Types and composition of coffee drinks
Coffee - a drink made from fried seeds (grains) of several plant species belonging to the genus Coffee (Coffea) of the family Marenovye (Rubiaceae).
Coffee grades are various cultivars and hybrids belonging to the genus Coffee of the Marenov family, obtained as a result of artificial or natural selection of coffee tree plants, mainly Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (coffea robusta, Congolese coffee).
Seeds (beans, grains) of coffee from different places and from different plantations may have distinctive features such as flavor (the flavor criteria include such terms as "citrus" and "earthy"), caffeine content, density, taste and acidity. These properties depend not only on the variety (cultivar), but also on the environment surrounding coffee trees and cultivation technologies. Thus, the quality and characteristics of coffee products of one kind can vary greatly from region to region - coffee demonstrates clear regional variations. Coffee originating from one region (region, country, plantation) is usually called single-origin.
Most varieties are hybrids and kidney mutations of natural (naturally occurring) species. The main ones are Bourbon (Bourbon or Burbon) and Typica (Typica).
Cafe con Leche - Portuguese or Spanish dark coffee with the addition of sugar and milk.
Demi-creme - coffee with cream or milk in equal proportions.
Granita de Caffe - cold espresso, served with ice.
Irish - coffee with alcohol and whipped cream. Served in special ayrish - glasses.
Americano, americano - espresso, diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3. Americano is prepared on an espresso coffee machine: the barista after cooking 30 ml of espresso adds hot water to it to a volume of 120-160 ml.
Glace - a cool coffee with an ice cream ball. Served in ayrish - a glass with a straw.
Doppio - espresso in double serving.
Cappuccino - coffee with whipped in hot foam milk and lush silky milk-coffee foam ("hood"). He received his name thanks to the monks of the Order of the Capuchins, who, according to legend, were the first to come up with the addition of whipped milk. Cappuccino is the most popular drink in coffee shops. The usual serving is 150 ml. Recommended temperature for feeding 60-70 degrees. Often coffee cappuccino sprinkled with cinnamon or cocoa.
Conne (concane) - espresso with a lavish cap of whipped cream, sprinkled with ground cinnamon. "Conne" in the translation from Italian means "with cream". Serve the espresso in a cappuccino cup.
Corretto (corretto) - espresso with the addition of alcohol. In northern Italy in the winter they prepare a koretto - coffee with grappa. In Ireland, to warm up drink coffee with Irish whiskey.
Coffee in Vienna - espresso with whipped cream, sprinkled with spices (vanilla, cinnamon, nutmeg, orange peel to taste) and grated chocolate. In Vienna, coffee was recognized thanks to Ottoman ambassadors as far back as the 17th century. Ambassadors brought him to the city and local residents, rasprobovav, began to prepare coffee at home.
Coffee in the east, coffee in Turkish - black coffee with abundant foam. Prepared in a vessel of a conical shape, the so-called turk or dzhezve on sand, on an open fire, or on an electric tile. Spices such as cardamom, cinnamon, etc. are often used in the preparation.
Latte is a coffee cocktail consisting of one piece of espresso and two parts of warm milk with foam. "Latte" (accent on the first syllable) - in translation from Italian means milk. Serve coffee-latte in ayrish-glass or in a tall glass with a straw. For the aroma in the preparation of a hot and cold latte, a variety of syrups are added, with the exception of citrus fruits, which make the milk sour. Often foam on the surface of the drink is decorated with drawings. This is a whole art, called latte - art.
Latte macchiato (macchiato) is not a mixed cappuccino, where milk, milk foam and coffee lie in layers. Makkiyato in Italian means spotted. Served in a tall glass.
Lungo - coffee, stronger than espresso, due to a longer extraction time. "Lungo" is translated from Italian as "long". The amount of water in the cup (50-60 ml) with the same amount of ground coffee (7 gr.).
Makkiyato (macchiato, macchiato) is a standard strong espresso, on which a drop of very delicate milk foam is placed on top (about 15 ml). This is a real Italian version, translated as "spotted" - in our coffee shops is served less often.
Honey raft - coffee cocktail, invented in Russia in the late 90's. He liked many of us, and now he has become popular all over the world! Its peculiarity is that not only cream, but mixed espresso, cream and honey, are beaten into a thick thick foam by a cappuccino.
Mocha - coffee with the addition of chocolate or, occasionally, coffee in the oriental.
Ristretto - espresso, cooked in a smaller volume of water (7 g coffee for 20-25 ml of water). The most concentrated, although the caffeine contains less than espresso. It is drunk without sugar. It is considered a true Italian coffee and is translated as "fast". Ristretto is served in an espresso cup with a glass of cold water. Before the first sip of coffee, several sips of water are taken. Thus, dehydration of the body is prevented and taste receptors are washed.
Romano ( espresso with lemon). In translation from Italian means "Roman". It is recommended to decorate the espresso romano with a slice of lemon or a strip of lemon peel.
Torre (toro) is a large portion of espresso covered with a milk foam cap that does not mix with coffee and rises over the edge of the cup by about 1.5 - 2 cm. "Torre" in Italian means "tower". Milk foam has a more dry and dense structure, in contrast to cappuccino, and keeps the shape well. Served in a cappuccino cup.
Filter coffee, filter coffee, "Dropper", American, American coffee, regular coffee prepared in a drop coffee machine working according to the "gravitational" principle: hot water drips onto a funnel with a filter containing ground coffee. Predominantly brew arabica. Drink filter coffee from large mugs of 200-220 ml. Drip coffee is popular not only in America, but also in the Scandinavian countries.
French coffee press - coffee, brewed in the "French press", in a device consisting of a glass heat-resistant cylinder with a piston-filter. Most often in the French press they brew Arabica. Also a drink preferred by Scandinavians and Americans.
Espresso (espresso) - strong black coffee, boiled with a coffee machine. There are two interpretations of the translation from the Italian "espresso" - 1) "quick", 2) "compressed", "welded under pressure." Espresso is considered a "king" among coffee. The basis of its taste is a pleasant balance of sourness and bitterness and a feeling of freshness and completeness of taste. The standard portion of espresso is 30-35 ml. The ideal espresso has a uniform, even, dense golden-nut cream (cream). The thickness of the cream should be at least 2 mm. The espresso is served during the first one and a half minutes after the preparation, drink quickly, with a few sips, savoring the foam, sometimes sprinkled with powdered sugar. You can also mix the foam with the rest of the coffee before use, since the taste is concentrated in it.
Do not forget that the quality of good coffee affects and raw materials - coffee beans.