Early signs of diabetes that you should not ignore!
Type 2 diabetes is a very common disease today. Symptoms of diabetes can be easily overlooked.
Diabetes is a very serious disease that causes many dangerous complications, such as cardiovascular or neurological problems, which is why the earlier diabetes is diagnosed, the better.
Proper nutrition, exercise and medication will help keep diabetes under control and a person who suffers from this disease will be able to continue living a normal life. Here are some signs of diabetes that can help you recognize it in time.
How to recognize the first signs of diabetes
Frequent urination or night urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes. It is usually more difficult for the kidneys to get rid of excess glucose in the blood.
If you lose more fluid, the body will do everything to replace it, so this symptom is automatically associated with the previous one and the need to drink increases.
Increased hunger or gluttony
The body is constantly hungry because of extreme highs and lows in blood sugar levels. The cells do not get enough glucose, therefore the body begins to crave food.
Dry mouth usually attracts bacteria and causes numerous dental problems. In addition, gum disease is a complication of diabetes.
Excessive fatigue occurs when the body constantly compensates for the lack of glucose in the cells.
When the blood sugar level is high, it has a negative effect on the eyes and changes the shape of the lens and eyes. Your eyesight will become blurred. If the sugar level remains high for a long period of time, the changes that occur before your eyes can become permanent and lead to a complete loss of vision.
Bruises, infections, cuts that do not heal
This is due to damage to the blood vessels and is a classic sign of diabetes. When excessive amounts of sugar are present in the veins and arteries, they become less able to transport blood to the place that needs to be “repaired” and healed.
Various sexual problems are also the result of diabetes because it damages blood vessels and nerves in the genitals. Men may experience erection difficulties, and women may experience vaginal dryness. From 35% to 75% of men who suffer from diabetes, are faced with impotence.
In case you experience some of these symptoms, consult a doctor, do a blood test and make sure that you are ok.
Just try to eat healthy food and in moderation. In addition, try not to be nervous and ignore all the bad habits that you have. With age, the risk of developing diabetes increases, so we recommend that you stay physically active and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Clinical signs of diabetes
In the clinical picture of diabetes, it is customary to distinguish between two groups of symptoms: major and minor.
The main symptoms include:
- Polyuria - enhanced urine excretion caused by an increase in the osmotic pressure of urine due to glucose dissolved in it (there is normally no glucose in the urine). Manifested by frequent frequent urination, including at night.
- Polydipsia (constant unquenchable thirst) - due to significant loss of water in the urine and increased osmotic pressure of the blood.
- Polyphagy is a constant unquenchable hunger. This symptom is caused by a metabolic disorder in diabetes, namely the inability of cells to absorb and process glucose in the absence of insulin (hunger among affluence).
- Weight loss (especially characteristic of type 1 diabetes) is a frequent symptom of diabetes that develops despite an increased appetite of patients. Slimming (and even depletion) due to increased catabolism of proteins and fats due to the shutdown of glucose from the energy metabolism of cells.
The main symptoms are most characteristic of type 1 diabetes. They develop acutely. Patients, as a rule, can accurately name the date or period of their appearance.
Secondary symptoms include less specific clinical signs that develop slowly over a long time. These symptoms are characteristic of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes:
- itching of the skin and mucous membranes,
- dry mouth
- general muscle weakness
- inflammatory skin lesions that are difficult to treat,
- blurred vision
- the presence of acetone in urine in type 1 diabetes. Acetone is the result of burning fat reserves.
Diabetes mellitus (Latin diabetes mellitus) is a group of endocrine diseases associated with impaired glucose uptake and developing as a result of absolute or relative (impaired interaction with target cells) insufficiency of the hormone insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia, a persistent increase in glucose in the blood. The disease is characterized by a chronic course, as well as a violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral and water-salt. In addition to humans, some animals, such as cats and dogs, are also susceptible to this disease.
The term “type 1 diabetes mellitus” is used to designate a group of diseases that develop as a result of the progressive destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which leads to a deficiency in the synthesis of proinsulin and hyperglycemia, which requires hormone replacement therapy. The term “type 2 diabetes mellitus” refers to a disease that develops in people with excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, who have insulin resistance, as a result of which excessive synthesis of proinsulin, insulin and amylin by beta cells of the pancreas occurs, a so-called “relative deficit” occurs. The last revision of the classification of diabetes was made by the American Diabetes Association in January 2010. Since 1999, according to the WHO-approved classification, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, type diabetes, pregnant women and “other specific types of diabetes” are distinguished. The term latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, type 1.5 diabetes) and a number of more rare forms of diabetes are also distinguished.
There are a number of classifications of diabetes mellitus on various grounds. In the aggregate, they are included in the structure of the diagnosis and allow you to accurately describe the condition of the patient with diabetes.I
Type 1 diabetes mellitus or “juvenile diabetes” , however, people of any age can get sick (destruction of B-cells leading to the development of absolute life-long insulin deficiency)
- Autoimmune, including LADA,
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin secretion defect with insulin resistance)
- MODY - genetic defects in the function of B-cells.
Note: categories: “In persons with normal body weight” and “In persons with overweight” canceled by WHO in 1999.III
Other forms of diabetes:
- genetic defects (abnormalities) of insulin and / or its receptors,
- diseases of the exocrine pancreas,
- endocrine diseases (endocrinopathies): Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, diffuse toxic goiter, pheochromocytoma and others,
- drug induced diabetes
- diabetes induced by infections
- unusual forms of immune-mediated diabetes,
- genetic syndromes combined with diabetes mellitus.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition characterized by hyperglycemia that occurs during pregnancy in some women and usually disappears spontaneously after delivery.
Note: should be distinguished from pregnancy arising in patients with diabetes mellitus.
According to WHO recommendations, the following types of diabetes in pregnant women are distinguished:
- Type 1 diabetes identified before pregnancy.
- Type 2 diabetes identified before pregnancy.
- Pregnant diabetes mellitus - this term combines any impairment of glucose tolerance that occurred during pregnancy .
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