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Kiev (Kyiv, Kyiv) is the capital of Ukraine

Content:
Панорамы Киева
Kiev flag
Флаг Киева
Coat of arms of Kiev
Герб Киева
A country
Ukraine
Status
capital
Coordinates 50 ° 27'00 "n. 30 ° 30'00" in. d. / 50.45 ° s. w. 30.5 ° in d.
Internal division
10 districts
Mayor
Vitaliy Klichko
Founded
VI – VII century
First mention
[[con V— beg. VI centuries n e.]]
City with
IX century
Area
870.5 km2
Highest point
203 m
Population
- 2 888 470 people
Density
^ 3408 people / km2
Agglomeration
Kiev agglomeration
4 071 000
National composition
(according to the 2001 census) Ukrainians - 82.2%,
Russians - 13.1%
Jews - 0.7%
Belarusians - 0.6%,
Poles - 0.3%
Confessional composition
Orthodox, Protestants, Greek Catholics, Catholics, Muslims, Jews
Ethno-burial
Kiev, Kiev, Kiev
Timezone
UTC + 2, in summer UTC + 3
Telephone code
+380 44
Postal codes
01000 - 06999
Car code
AA, KA / 11, 28, AI, KI / 10
KOATUU
8,000,000,000
Official site
kievcity.gov.ua (Ukrainian)
Awards
Hero CityThe order of LeninThe order of LeninOrder of Friendship of Peoples
Patron saint
archangel Michael
Informal names
Mother of Russian Cities, New Jerusalem

Kiev

Kiev (Ukrainian Kyiv, pronounced [kyyiv]) is the capital of Ukraine, a hero city, "mother of Russian cities."

Kiev is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, a hero city. Located on the Dnieper River. It is the center of the Kiev metropolitan area. Kiev is a separate administrative-territorial unit of Ukraine, a cultural, political, socio-economic, transport and scientific and government center of the country. Kiev is also the administrative center of the Kiev region, although it is not part of it, having a special legal status (see section 5 of this article). Located in the north of central Ukraine. Kiev is the seventh most populated city in Europe after Moscow, London, Paris, St. Petersburg, Berlin and Madrid.

Kiev is located on both banks of the Dnieper, in its middle course, below the confluence of the left tributary - the Desna. The northern part of the city is located on the Podolsk lowland, the southwestern (right-bank) - on the Dnieper Upland, the south-eastern (left-bank) - on the Dnieper Lowland.

The climate of Kiev is temperate continental, with fairly mild winters and warm summers.

Over its long history, Kiev has been the capital of the glades, Kievan Rus, the Principality of Kiev, the Ukrainian People’s Republic, the Ukrainian Power, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and since 1991 - independent Ukraine.

The city has its own emblem and flag. Due to its historical significance as the center of Kievan Rus, the city is still called the “Mother of Russian Cities”. The length of the city from north to south is 50 km, from west to east - 56 km.

Symbols of Kiev - The modern coat of arms of Kiev. The main element of the coat of arms of Kiev - the figure of the archangel Michael is found on the seals and coins of the Kiev princes (where he usually depicts the prince himself). One of the first surviving images of the Kiev coat of arms with the image of an angel holding a sword in his hand is in the Titular of 1672, the same coat of arms is also given in the coat of arms of 1730.

Symbols of the Region - In the azure shield with a green base, Saint Yuri George on a white horse in gold armor and helmet, a purple cloak with a spear in his hands and a halo around his head. The rider pierces with a spear a brown snake with folded krill. The shield is decorated with two oak branches with green leaves and brown acorns, as well as six wheat spikelets, which are symmetrically placed in three spikelets on both sides of the shield. Above the shield is a diadem that has nine segments. In the central segment of the diadem is an image of Christ the Savior with a halo. In the segments to the right of Christ the Savior is the image of the Holy Prince Vladimir with a halo over his head, behind him - Prince Yaroslav the Wise. In the segments to the left of Christ the Savior is the image of the Holy Princess Olga with a halo over her head, behind her is Anna Yaroslavna. In segments 3 and 4, a stylized ornament is depicted to the right and left of Christ the Savior.

Since 1960, the city has a subway.

In 2005, Kiev became the venue for the 50th Eurovision Song Contest.

In 2012, it was one of four Ukrainian cities hosting the 2012 European Football Championship.

