Early signs of diabetes that you should not ignore!
Type 2 diabetes is a very common disease today. Symptoms of diabetes can be easily overlooked.
Diabetes is a very serious disease that causes many dangerous complications, for example, cardiovascular or neurological problems, which is why the sooner diabetes is diagnosed, the better.
Proper nutrition, exercise and medications will help keep diabetes under control and a person who suffers from this disease will be able to continue to live a normal life. Here are some signs of diabetes that can help you recognize it in time.
How to recognize the first signs of diabetes
Frequent urination or night urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes. The kidneys, as a rule, become much more difficult to get rid of excess glucose in the blood.
If you lose more fluid, the body will do everything to replace it, since this symptom is automatically associated with the previous one and the need to drink increases.
Increased hunger or gluttony
The body is constantly hungry because of the extreme highs and lows of blood sugar levels. Cells do not get enough glucose, therefore the body begins to crave food.
Dry mouth usually attracts bacteria and causes numerous dental problems. In addition, gum disease is a complication of diabetes.
Excessive fatigue occurs when the body constantly compensates for the lack of glucose in the cells.
When blood sugar is high, it negatively affects the eyes and changes the shape of the lens and eyes. Your vision will become blurred. If the sugar level remains high for a long period of time, the changes that occur before your eyes can become permanent and lead to complete loss of vision.
Bruises, infections, cuts that do not heal
This is due to damage to blood vessels and is a classic sign of diabetes. When excessive amounts of sugar are present in the veins and arteries, they become less able to transport blood to a place that needs to be “repaired” and healed.
Various sexual problems are also the result of diabetes, because it damages the blood vessels and nerves in the genitals. Men may have difficulty with an erection, and women may experience vaginal dryness. Between 35% and 75% of men who suffer from diabetes have impotence.
If you experience some of these symptoms, see your doctor, do a blood test and make sure that you are in order.
Just try to eat healthy foods and in moderation. Also, try not to be nervous and ignore all the bad habits that you have. The risk of developing diabetes increases with age, so we recommend that you stay physically active and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Clinical Signs of Diabetes
In the clinical picture of diabetes, it is customary to distinguish between two groups of symptoms: primary and secondary.
The main symptoms include:
- Polyuria - increased excretion of urine caused by an increase in the osmotic pressure of urine due to glucose dissolved in it (normally, there is no glucose in the urine). It manifests itself with frequent abundant urination, including at night.
- Polydipsia (constant unquenchable thirst) - due to significant loss of water in the urine and increased osmotic blood pressure.
- Polyphagy is a constant insatiable hunger. This symptom is caused by metabolic disorders in diabetes, namely the inability of cells to absorb and process glucose in the absence of insulin (hunger in abundance).
- Weight loss (especially characteristic of type 1 diabetes) is a common symptom of diabetes, which develops despite the increased appetite of patients. Weight loss (and even exhaustion) is caused by increased catabolism of proteins and fats due to the shutdown of glucose from the energy metabolism of cells.
The main symptoms are most common for type 1 diabetes. They are developing acutely. Patients, as a rule, can accurately indicate the date or period of their appearance.
Secondary symptoms include low-specific clinical signs that develop slowly over time. These symptoms are characteristic for diabetes of both the 1st and 2nd type:
- itching of the skin and mucous membranes,
- dry mouth
- general muscle weakness
- inflammatory skin lesions that are difficult to treat,
- visual impairment
- the presence of acetone in the urine with type 1 diabetes. Acetone is the result of burning fat reserves.
Diabetes mellitus (lat. Diabetes mellitus) - a group of endocrine diseases associated with impaired glucose uptake and developing as a result of absolute or relative (impaired interaction with target cells) insulin hormone deficiency, resulting in hyperglycemia - a persistent increase in blood glucose. The disease is characterized by a chronic course, as well as a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water-salt. In addition to humans, some animals, such as cats and dogs, are also susceptible to this disease.
The term "type 1 diabetes mellitus" is used to refer to a group of diseases that develop due to the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells, which leads to a deficiency in the synthesis of proinsulin and hyperglycemia, requires hormone replacement therapy. The term "type 2 diabetes mellitus" refers to a disease that develops in people with excessive accumulation of adipose tissue who have insulin resistance, as a result of which there is an excessive synthesis of proinsulin, insulin and amylin by beta cells of the pancreas, the so-called "relative deficiency" occurs. The most recent revision of the classification of diabetes was made by the American Diabetes Association in January 2010. Since 1999, according to the classification approved by WHO, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, pregnant diabetes and "other specific types of diabetes" have been distinguished. The term latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, “type 1.5 diabetes”) and a number of more rare forms of diabetes are also distinguished.
There are a number of classifications of diabetes in various ways. Together, they are included in the structure of the diagnosis and allow a fairly accurate description of the condition of a patient with diabetes.I
Type 1 diabetes mellitus or “juvenile diabetes” , but people of any age can get sick (B-cell destruction leading to the development of absolute lifelong insulin deficiency)
- Autoimmune, including LADA,
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin secretion defect with insulin resistance)
- MODY - Genetic defects in B-cell function.
Note: categories: “In people with normal body weight” and “In people with overweight” were canceled by WHO in 1999.III
Other forms of diabetes:
- genetic defects (abnormalities) of insulin and / or its receptors,
- diseases of the exocrine pancreas,
- endocrine diseases (endocrinopathies): Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, diffuse toxic goiter, pheochromocytoma and others,
- drug-induced diabetes
- infection-induced diabetes
- unusual forms of immune-mediated diabetes,
- genetic syndromes combined with diabetes.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition characterized by hyperglycemia that occurs during pregnancy in some women and usually spontaneously disappears after childbirth.
Note: should be distinguished from pregnancy in patients with diabetes.
According to WHO recommendations, the following types of diabetes in pregnant women are distinguished:
- Type 1 diabetes detected before pregnancy.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus detected before pregnancy.
- Pregnant diabetes mellitus - this term combines any glucose tolerance disorders that occurred during pregnancy .
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