Types and composition of coffee drinks
Coffee - a drink made from fried seeds (grains) of several plant species belonging to the genus Coffee (Coffea) of the family Marenovye (Rubiaceae).
Coffee varieties are various cultivars and hybrids belonging to the Marena coffee family, obtained as a result of artificial or natural selection of Coffee tree plants, mainly Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee) and Coffea canephora (syn. Coffea robusta, Congolese coffee) species.
Seeds (beans, grains) of coffee from different places and from different plantations can have distinctive features, such as aroma (aroma criteria include terms such as “citrus” and “earthy”), caffeine content, density, taste and acidity. These properties depend not only on the variety (cultivar), but also on the environment surrounding the coffee trees and cultivation technologies. Thus, the quality and characteristics of the products of one type of coffee can vary greatly from region to region - coffee demonstrates clear regional variations. Coffee originating from one area (region, country, plantation) is called single-origin.
Most varieties are hybrids and kidney mutations of natural (naturally occurring) species. The main ones are Bourbon (Bourbon or Burbon) and Typica.
Cafe con Leche - Portuguese or Spanish dark coffee with added sugar and milk.
Demi-creme - coffee with cream or milk in equal proportions.
Granita de Caffe - cold espresso served with ice.
Irish - coffee with alcohol and whipped cream. Served in special irish glasses.
Americano, americano - espresso coffee diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3. Americano is prepared on an espresso machine: a barista after making 30 ml of espresso adds hot water to it until a volume of 120-160 ml is obtained.
Look - cool coffee with a scoop of ice cream. Served in irish glass with a straw.
Doppio - espresso in a double portion.
Cappuccino - coffee with milk whipped into hot foam and lush silky milk-coffee foam ("hood"). It got its name thanks to the monks of the Capuchin Order, who, according to legend, were the first to invent whipped milk in coffee. Cappuccino is the most popular drink in coffee houses. The usual portion is 150 ml. Recommended temperature when applying 60-70 degrees. Often cappuccino coffee is sprinkled with cinnamon or cocoa.
Con panna (konpanna) - espresso with a fluffy cap of whipped cream, sprinkled with ground cinnamon. “Con panna” translated from Italian means “with cream”. Serve espresso con panna in a cappuccino cup.
Coretto (corretto) - espresso with the addition of alcohol. In northern Italy, in the winter, they prepare coretto - coffee with grappa. In Ireland, to warm up, they drink coffee with Irish whiskey.
Viennese coffee - espresso with whipped cream, sprinkled with spices (vanilla, cinnamon, nutmeg, orange zest to taste) and grated chocolate. In Vienna, coffee was recognized thanks to the Ottoman ambassadors back in the 17th century. Ambassadors brought him into the city and the locals, having tasted it, began to make coffee at home.
Oriental coffee, Turkish coffee - black coffee with copious foam. It is prepared in a conical vessel, the so-called Turk or cezve in sand, on an open fire, or on an electric stove. When cooking, spices are often used, such as cardamom, cinnamon, etc.
Latte - a coffee cocktail consisting of one part of espresso and two parts of warmed milk with foam. “Latte” (emphasis on the first syllable) - translated from Italian means milk. Serve coffee latte in an irish glass or in a tall glass with a straw. For the aroma, when preparing hot and cold lattes, a variety of syrups are added, with the exception of citrus fruits, because of which milk can turn sour. Often the foam on the surface of the drink is decorated with drawings. This whole art, called latte - art.
Latte macchiato (macchiato) is an unmixed cappuccino where milk, milk foam and coffee are layered. Macchiato is Italian for spotted. Served in a tall glass.
Lungo - coffee stronger than espresso due to longer extraction time. "Lungo" is translated from Italian as "long." The amount of water in a cup (50-60 ml) with the same amount of ground coffee (7 g.).
Macchiato (macchiato, macchiato) is a standard strong espresso on which a drop of very soft milk foam (about 15 ml) is placed on top of a bar with a spoon. This is a real Italian version, translated as "spotted" - served less often in our coffee houses.
Honey raff is a coffee cocktail invented in Russia in the late 90s. He was loved by many among us, and now has become popular all over the world! Its peculiarity lies in the fact that not only cream, but mixed espresso, cream and honey are whipped into a dense thick foam.
Mocha - coffee with the addition of chocolate or, sometimes, oriental coffee.
Ristretto - espresso brewed in a smaller volume of water (7 g. Coffee per 20-25 ml of water). Most concentrated, although caffeine contains less than espresso. It is drunk without sugar. It is considered true Italian coffee and translates as "fast." Ristretto is served in an espresso cup with a glass of cold water. Before the first sip of coffee, several sips of water are taken. Thus, dehydration of the body is prevented and taste buds are washed.
Romano (romano) - espresso with lemon. Translated from Italian means "Roman". Espresso romano is recommended to decorate with a slice of lemon or a strip of lemon zest.
Torre (toro) - a large portion of espresso covered on top with a cap of milk foam, which does not mix with coffee and rises about 1.5 - 2 cm above the edge of the cup. “Torre” in Italian means “tower”. Milk foam has a drier and denser structure, unlike cappuccino, and holds its shape well. Served in a cappuccino cup.
Filter coffee, filter coffee, “Dropper”, American, American-style coffee, regular coffee made in a drip coffee machine working according to the “gravity” principle: hot water drips onto a funnel with a filter in which ground coffee lies. Mostly brewed arabica. They drink filter coffee from large mugs with a volume of 200-220 ml. Drip coffee is popular not only in America, but also in the Scandinavian countries.
French press coffee - coffee brewed in the "French press" in a device consisting of a heat-resistant glass cylinder with a piston - filter. More often than not, Arabica is brewed in the French press. Also a drink preferred by the Scandinavians and Americans.
Espresso (espresso) - strong black coffee brewed using a coffee machine. There are two interpretations of the translation from Italian “espresso” - 1) “fast”, 2) “pressed”, “pressure welded”. Espresso is considered the "king" among coffee. The basis of its taste is a pleasant balance of sourness and bitterness and a sense of freshness and completeness of taste. The standard portion of espresso coffee is 30-35 ml. An ideal espresso has a uniform, smooth, dense golden-nut foam (cream). The cream must be at least 2 mm thick. Espresso is served for the first one and a half minutes after preparation, drink quickly, in several sips, savoring the foam, sometimes sprinkled with powdered sugar. You can also mix the foam with the rest of the coffee before use, since the taste is concentrated in it.
Do not forget that the quality of good coffee is also affected by the raw materials - coffee beans.