Title

origin of name

According to one legend, the name of the city comes from the name of Kiy - the eldest of the three brothers, who, according to legend, are considered the founders of Kiev. This legend has come down to us in the 12th century chronicle “The Tale of Bygone Years”:

Происхождение названия Киев

There is another hypothesis of the origin of the name of the city. Kiev is so named because its first inhabitants were workers (kiyans, kiyans), who served the crossing of the Dnieper. The crossing was a wooden flooring on pillars (cues) driven into the bottom. The Tale of Bygone Years says:

Происхождение названия Киев

The chronicler justified it as follows:

Происхождение названия Киев

A curious version of the origin of the name of the city is given by the Slavic chronicle of Helmold:

“The Danes also call Russia Ostrogard for the reason that, being located in the east, it is replete with all the blessings. She is also called Hunigard, because the Huns first lived in these places ... ... Her main city is Hue. "

Features of transliteration of the name into other languages

In Slavic languages, the second vowel in the name of this city varies significantly, which in some cases is due to the peculiarities of the formation of the adjective on behalf of Kiy. For example, in Russian, the city is called Kiev, in Polish - Kijow ([? Cijuf]), in Serbian and Croatian - Kijev, etc. Since Kiev was a part of the Russian Empire and the USSR for a long time, the name of the city was assimilated in non-Slavic languages ​​through Russian: English Kiev, German Kiew, etc. After Ukraine gained independence, the authorities ordered the Ukrainian names of all proper names to be used as a basis for their transmission using "English means", despite the prevailing traditions of this language. This affected, in particular, the English name of Kiev: as a result, the word Kyiv appeared, which, however, is unusual for English speakers and therefore is used less often by them than Kiev.

Story

Крещение киевлян, К. Лебедев
Золотые ворота Киев

Archaeological excavations show that settlements on the territory of the Kiev region already existed 15,000-25,000 years ago. The Neolithic and Eneolithic period (copper age) is represented by the Tripoli culture, the monuments and periods of which the researchers divide into three stages: early (4500–3500), middle (3500–2750) and late (2750–2000 BC). For the period of the Bronze Age, the territories of the southwestern part are characterized by Belogrudov culture. Zarubinets culture is characteristic of the north-west of the Kiev region of the second half of the 1st millennium BC. e. - the first half of I thousand n. e.

The Iron Age in the territory of modern Kiev and the Kiev region is represented by the Chernyakhov archaeological culture, which is also called the "Kiev culture" and which existed at the turn of the 2nd — 3rd centuries. - the turn of the IV — V centuries. in the forest-steppe and steppe from the Lower Danube in the west to the left bank of the Dnieper and Chernihiv in the east.

There is a legend that Kiev was founded by three brothers Kiy, Schek and Horeb and sister Lybed as the center of the meadow tribe. Named after an older brother. The Armenian version of the Kiev legend is contained in the work of Zenob Glack - “The History of Taron”, which speaks of the founding of Quar (Kiev) in the country of half-glades (glades) Quar, Mentei and Herean. According to Boris Rybakov, the legend about the foundation of Kiev by Kiem and his brothers in the land of the glades developed in the most glade, Slavic land once before the year 737. According to some archaeological studies, the first urban settlement appeared in the VI century.

According to the annalistic legend, at the end of the 9th century in Kiev reigned warriors of the Varangian Rurik, Varangians Askold and Dir; in 882, Kiev was conquered by a relative of Rurik, Prince Novgorod of Novgorod, who moved his residence there, saying: “wake up mt (s) to the city of Ruskm”. From that moment, Kiev became the capital of the new state - the so-called. Kievan Rus. The Byzantine emperor Konstantin Bagryanorodny, who wrote in the middle of the 10th century, noted that Kiev had a second name - Samvatas. It was probably either the ancient name of the city, or its designation in a non-Slavic environment. The word, perhaps, comes from the Khazar language and in this case can mean "upper fortifications." Among Eastern authors, as well as some European and Jewish writers, Kiev was called Mankerman.

Свержение памятника Столыпину в Киеве, 1917 г. (на нынешней площади Независимости)

The results of some archaeological excavations are interpreted in such a way that supposedly already in the VI-VII centuries. settlements on the right bank of the Dnieper can be considered urban. This concept, reinforced by the celebration in 1982 of the 1500th anniversary of Kiev, was considered as generally accepted. However, some researchers indicate that the discovered archaeological sources do not provide sufficient grounds for an advanced interpretation. In contrast to the "jubilee concept", some historians and archaeologists believe, as before, that the formation of Kiev as a city took place in the VIII-X centuries. Only at the end of this period did individual settlements merge into a single urban settlement.

