Description of the medicine: Adrenaline (Adrenalinum)
ADRENALINE (Adrenalinum). l-1 (3,4-dioxiphenyl) -2-methylaminoethanol.
Synonyms: Adnephrine, Adrenamine, Adrenine, Epinephrinum, Epinephrine, Epirenan, Epirinamine, Eppy, Glaucon, Glauconin, Glaukosan, Hypernephrin, Levorenine, Nephridine, Paranephrine, Renostypticin, Styptirenal, Suprarenalin, Dr.
Adrenaline is found in various organs and tissues, in significant quantities it is formed in the chromaffin tissue, especially in the adrenal medulla.
Adrenaline, used as a medicinal substance, is obtained from adrenal gland tissue of slaughter cattle or by synthetic means.
Available in the form of epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine hydrotartrate.
Adrenaline hydrochloride (Adrenalini hydrochloridum).
Synonyms: Adrenalinum hydrochloricum, Epinephrini hydrochloridum, Epinephrine Hydrochloride.
White or slightly pink crystalline powder. It changes under the influence of light and oxygen. For medical use, it is available in the form of a 0.1% solution (Solutio Adrenalini hydrochloridi 0.1%).
The solution is prepared with the addition of 0.01 N. hydrochloric acid solution. Preserved by chlorobutanol and sodium metabisulfite; pH 3, 0 - 3, 5.
The solution is colorless, transparent. Solutions cannot be heated; they are prepared under aseptic conditions.
Adrenaline hydrotartrate (Adrenalini hydrotartras),
Synonyms: Adrenalinum hydrotartaricum, Epinephrini bitartras, Epinephrine bitartrate.
Crystal powder, white or grayish-white. Easily changes under the influence of light and oxygen. Easily soluble in water, little in alcohol.
Aqueous solutions (pH 3, 0 - 4, 0) are more stable than solutions of epinephrine hydrochloride. Sterilized at +100 C for 15 minutes.
According to the action of adrenaline, hydrotartrate does not differ from adrenaline hydrochloride. Due to the difference in relative molecular weight (333, 3 for hydrotartrate and 219, 66 for hydrochloride), hydrotartrate is used in a larger dose.
The action of adrenaline when introduced into the body is associated with the effect on a - and b-adrenergic receptors and in many respects coincides with the effects of excitation of sympathetic nerve fibers. 0n causes a narrowing of the vessels of the organs of the abdominal cavity, skin and mucous membranes; to a lesser extent narrows the vessels of skeletal muscles. Blood pressure rises. However, the pressor effect of adrenaline in connection with the excitation of β-adrenoreceptors is less constant than the effect of norepinephrine. Changes in cardiac activity are complex: stimulating the adrenoreceptors of the heart, adrenaline contributes to a significant increase and increase in heart rate; at the same time, however, in connection with reflex changes due to an increase in blood pressure, the center of the vagus nerves is excited, which have an inhibitory effect on the heart; as a result, cardiac activity may slow down. Cardiac arrhythmias may occur, especially in conditions of hypoxia.
Adrenaline causes relaxation of the muscles of the bronchi and intestines, expansion of the pupils (due to contraction of the radial muscles of the iris with adrenergic innervation). Under the influence of adrenaline, there is an increase in blood glucose and increased tissue metabolism.