Types and composition of coffee drinks
Coffee is a drink made from roasted seeds (grains) of several plant species belonging to the genus Coffee (Coffea) of the Madder family (Rubiaceae).
Coffee varieties are various cultivars and hybrids belonging to the genus Coffee of the Marenov family, obtained as a result of artificial or natural selection of the Coffee Tree plants, mainly Coffea arabica (Arabian Coffee) and Coffea canephora (syn. Coffea robusta, Coffee Congolese).
The seeds (beans, beans) of coffee from different places and from different plantations can have distinctive features such as aroma (aroma criteria include terms such as “citrus” and “earthy”), caffeine content, density, taste, and acidity. These properties depend not only on the variety (cultivar), but also on the environment and cultivation technologies surrounding the coffee trees. Thus, the quality and characteristics of coffee products of the same variety can vary greatly from region to region - coffee demonstrates clear regional variations. Coffee originating from one region (region, country, plantation) is usually called single-origin.
Most varieties are hybrids and kidney mutations of natural (arisen in nature) varieties. The main ones are Bourbon (Bourbon or Burbon) and Tipica.
Cafe con Leche - Portuguese or Spanish dark coffee with added sugar and milk.
Demi-creme - coffee with cream or milk in equal proportions.
Granita de Caffe - cold espresso, served with ice.
Irish - coffee with alcohol and whipped cream. Served in special Irish - glasses.
American, americano - espresso coffee, diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3. Americano is prepared on an espresso coffee machine: after preparing the barista, 30 ml of espresso add hot water to it to obtain a volume of 120-160 ml.
Glasse - cool coffee with a scoop of ice cream. Served in Irish - glass with a straw.
Doppio - espresso in double serving.
Cappuccino - coffee with milk whipped into hot foam and lush silky milk-coffee froth (“hood”). It got its name thanks to the monks of the Order of the Capuchins, who, according to legend, were the first to think of adding whipped milk to coffee. Cappuccino is the most popular drink in coffee shops. A typical serving is 150 ml. The recommended temperature when applying 60-70 degrees. Often, cappuccino coffee is sprinkled with cinnamon or cocoa.
Con panna (conpanna) - espresso with a lush cap of whipped cream, sprinkled with ground cinnamon. “Kon panna” in Italian means “with cream”. Espresso con panna is served in a cappuccino cup.
Koretto (corretto) - espresso with the addition of alcohol. In northern Italy, in the winter, they cook a basette - coffee with grappa. In Ireland, to keep warm drink coffee with Irish whiskey.
Viennese coffee - espresso with whipped cream, sprinkled with spices (vanilla, cinnamon, nutmeg, orange zest to taste) and grated chocolate. In Vienna, coffee was recognized thanks to the Ottoman ambassadors back in the 17th century. The ambassadors brought it to the city and the local residents, having tasted it, began to make coffee at home.
Eastern coffee, Turkish coffee - black coffee with abundant foam. It is prepared in a conical vessel, the so-called Turk or Cezve on sand, on an open fire, or on a hotplate. When cooking, spices are often used, such as cardamom, cinnamon, etc.
Latte is a coffee cocktail consisting of one part of espresso and two parts of heated milk with foam. "Latte" (accent on the first syllable) - translated from Italian means milk. Coffee is served in latte in an irish glass or in a tall glass with a straw. For the aroma, when preparing hot and cold lattes, various syrups are added, with the exception of citrus fruits, because of which the milk may turn sour. Often the foam on the surface of the drink is decorated with drawings. This whole art, called latte art.
Latte macchiato (macchiato) is a non-mixed cappuccino where milk, milk froth and coffee are layered. Macchiato translated from Italian means "spotted." Served in a tall glass.
Lungo - coffee, stronger than espresso, due to the longer extraction time. "Lungo" is translated from Italian as "long." The amount of water in the cup (50-60 ml) with the same amount of ground coffee (7 gr.).
Macchiato (macchiato, macchiato) is a standard strong espresso, on which a droplet of very tender milk foam (approximately 15 ml) is placed on top of a bar spoon. This is a real Italian version, translated as "spotted" - in our coffee shops served less frequently.
Honey Raf - a coffee cocktail, invented in Russia in the late 90s. He fell in love with many of us, and now he has become popular all over the world! Its peculiarity is that, with a cappuccinator, not only cream, but mixed espresso, cream and honey, are whipped into dense thick foam.
Mocha - coffee with the addition of chocolate or, sometimes, Oriental coffee.
Ristretto - espresso, brewed in a smaller volume of water (7 g. Coffee per 20-25 ml of water). The most concentrated, although caffeine contains less than espresso. Drink without sugar. It is considered true Italian coffee and is translated as "fast." Ristretto is served in an espresso cup with a glass of cold water. Before the first sip of coffee is a few sips of water. Thus, dehydration is prevented and taste buds are washed away.
Romano (romano) - espresso with lemon. Translated from Italian means "Roman". Espresso romano is recommended to decorate with a slice of lemon or a strip of lemon zest.
Torre (toro) - a large portion of espresso covered with a cap of milk foam, which does not mix with coffee and rises above the edge of the cup by about 1.5 - 2 cm. "Torre" in Italian means "tower". Milk foam has a more dry and dense structure, unlike cappuccino, and holds its shape well. Served in a cappuccino cup.
Filter coffee, filter coffee, “Dropper”, American, American-style coffee, regular — coffee made in a drip coffee maker that works according to the “gravity” principle: hot water drips onto the funnel with a filter containing ground coffee. Mostly brewed Arabica. Drink filter coffee from large mugs of 200-220 ml. Drip coffee is popular not only in America, but also in the Scandinavian countries.
French press coffee - coffee brewed in the "French press", in a device consisting of a heat-resistant glass cylinder with a piston - filter. Most often in the French press brewed arabica. Also drink preferred by the Scandinavians and Americans.
Espresso (espresso) - strong black coffee brewed with a coffee machine. There are two interpretations of the translation from Italian “espresso” - 1) “fast”, 2) “pressed”, “welded under pressure”. Espresso is considered the "king" among coffee. The basis of its taste is a pleasant balance of sourness and bitterness and a feeling of freshness and completeness of taste. Standard espresso coffee - 30-35 ml. The perfect espresso has a homogeneous, even, dense golden-nut skin (cream). The thickness of the cream should be at least 2 mm. Serve espresso for the first one and a half minutes after preparation, drink quickly, in a few sips, savoring the foam, sometimes sprinkled with powdered sugar. You can also mix the foam with the rest of the coffee before drinking, as the taste is concentrated in it.
Do not forget that the quality of good coffee is also influenced by the raw material - coffee beans.