In Kievan Rus, the ownership of the Kiev grand-princely table belonged (at least theoretically) to a senior of the kind and ensured supreme power over the specific princes. Kiev remained the real political center of Kievan Rus, at least until the death of Vladimir Monomakh and his son Mstislav the Great (in 1132). During the period of fragmentation, Kiev formally continued to be considered the eldest table of Russia and served as a constant object of struggle between strong Russian princes [16]. A serious blow to the city was inflicted by the defeat of the army of Vladimir Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky in 1169 and Smolensk Prince Rurik Rostislavovich in 1203. In 1240, Kiev was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars.

Since November 1917, Kiev repeatedly passed from hand to hand, the power was constantly changing:

  • On November 7 (20), 1917, the Ukrainian Central Council took power in the city.
  • On January 16 (29), 1918, the January Bolshevik uprising began. The uprising was crushed on January 22 (February 4), 1918, the independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed - Kiev became its capital.
  • January 26 (February 8) 1918 the city was captured by the troops of Soviet Russia. The Red Terror, the establishment of Soviet power in the city.
  • March 1, 1918 the capture of the city by Ukrainian troops under the command of S.V. Petlyura. The return to the city of the government of the Central Council.
  • April 29, 1918 the overthrow of the Central Council by the German troops and the proclamation of Hetman of Ukraine P.P. Skoropadsky.
  • December 14, 1918 the capture of Kiev by the troops of the Ukrainian People's Republic under the command of S.V. Petlyura.
  • February 5, 1919 the entry into Kiev of the Red Army.
  • August 31, 1919 (morning) the entry into Kiev of the Galician army and the army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic (the red troops left the city on August 30);
  • August 31, 1919 (afternoon) the entry into the city of troops of the Volunteer Army of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia and the retreat of the Ukrainian troops from Kiev.
  • October 14, 1919 the capture of the city by the Red Army.
  • On October 16, 1919, the Volunteer Army recaptured the city.
  • December 16, 1919 the capture of Kiev by the Red Army.
  • On May 7, 1920, units of the Polish Army entered Kiev.
  • June 12, 1920 the capture of Kiev by the Red Army.
  • Since June 12, 1920, it finally became part of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1934, by decision of the Council of People's Commissars of Ukraine, the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkov to Kiev.
  • On September 19, 1941, the 37th Army of the Red Army, defending the city, left it and began to break through from the encirclement. On the same day, troops of the 6th German army entered Kiev.
  • November 5, 1943 in the morning the Wehrmacht began the withdrawal of troops from the city. By the morning of November 6, Kiev was liberated by the Red Army.
  • In 1951, the first MESM computer in the USSR and continental Europe was created in Kiev.
  • Since December 1991, Kiev has been the capital of independent Ukraine.

Physico-geographical characteristic

Climate

The average annual temperature is +8.4 C °

The average annual wind speed is 2.5 m / s

The average annual humidity is 74%

The total duration of sunshine per year is 1927 hours, or 43% of the possible.

The climate of Kiev (norm 1981-2010)
Indicator Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct But I Dec Year
Absolute maximum, ° C 11.1 17.3 22.4 30,2 33.6 35.0 39,4 39.9 33.8 27.9 23,2 14.7 39.9
Average maximum, ° C -0.9 0,0 5,6 14.0 20.7 23.5 25.6 24.9 19.0 12.5 4.9 0,0 12.5
Average temperature, ° C -3.5 -3 1.8 9.3 15,5 18.5 20.5 19.7 14.2 8.4 1.9 -2.3 8.4
Average minimum ° C -5.8 -5.7 -1.4 5.1 10.8 14.2 16.1 15,2 10,2 4.9 0,0 -4.6 4.9
Absolute minimum, ° C -31.1 -32.2 -24.9 -10.4 -2.4 2,4 5.8 3.3 -2.9 -17.8 -21.9 -thirty -32.2
Precipitation rate, mm 36 39 36 46 57 82 72 61 58 40 48 44 619

Administrative division

The city consists of 10 districts on the right and left banks of the Dnieper.

