Description medications: amyl nitrite (Amylii nitris)
Amyl nitrite (Amylii nitris).
Isoamyl ester of nitrous acid.
Cinonimy: Amylium nitrosum, Amylis nitris, Isomilnitrit, Pentamylon, Vaporole.
Transparent yellowish-flowing, highly volatile liquid fruity smell. Highly flammable. Very little is soluble in water; miscible in all proportions with alcohol, ether, chloroform. The density of 0.869 - 0.879.
Amyl nitrite is the main representative of organic nitrites. Back in the late 60s of the last century it has been found to cause a property of this compound by inhalation dilation of blood vessels and stop attacks of angina pectoris (angina).
Already in those years, it was recommended that patients with angina pectoris wet piece of cloth with a few drops (5 - 10) amyl nitrite and inhale its vapors. The drug takes effect within 30 - 60 seconds. Simultaneously with the termination of chest pain was noted redness of the face and developed a headache (due to the expansion of the brain).
With the discovery of nitroglycerin and its effectiveness in strokes, amyl nitrite due to the severe side effects and short duration of action, were appointed less.
Currently, amyl nitrite as an antianginal agent almost never used. Only in exceptional cases, in the absence of other antianginal drugs, it can be temporarily used for the relief of angina attacks.
However, amyl nitrite, found application as an antidote for poisoning by hydrocyanic acid and its salts, due to the ability of amyl nitrite (nitrite and others) to form methemoglobin in the blood, binding ion CN, and warn that destruction of tissue respiratory enzymes.
Apply amyl nitrite by inhalation after applying it on the handkerchief, a small piece of cotton or gauze. Assign an adult to 2 - 3 drops, children (over 5 years) - 1 - 2 drops.
Higher doses for adults (for inhalation): single 0.1 mL (6 drops); daily 0.5 ml (30 drops).
When cyanide poisoning it is used repeatedly in the above doses (up to a total dose of 0.5 - 1 ml).
Indications are the same as for nitroglycerin.
Product: Conventional ampoules and vials with a cotton-gauze braiding (0.5 ml). Autopsy ampoules accompanied by a slight explosion due to vapor pressure generated in the vial during storage and heating. amilnitrita pairs form explosive mixtures with air.
Storage: List B. In sealed ampoules in a cool, dark place.