Food poisoning in the campaign - what to do?
Food poisoning or food intoxication - acute, rarely chronic diseases that result from eating, massed with pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, or other substances of a non-microbial nature. Infection with pathogenic microorganisms (foodborne infection) is observed more often than poisoning with natural or chemical toxins (food intoxication). Poisonings are characterized by a picture of acute gastroenteritis and intoxication.
Clinical manifestations of poisoning are often characterized by disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, vomiting, stool disorders, general malaise). However, in a number of cases these symptoms are absent (with botulism, lead poisoning, etc.). Food poisoning is characterized by a sudden onset and short course. In cases of prolonged consumption of food products containing harmful substances, food poisoning can also proceed as a chronic disease.
The human body is a rather fragile mechanism, which is extremely easy to spoil or break. But if in the city in case of illness you can just come to the doctor or call an ambulance, then in a multi-day hike you have to count exclusively on your strengths and your knowledge. Therefore, it is much easier and more convenient to prevent health problems. Avoid hypothermia and trauma, protect yourself from ticks and mosquitoes, there are no suspicious roots and no less suspicious-looking sausage. But no matter how careful you are, accidents still happen. So, what if someone else got poisoned in the campaign?
Food Poisoning - Diagnosis
First, we need to determine that we are dealing with food poisoning. Typical symptoms are:
- nausea and multiple vomiting;
- weakness and dizziness;
- a temperature increase is possible;
- painful spasms in the stomach.
All this does not begin immediately after eating, but after a while. Minimum - half an hour. The maximum is the next day. And on the average - 4-6 hours. This deadline, as a rule, is enough to determine the cause of poisoning. You need to do this immediately, because the rapid identification of the infectious agent will help prevent new poisoning. In addition, this will determine whether we are dealing with food poisoning or toxic poisoning. Actions in each of these cases are different. If it is possible to fight with a toxicoinfection on its own, then chemical toxins beat the liver so severely that it can be impossible to save a person without qualified help.
Good. The source was found and eliminated. Poisoning is. What's next?
Food Poisoning - First Aid
It does not matter how much time has passed! The first thing to do is wash the stomach with plenty of water. If you have salt at hand (2 tablespoons for 5 liters), soda (1 teaspoon per liter) or potassium permanganate (a weak, pale pink solution, it is weak - it was not enough only to mucus burn with high concentration) - excellent. In principle, even a weak soap solution is suitable for these purposes. You need at least 10 liters of warm water. It's warm, so as not to overcool the body. It will be optimal to make a halt near a source of clean water and organize large-scale boiling it - there was not enough yet to introduce into the weakened organism an infection that can live in fresh water bodies. If the inventory has any water filters - even better. Significant savings in precious time.
So. Rinse the stomach until the rinsing water is completely clean. At a time you need to drink up to 5 glasses of water, after which - cause vomiting, pressing on the root of the tongue. All right, all washed. Next comes the queue of enterosorbents . A banal activated charcoal or a more modern Enterosgel will absorb the remains of toxins and prevent their further ingestion into the bloodstream. These drugs are simply required to be present in any outpatient drugstores. If there are no drugs, there is another way - cook a thick rice broth, it acts as a whole, as well as Enterosgel, also nutritious. Well, take the pill (1 tablet per 10 kg of weight) or gel (1 tablespoon), drink with warm water, repeat the procedure several times (in the case of a decoction, you can, of course, do not drink anything). Wrapped the victim with a blanket and put in a convenient place.
Now at least 2 days will have to deal with the consequences, before the victim can at least somehow continue the path. The first day he should not eat anything at all - only boiled water, not strong (preferably green) tea and mors. Or ... the same rice decoction, which, in general, is the same rice as the nutrient, so that with hunger, in general, if there is rice and the ability to cook it, the poisoned will not die. Only the rice itself does not need to be fed - only liquid food is shown. From the second day you can give broths.
If there are any salt solutions in the medicine cabinet - for example, Regidron or something like that (they are released in the form of powders, so they weigh a little) - even better. An excellent way to combat the loss of salts and electrolytes. Give from the calculation of 10 ml per 1 kg of mass after each liquid stool. Drink slowly - at least an hour's time, and preferably three. It is necessary that salts and electrolytes are fully absorbed by the body. If you calculate milliliters and a lot of laziness, try just to dilute such a concentrate, which the patient will not refuse to accept because of a specific taste. According to the instruction of Regidron, 1 packet per 1 liter of water is diluted. In general, Regidron helps in any scenario, and you can drink it with poisonings, in general, and instead of rice decoction. If you stretch a liter of Regidron with interruptions of green tea for the whole day, there is no desire at all.
Also, the victim should be provided with complete peace and an opportunity to restore strength. Well, in principle, everything. Further treatment depends on the condition of the first aid kit. Well, if there are any hepatoprotectors - the same Essentiale Forte - 2 capsules 3 times a day. Any toxins hit the liver - the earlier you start to fight their effects - the better. If there is Mezim or other drugs that normalize digestion and intestinal microflora - excellent.
Food Poisoning - Complications
In mild cases, the patient does not even need these two days of rest. Unfortunately, everything can be much worse and more dangerous. If the following symptoms are observed:
- pain in the liver, kidneys, pelvic organs;
- a high temperature that does not fall off for a long time;
- vomiting and diarrhea lasting more than two days,
it is best to deliver the victim as soon as possible to the hospital and provide him with qualified medical care. How to do this is another matter. About the transportation of victims in the field, we will certainly write, but already in another article.
Separately, I would like to talk about another, extremely dangerous disease, which at first can easily be confused with the usual food poisoning - about botulism. The causative agent is an anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum . The source is poor-quality canned food. And since in the ration of tourists it is the canned food that occupies the leading place, then the risk of infection is higher. The beginning is similar - vomiting, weakness, temperature, diarrhea. But as the gastrointestinal symptoms subside, a new, paralytic, appears. Visual disturbance, manifested by "flies" before the eyes and poor discrimination of nearby objects; full atony of the intestine, severe dry mouth, partial paralysis of the facial musculature while maintaining sensitivity. Paralysis also affects the muscles of the diaphragm and intercostal musculature. There is no need to specify what it can lead to. It is impossible to treat it in the field - it requires a systematic introduction of antitoxic serum, intravenous electrolytes and artificial ventilation of the lungs. Therefore, it is extremely important to recognize botulism on time in the initial stages and to deliver the patient as soon as possible to the hospital.
In any situation, the main thing is not to panic. Yes, food poisoning is an extremely unpleasant thing. Yes, it requires treatment. Yes, it can be life-threatening. Yes, it detains the group. But if everything is done accurately and accurately - unpleasant consequences can be avoided. It will take some redistribution of daily rations, considering 2 days of downtime and a lightweight diet for the victim. Fortunately, you can safely cut them, because the remaining members of the group will not be subjected to physical stress. Stay near the reservoir can also be used - fishing and collecting edible plants will help to compensate for food losses. If you are dealing with botulism or various complications, then call the Emergency Ministry boldly. Your situation just falls under the criteria of "emergency, associated with a threat to human life . " Remember, whatever happens does not panic . Accurate, prudent and competent actions - that's what can save human life and health.