Административное деление Киев
Панорама города Киев
Area Orig. name Area, km? Population Density, people / km?
Right bank of the Dnieper:
Goloseevsky district Golosіїvskiy district 156 228 130 1462
Solomensky district Solom'yansky District 40 335 563 8389
Svyatoshinsky district Svyatoshinsky district 101 326 421 3232
Obolonsky district Obolonsky district 110 311 173 2829
Podolsky district Podilskyi district 34 185,609 5459
Pechersk district Pechersk district 27 133,762 4954
Shevchenkivskyi district Shevchenkivskyi district 25 222 804 8912
Left bank of the Dnieper:
Darnytskyi district Darnitsky district 134 301 752 2252
Dniprovskyi district Dniprovskyi district 67 342,945 5119
Desnianskyi district Desnianskyi district 148 351 193 2373

Approved by the Kiev Council, the “General Development Plan of Kiev until 2020” provides for the expansion of the capital region, which will include the areas of the Kiev region:

  • Baryshevsky, Borodyansky, Brovarsky, Vasilkovsky, Vyshgorodsky, Kiev Svyatoshinsky, Makarovsky, Fastovsky;
  • A number of satellite cities, including Boryspil, Boyark, Butch, Brovary, Vasilkov, Vishnevoe, Vyshgorod, Irpen, Fastov.

Special legal status of the city

Площадь Независимости

According to Art. 133 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the city of Kiev, as the capital of Ukraine, has a special status determined by the Law of Ukraine "On the capital of Ukraine - the hero-city of Kiev" and is not subject to regional leadership (the city of Sevastopol enjoys the same rights in Ukraine). According to the specified Law and its interpretation by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, the head of the Kiev city state administration (Kyiv City State Administration) automatically becomes the Kiev mayor, who is elected in direct elections by achieving the highest number of votes cast by the voters who participated in the elections.

Authorities

Администрация президента
In May 2008, during the elections to the city council, 120 deputies were elected:
  • 43 deputies from the Chernovetsky Bloc,
  • 32 - from the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko,
  • 15 - from Block Klitschko,
  • 11 - from the Lytvyn People’s Bloc,
  • 8 - from the Civil Asset of Kiev,
  • 6 - from the Party of Regions,
  • 5 - from the Block of Nikolai Katerinchuk.

In 2010, the functions of the mayor and the chairman of the Kiev city state administration were divided. Leonid Chernovetsky remained the mayor of Kiev, and, by decree of the President of Ukraine, Alexander Popov was appointed head of the Kyiv City State Administration. The deputies were Ruslan Kramarenko, Alexander Puzanov, Alexander Meshcheryakov, Alexander Mazurchak, Anatoly Golubchenko, Leonid Novokhatko, Victor Sivets.

On June 3, 2012, Galina Fyodorovna Gerega, secretary of the Kiev city council, became the acting mayor of Kiev.

Population

Площадь Независимости Киев
At the end of the 18th century, the population was about 30,000 people. According to the 2001 census, 2,611,300 residents lived in Kiev. Currently, the population is growing on average by 20 thousand people per year. From January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2010, the population of Kiev grew by 174 thousand people. As of June 1, 2012, 2,814,577 people live in Kiev. The natural population growth of the city is positive, its value is significantly higher than in the country as a whole (+2.2 people per thousand versus -4.17 in Ukraine as a whole) and this is one of the highest population growth rates in Ukraine after Transcarpathian and Rivne regions (+3.7 and +2.4 respectively). According to the Institute of Demography and Social Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine at the beginning of 2009, the actual population of Kiev was 3,144.3 thousand people, which is 420 thousand more than the population at that time according to official statistics.

National composition

According to the results of the general census of Kiev, held at the end of 1917, Russians lived in Kiev, 54.7% of the total population; Jews - 19.0%; Ukrainians - 12.2%. In total, representatives of 68 nationalities lived in Kiev.

At the beginning of the XXI century, the share of Ukrainians in Kiev as an indigenous nationality increased from 72.5% in 1989 to 82.2% in 2001. At the same time, the number of other nationalities decreased. The Russian diaspora has decreased the most, from 536.2 thousand people (20.9%) in 1989 to 337.3 thousand people (13.1%) in 2001. The number of Belarusians (1989 - 25.3 thousand people, 2001 - 16.5 thousand people) and Poles (1989 - 10.4 thousand people, 2001 - 6.9 thousand people) also decreased. By the beginning of the XXI century, the process of emigration of Jews was completed (from 1989 to 2001, the absolute number of Jews in Kiev decreased from 100.6 to 17.9 thousand people, and their share in the population of the city decreased from 13.9% in 1959 to 0.7 % in 2001).

