a new vessel designed to store the oil. Oil purified in this way may well replace expensive bone oil.
189. Cleaning of lubricating oils.
If the lubricating oil that has been used contains a little dirt or metal particles, it does not lose its properties and can be used further, after purification from these impurities. For this purpose, the oil is collected in special tanks, in which the crane is located at a height of 5 -10 cm from the bottom, because all the impurities fall to the bottom. Precipitation and deposition of metal particles can be accelerated if the tank is placed in a warm place. Oil emitted from the tank is filtered through 2-3 layers of flannel or linen, each layer of matter being located one from the other at a distance of 6 cm. Animal fats and vegetable oils that are rancid due to consumption or give an acidic reaction cause corrosion and damage to the surfaces of trunnions. Therefore, it is necessary to destroy the acidity of such oils, which is best achieved by washing them in lime water. Oil thus purified floats to the surface of the water and can be used again.
190. Grease for machine wheels.
Take 200 parts of rapeseed oil, 1 part of the mercury and water, at the discretion, boil with constant cross-linking on an open fire until saponification. The vessel is then transferred to a water bath and 100 parts of vaseline oil, 150 parts of bovine fat and 30 parts of talc are added.
191. Oil for sewing machines.
Take 1 part of rapeseed oil, heat up to 50 "C and mix 3 parts of vaseline oil.
192. Grease for broaching on presses.
Dissolve 5 kg of soap in 5 liters of water and warm the solution to 60 "C. Stir in 3 liters of wood oil and 2 liters of glycerin.In the resulting mixture add 500 g of strong ammonia and so much hot water that the total volume of the mixture turned to 25 liters. heated form.
193. Grease for sealing the cranes.
In order to prepare a compacting mixture for cranes, we recommend taking 2 parts of fat and 2 parts of wax and mixing. A mixture for the use of glass stoppers is prepared by mixing together equal parts of glycerin and paraffin.
194. Lubricant used in drilling very hard steel.
We recommend the following composition: mix 1 part of camphor alcohol with 4 parts of turpentine, pour the steel and give them some time to stand up.
195. Grease used for cutting screws.
1) A mixture of rapeseed oil or melted lard with turpentine.
2) A mixture of rapeseed oil or melted lard with liquid mineral oil.
3) A mixture of rapeseed oil, blubber or soap with concentrated soda solution, for example: 1 part of the oil is boiled and mixed with 10 parts of a solution of soda.
196. Wheel Ointment.
The preparation of a wheeled ointment in a cold way is based mainly on the property of resin (rosin) oil to combine with lime. For this purpose, use fat slaked lime, containing at least 96% of pure lime. The presence in it of even 5-8% of magnesia already worsens the final product. Good lime easily dissolves in rosin oil at 15-20 | C. To their mixture are added heavy grades of mineral oils. Mineral oil is mixed with well dried slaked lime in a tank for half an hour and the mixture is passed through a sieve, the mesh of which has 25-30 holes per cm2. Large pieces, detained in a sieve, are ground so that they freely pass through it. Then, oil residues, coloring substances are added to the mixture, and if other beneficial neutral minerals are found advantageous, the mixture is again thoroughly mixed and, finally, without stirring, resin oil is added, the mixture thickens. A good wheel ointment should have a consistency of cow's oil.
Below we give the following recipes for the preparation of good varieties of wheel ointments in a cold way.
1) 75 parts of heavy mineral oil,
10 parts of slaked lime,
15 parts of resin oil.
2) 36 parts of heavy mineral oil,
36 parts of oil residues,
12.5 parts of hydrated lime,
15.5 parts of resin oil.
3) 60 parts of heavy mineral oil,
18 parts of gypsum,
9 parts of slaked lime,
13 parts of resin oil.
4) 20 parts of heavy mineral oil,
23 parts of oil residues,
8.5 parts of slaked lime,
40 parts of gypsum,
8.5 parts of resin oil.
197. English wheel ointment.
Melt 1 part of lard and add 1 part of lead white and 1 part of mercury ointment.
198. Belgian wheel ointment.
Take 10 parts of freshly lime in powder, 30 parts of unbleached petrolatum, 1 part of caustic potassium, water at the discretion, wash under heating and add 30 parts of birch tar, 80 parts of vaseline oil, 80 parts of talc and burnt bone or soot as needed.
199. Hoofed ointments.
2-3 parts of ozocerite,
8 parts of petroleum jelly,
1 part of soot.
12 parts of rosin,
17 parts of bovine fat,
2 parts of Japanese wax,
5 pieces of fag,
3 parts of soot.
10 parts of bovine fat,
2 parts of yellow wax,
2 parts of birch wax,
2 parts of the pack,
1 part of soot.
2 parts of gutta-percha,
1 part of ammonia gum.
Before use, the mass is softened in hot water and dipped into pre-cleaned hoof cracks.