Description of the medicine: Amyl nitrite (Amylii nitris)
AMILNITrite (Amylii nitris).
Isoamyl ester of nitrous acid.
Synonyms: Amylium nitrosum, Amylis nitris, Isomilnitrit, Pentamylon, Vaporole.
Transparent yellowish, easily mobile, very volatile liquid of a fruit smell. Highly flammable. Very slightly soluble in water; mixes in all proportions with alcohol, ether, chloroform. Density 0.869 - 0.879.
Amyl nitrite is the main representative of organic nitrites. Back in the late 60s of the last century, the property of this compound was discovered to cause expansion of blood vessels upon inhalation of vapors and stop attacks of angina pectoris (angina pectoris).
Already in those years, it was recommended that patients with angina pectoris moisten a piece of tissue with a few drops (5-10) of amyl nitrite and inhale its vapor. The drug began to act after 30-60 s. Along with the cessation of sternal pain, reddening of the face was noted and headache developed (in connection with the expansion of the vessels of the brain).
With the advent of nitroglycerin and the discovery of its effectiveness in angina pectoris, amyl nitrite, in connection with severe side effects and a short duration of action, was prescribed less frequently.
Currently, amyl nitrite as an antianginal agent is practically not used. Only in exceptional cases, in the absence of other antianginal agents, can it be temporarily used to relieve angina attacks.
At the same time, amyl nitrite has found application as an antidote for poisoning with hydrocyanic acid and its salts, which is explained by the ability of amyl nitrite (and other nitrites) to form methemoglobin in the blood, which binds CN ion, and to prevent damage to tissue respiratory enzymes.
Amyl nitrite is used by inhalation after applying it to a handkerchief, a small piece of cotton wool or gauze. Assign to adults 2 to 3 drops, children (over 5 years) - 1 to 2 drops.
Higher doses for adults (for inhalation): single 0.1 ml (6 drops); daily 0.5 ml (30 drops).
In case of cyanide poisoning, it is used repeatedly in the above doses (up to a total dose of 0.5 - 1 ml).
Contraindications are the same as for nitroglycerin.
Release form: in ordinary ampoules and in ampoules with a cotton-gauze braid (0.5 ml each). Opening of the ampoules is accompanied by a slight explosion due to the vapor pressure generated in the ampoule during storage and heating. Amyl nitrite vapors form explosive mixtures with air.
Storage: List B. In sealed ampoules in a cool, dark place.