According to the 2001 census, the city’s population was 82.2% Ukrainian and 13.1% Russian. In a survey conducted in November 2006, 83% of the city residents called themselves Ukrainians, 14% - Russians, 3% - Jews, Armenians, and representatives of other nationalities.

Language situation

The linguistic history of Kiev is complex and contradictory. In many ways, it is a reflection of its long and rather controversial history, as well as various changes in the language policy of recent centuries. Thus, commenting on the results of the first census of 2001, the magazine Demoscope called Kiev “rather Ukrainian-speaking (at least, wishing to seem such)”. According to the latest census of 2001, 72.1% of Kiev called their native language Ukrainian, 25.3% - Russian. This ratio has changed a lot since the last Soviet census of 1989. Moreover, according to the majority of opinion polls, the predominant language of everyday communication of more than half of the city's residents is Russian. Only 12-18% of citizens use mostly or exclusively Ukrainian. Moreover, Russian-Ukrainian bilingualism is also widespread. About a third of respondents use both languages ​​equally. Intense mixing of two closely related languages, which led to the appearance of the so-called surzhik, was noted in Kiev from the second quarter of the nineteenth century.

Religion

Андреевская церковь
Михайловский златоверхий собор
In 2007, there were 719 religious communities in Kiev, among them the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate - 177, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate - 91, Jehovah's Witnesses - 49, Baptists - 45, Christians of the Evangelical Faith - 40, UAOC - 24, Seventh-day Adventists - 21, Pentecostals - 15, UGCC - 9, Muslims - 8, Roman Catholic Church - 8, Jews - 7, Old Believers ROCC - 1 and at least 4 unregistered Buddhist communities.

As of July 1, 2009, 1067 religious organizations are officially registered and operating in Kiev. Among them: 813 religious communities, 44 spiritual centers, 21 directorates, 106 missions, 21 fraternities, 41 religious educational institutions and 21 monasteries.

In a survey conducted in November 2006, 64% of Kiev residents called themselves believers, 9% identified themselves as believers in supernatural powers, 19% did not determine their religious affiliation, 8% were atheists. Religious services and institutions regularly visit 11% of all respondents, 64% - occasionally. From 23% (fortune telling and predictions) to 52% (talismans) believe in various superstitions.

Temples

In Kiev, the first stone church of Kievan Rus was built - the Tithe Church. The most famous churches in Kiev are St. Sophia Cathedral and churches of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, as well as St. Michael and St. Vladimir Cathedrals, St. Andrew's Church, Vydubitsky Monastery, Florovsky Monastery. There are 7 synagogues in Kiev.

Since 2004, the area around the Ar-Rahma mosque has been expanding to build an entire Islamic complex. In 2009, construction began on the first minaret in Kiev.

Education

Since the 9th century, Kiev has been an important center for the intellectual development of Eastern Europe. Since the end of the XVII century, the Kiev-Mohyla Academy has trained many famous scientists. However, the first modern European-style university was founded by decree of Nicholas I in 1834, as the Kiev Imperial University of St. Vladimir. Kiev University became the seventh university of the Russian Empire. And today Kiev is one of the largest centers of science and education in Ukraine. Kiev has a large number of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions, including several universities of international importance, in particular, the three most prestigious universities of Ukraine: Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, National

In Kiev there are about 350 schools, more than 100 gymnasiums and lyceums, about 70 universities, including:

  • Kiev National University of Economics
  • National Transport University
  • National Aviation University
  • Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture (KISI)
  • National Pedagogical University named after M.P. Drahomanova
  • State University of Information and Communication Technologies
  • National University “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”
  • Kiev Conservatory
  • Institute of Advertising
  • Kiev National Linguistic University (INYAZ)
  • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)
  • National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
  • Kiev National University of Internal Affairs
  • Kiev art academy
  • National Medical University named after O. O. Bogomolets
  • International Solomon University
  • National University of Physical Education and Sports of Ukraine (INFIZ)
  • Kiev National University of Theater, Film and Television named after I.K. Karpenko-Kary
  • Kiev National University of Culture and Arts
  • Kiev National University of Technology and Design
  • National University of Food Technology
  • Kiev University of Market Relations
  • Kiev National University of Trade and Economics
  • Kyiv University named after Boris Grinchenko

Industry

Бульвар Шевченко
Kiev is a large industrial center of Ukraine. The city has many sectors of the national economy: light and food industries, printing, engineering, metallurgy, and aircraft manufacturing.

