Description of the medicine: Polymyxin in sulfate (Polymyxini B sulfas)
POLYMIXIN IN SULPHATE (Polymyxini B sulfas).
It is a polypeptide antibiotic from the group of polymyxins.
Synonyms: Aerosporin, Aerosporin, Bacillosporin, Polmix.
Powder or porous mass of white or white with a yellowish tint. Hygroscopic. Easily soluble in water.
Like polymyxin M sulfate is highly active against gram-negative microorganisms. It does not affect coccal aerobic (staphilo-, strepto-, pneumo-, gono- and meningococci) and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as on most Proteus strains, on pathogens of tuberculosis, diphtheria, on clostridia and fungi. The most valuable feature of an antibiotic is its effectiveness against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Polymyxin B sulfate is used intramuscularly, intravenously (drip) and inside. Parenteral administration only in a hospital setting. With intramuscular administration, the drug is rapidly absorbed, the maximum concentration in the blood is detected after 1 - 2 hours. The drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys (in relatively high concentrations). It does not penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid. The development of drug resistance during treatment is rare. When administered internally and topically, polymyxin B sulfate is practically not absorbed. Polymyxin B sulfate is used for sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, infected burns, and other infections caused by Ps. aeruginosa. In infections caused by other gram-negative microorganisms (E. coli, Enterobacter, etc.), polymyxin B sulfate is prescribed only if the pathogen is resistant to other less toxic drugs.
Polymyxin B sulfate is also used for infections of the gastrointestinal tract caused by microorganisms sensitive to its action (salmonella, shigella, etc.).
Intramuscularly administered to adults at a dose of 0.5 - 0.7 mg / kg 3-4 times a day. The daily dose should not exceed 200 mg. For children, the drug is prescribed regardless of age at 0.3 - 0.6 mg / kg 3-4 times a day. Before administration, the contents of the vial (25 and 50 mg) are dissolved in 1 - 2 ml of a 0.5 - 1% solution of novocaine, sterile water for injection or isotonic sodium chloride solution.
The drug is administered daily for 5 to 7 days.
For intravenous administration, the contents of the vial (25 or 50 mg) are dissolved in 200 - 300 ml of a 5% glucose solution and administered dropwise at a rate of 60 - 80 drops per minute. For adults, the daily dose is 2 mg / kg, the maximum daily dose should not exceed 150 mg. The daily dose is administered in 2 divided doses with an interval of 12 hours. The dose for children with intravenous administration is the same as with intramuscular administration. For administration to children, the drug is dissolved in 30-100 ml of a 5-10% glucose solution.
Inside, the drug is prescribed in the form of an aqueous solution. The adult dose is 100 mg every 6 hours. Children are given 4 mg / kg 3 times a day. The duration of the course of treatment is 5-7 days or more.
Polymyxin B sulfate upon parenteral administration may have nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effects.