Description of the medicine: Ampicillin (Ampicillinum)
AMPICILLIN (Ampicillinum). 6- [D (-) - a-aminophenylacetamido] penicillanic acid.
Synonyms: Pentrexil, Abetathen, Acidocycline, Acilin, Acrocilin, Agnopen, Albercilin, Amcil, Amecillin, Ampen, Ampexin, Ampifen, Ampilin, Ampiopenil, Amplenil, Amplital, Bactipen, Biampen, Binotalocilinin, Britinin, Dilinin, Britapin, Britapen, Britapen, Britapen, Biapen Domicillin, Domipen, Eurocillin, Fortapen, Grampenil, Isticilline, Lificil1in, Maxibiotic, Maxipred, Morepen, Negopen, Opicilin, Oracilina, Penberin, Penbrock, Penibrin, Pentrex, Pentrexil, Pentrexyl, Policilin, Riininin, Rinomycin, Rinomycin, Rinomycin, Totacillin, Ultrabion, Vampen, Vexampil, Vidopen, Zymopen, etc.
Fine crystalline powder of white color, bitter taste; stable in an acidic environment. Slightly soluble in water, practically insoluble in alcohol.
Ampicillin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic obtained by acylating 6-aminopenicillanic acid with an aminophenylacetic acid residue.
The drug is not destroyed in the acidic environment of the stomach, is well absorbed when taken orally. Active against gram-positive microorganisms that are affected by benzylpenicillin. In addition, it acts on a number of gram-negative microorganisms [Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia (Friedlander’s wand), Pfeiffer’s bacillus (Influenza bacillus)] and is therefore considered a broad-spectrum antibiotic and is used for diseases caused by mixed infection.
On penicillinase-forming staphylococci resistant to benzylpenicillin, ampicillin does not act, since it is destroyed by penicillinase.
Ampicillin is used to treat patients with pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, with lung abscesses, tonsillitis, peritonitis, cholecystitis, sepsis, intestinal infections, postoperative infections of soft tissues and other infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to it.
The drug is highly effective for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus, enterococci or mixed infection, since it is excreted unchanged in urine in high concentrations. In large quantities, ampicillin also enters the bile. The drug is effective in the treatment of gonorrhea.
Ampicillin is prescribed orally (regardless of food intake). Developing a dose for adults of 0.5 g, daily 2 to 3 g. Children are prescribed at the rate of 100 mg / kg. The daily dose is divided into 4 to 6 doses.
The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease and the effectiveness of therapy (from 5 to 10 days to 2 to 3 weeks or more).
In the treatment with ampicillin, allergic reactions can occur in the form of skin rash, urticaria, Quincke's edema, etc., in rare cases, anaphylactic shock (mainly with the administration of ampicillin sodium salt).
In case of allergic reactions, it is necessary to stop the administration of the drug and conduct desensitizing therapy. When signs of anaphylactic shock appear, urgent measures must be taken to remove the patient from this condition.
With prolonged treatment with ampicillin, in debilitated patients, the development of superinfection caused by drug-resistant microorganisms (yeast-like fungi, gram-negative microorganisms) is possible. It is advisable for these patients to prescribe vitamins of group B and vitamin C at the same time, if necessary, nystatin or levorin.