The main enterprises:

  • Beer factory Obolon
  • Kiev shipbuilding plant
  • Kiev jewelry factory
  • Kiev Vitamin Plant
  • Pharmacological enterprise "Darnitsa"
  • ANTK them. Antonova
  • Kiev Mechanical Plant
  • Kiev factory of champagne wines "Stolichny"
  • New buildings of Kiev
  • Kiev Automation Plant
  • Kiev factory "Bolshevik"
  • Kiev factory "Lenin Forge"
  • OJSC "Kievkhimvolokno"
  • Kiev factory of special machinery
  • CJSC Rostock
  • Kiev factory of building materials
  • SE "Petrel"
  • LLC PTK "Agromat"
  • Otis CJSC (Kiev Elevator Plant)
  • 410 Civil Aviation Plant
  • Kiev State Mechanical Plant
  • Kiev mechanical repair plant
  • Kiev Aviation Plant "AVIANT"

Economic indicators

Новостройки Киева
N indicator units value in 2006
one Export of goods million $ 4,398.3
2 Beats weight in all-Ukrainian % 11.5
3 Import of goods million $ 17573.0
four Beats weight in all-Ukrainian % 39.0
5 Balance export-import million $ ? 13174.7
6 Capital investment million UAH 29946.5
7 average salary UAH (on 09/01/09) 3250
8 average salary $ (as of September 1, 2009) 406

Based on the materials of the Committee of Statistics of Ukraine.

Transport

Министерство инфраструктуры Украины
Kiev is a major transport hub (railways and highways; river port; airports). Since 1960, the subway operates. The bus, trolleybus and tram networks are developed, the funicular works.

Air

There are three airports in Kiev:

  • Boryspil International Airport (located southeast of Kiev, in the city of Boryspil, Kiev region)
  • Kiev International Airport (Zhuliany)
  • Gostomel Airport (Antonov Cargo Airport)

The Svyatoshin experimental aerodrome is also located in the city (the test aerodrome of the Kiev Aviant Aviation Plant). In the vicinity of the city there are also military airdromes in the cities of Vasilkov, Uzin, Bila Tserkva. The plans for the use of Vasilkov and Bila Tserkva airdromes as passenger airports were repeatedly discussed. A number of small airdromes are located near the city: Chaika (former DOSAAF base, parachute base, sports aviation), Buzovaya (glider base), Valley (sports aviation), Nalyvaykovka (sports aviation), Byshev, Borodyanka (parachute base), Kiev-Yuzhny (Combs, agricultural. Aviation, parachute base, helicopters), etc.

В районе ст. м. «Левобережная»

Railway

Kiev is a major railway junction. In Kiev, there is the main department of the South-Western Railway. The central railway station is Kiev Passenger. Five main lines converge in Kiev in the directions of Fastov, Korosten, Nezhin, Grebenki, Mironovka. Also in Kiev passes the "Northern Ring", which runs from the station. Borshchagovka and Art. Svyatoshin through Art. Kiev-Petrovka and Kiev-Dneprovsky to the station. Darnitsa. All trunk lines are electrified. There is a departmental non-electrified railway line from the station. Kiev-Petrovka to Vyshgorod. A suburban diesel train runs several times a day along it.

In 2009, the first phase of the city electric train was launched; from October 4, 2011, trains run along the entire length of the city ring, with transfers to all subway lines.

Train stations:

  • Kiev Passenger
  • South Station
  • Suburban Station
  • Karavaevy Dachi (suburban)
  • Darnitsky Train Station
  • Kiev-Moscow

According to the plans of Russian Railways and Ukrzaliznitsy for 2015, it is planned to launch a high-speed train with the Moscow-Kiev connection. The maximum speed of the train will be 250 kilometers per hour, and the trip time between the two capitals will not exceed 4 hours.

Улица Вадима Гетьмана в Киеве

River

Kiev river port was built in July 1897. Port marinas stretch from the harbor to the Dnipro metro station. Cargo and passenger transportation along the Dnieper was carried out by the shipping company Ukrrichflot. In Soviet times, passenger transportation was unprofitable, but subsidized by the state. After the privatization of Ukrrichflot on November 11, 1992, the volume of traffic began to fall, while passenger ships and vessels were sold abroad, and went to scrap. Today, along the Dnieper for passengers, excursion routes are carried out only in the Kiev region. In 2009, a type of public transport forgotten for Kiev was launched - the so-called “river tram”, for communication between the right and left banks of Kiev. The tram runs only in the warm season. The Dnieper is used to transport bulky goods.

Underground

The construction of the metro in Kiev began in 1949, the first section was opened on November 6, 1960. Today there are three lines (Svyatoshinsko-Brovarskaya, Kurenevsko-Krasnoarmeyskaya, Syretsko-Pecherskaya) with a total length of 65.18 km with 50 stations. The subway carries about 1.422 million passengers daily (as of 2011). Metro stations of the first stage are architectural monuments.

A bridge is being built across the river. The Dnieper on the future fourth line - Podolsk-Vigurovskaya, the fifth is being designed - the Vyshgorod-Darnitskaya line. In 2010-2011, four stations were opened on the Kurenev-Krasnoarmeyskaya line - Demievskaya, Goloseevskaya and Vasilkovskaya and the Exhibition Center. The construction of the Kurenev-Krasnoarmeyskaya line in the direction of Teremkov continues.

Tram

Kiev is the first city of the Russian Empire in which an electric tram appeared. The first line with a length of 1.5 km was opened on June 1 (13), 1892 along Alexander Descent (now Vladimir Descent) and Alexandrovskaya Street (Sagaidachnogo Street). In 1978, the first light rail line in the USSR was opened in Kiev from Victory Square to the Borshchagovka housing estate.

1990 was the culmination of the development of the tram network - the total length of the lines was 275.9 km, the production base was 904 passenger tram cars, the annual traffic volume reached 438 million people. Since the mid-1990s, the tram system has gradually fallen into decline, in 2005 the corresponding figures decreased to 258.3 km and 509 tram cars, the annual traffic amounted to about 175.6 million. After the reconstruction of the Paton Bridge in 2004, the city tram network was broken into two separate parts - left-bank and right-bank.

Нижняя станция фуникулёра

Funicular

The funicular was built as an effective way to shorten the path from the Upper Town to Podil. It was commissioned in May 1905. The length of its path was 193 m. It was reconstructed in 1928 (extended by 38 m), 1958 and 1984.

Trolley bus

Work on the organization of trolleybus traffic in Kiev began in 1934 with the return to Kiev the status of the capital. The first trolleybus route was st. Krasnoarmeyskaya (Chervonoarmіyska - Ukrainian).

The rolling stock is represented mainly by Skoda 14Tr, K12, YuMZ, ElectroLAZ-12, ElectroLAZ-20, MAZ-103T and Bogdan machines.

For 2000, 35 trolleybus routes were operating in Kiev. The total length of trolleybus lines is 324.9 km, the fleet consists of 640 cars. Since May 2006, the number of trolleybus routes has reached 44. As of December 2010, 37 routes were operating. There are 4 trolleybus depots.

Bus

For the first time, they tried to launch regular bus traffic in Kiev back in 1913. In fact, the full-fledged work of the bus began in 1925. Then on the only route 2 buses worked. Now in Kiev there are about 90 municipal bus routes. The number of buses exceeds 700 units. There are 8 bus fleets.

Route taxi

In Kiev, parallel to most municipal transport lines, there are taxi lines. Also, minibus lines connect the city with the suburbs. Shuttle taxi lines are operated by private trucking companies and public utility vehicles.

Housing estates and other areas

Небоскрёб в Киеве
  • Akademgorodok
  • Air town
  • Askold's Grave
  • Bagrinova Gora
  • Baykovo
  • Batyeva Gora
  • Squirrel
  • Birch trees
  • Berestovo
  • Bortnichi
  • Borshchagovka
  • Brotherly Borshchagovka
  • Bykovnya
  • Wind mountains
  • Vigurovschina-Troyeshchina
  • Winegrower
  • Vita
  • Resurrected
  • Vydubychi
  • Vyshgorod massif
  • Galagans
  • Water park
  • Goloseev
  • Pears
  • Darnitsa
  • DVRZ
  • ICE
  • Demievka
  • Good way
  • Dear
  • Zabaikovye
  • Menagerie
  • Treasury Cottages
  • Karavaevy Dachi
  • Throw sadness
  • Kitaevo
  • Clov
  • Komsomolsky massif
  • Uprooted
  • Oblique caponier
  • Kurenivka
  • Kuchmin Yar
  • Left Bank massif
  • Forest
  • Sticky
  • Lukyanovka
  • Bald Mountain
  • Microdistrict them. Dzerzhinsky
  • Minsk massif
  • Mikhailovskaya Borshchagovka
  • Mousetrap
  • Nyvky
  • Lower Telichka
  • New Darnitsa
  • Newcomers
  • Obolon
  • Osokorki
  • Vodnikov Island
  • Otradny
  • Pankovshchina
  • Pirogov
  • Pechersk
  • Hem
  • Poznyaki
  • Bridge bridge
  • Predslavino
  • Priorka
  • Pushcha Voditsa
  • Rainbow
  • Rebase
  • Rusanovka
  • Samburki
  • Minesweeper Sloboda
  • Svyatoshino
  • Blue grain
  • Scoops
  • Straw
  • Sotsgorod
  • Old Darnitsa
  • Raw
  • Tatar
  • Teremki
  • Trukhanov Island
  • Feofania
  • Church
  • Tsimbalov Yar
  • Chokolovka
  • Screen
  • Cinder block
  • Shulivka
  • South Borshchagovka
  • Pits

Streets

Арка Дружбы народов
Красноармейская улица, Бессарабка
Андреевский спуск
  • Andrew's Descent
  • Bank street
  • Brest-Litovsk highway
  • Leonid Bykov Boulevard
  • Taras Shevchenko Boulevard
  • Yaroslav Hasek Boulevard
  • Vladimirskaya street
  • Vladimirsky descent
  • Institutskaya street
  • Khreshchatyk
  • Lavra street
  • Lutheran street
  • Moscow avenue
  • Small District Highway (Kiev)
  • Prospect George Gongadze
  • Slotted street
  • Victory Avenue
  • Prospect Lesnoy
  • Reznitskaya street
  • Rylsky Lane
  • Streletskaya street (Kiev)
  • Street of Ivan Mazepa
  • Lajos Gavre Street
  • Timofey Shamrylo Street
  • Street Yaroslavov Val

Ecology

Kiev has a reputation as one of the greenest and cleanest capitals. However, in recent years, in Kiev, as in all major cities, air pollution from automobile exhaust gases has become increasingly relevant. The main air pollutant in Kiev is motor vehicles: it accounts for 83.4% of all harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

Culture and leisure

Театр оперы и балета
Киевская консерватория

There are 27 museums, 25 theaters and studio studios in Kiev (for example, T. Shevchenko National Academic Opera and Ballet Theater of Ukraine, Kiev Municipal Academic Opera and Ballet Theater for Children and Youth, I. Franko National Academic Drama Theater, National Academic Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theater, Podil Theater, Kiev Young Academic Theater, Kiev National Academic Operetta Theater, Kiev State Academic Puppet Theater, Kiev Municipal Academic Theater puppetry, Kiev State Academic Drama and Comedy Theater on the left bank, Kiev Variety Theater, Silver Island Theater).

In Kiev, there is one of the largest planetariums in the CIS.

Kiev is rich in monuments of culture and art. The most important of them are: Golden Gate, St. Sophia Cathedral (XI century), Vydubitsky Monastery (XI century), a complex of structures of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra (XI-XVIII centuries), St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, Florovsky Monastery (beginning of the XVI century. ), the Church of the Savior on Berest (XII century), the baroque Voskresenskaya, Andreevskaya, Pokrovskaya, Trinity churches, painted by Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and others. Vladimir Cathedral (XIX century), restored / painted by Mikhail Vrubel, the Kirill Church (XII century. ), Klovsky and Mariinsky palaces.

Forests, parks and gardens make up more than half of its area. Within the city there are two botanical gardens.

Kiev is rightly called one of the greenest cities in the world (and once it was considered the greenest). The famous Kiev chestnuts, which bloom luxuriously in May, and sometimes twice a year: in spring and autumn, have become one of the symbols of the city.

Large movie centers

  • Leipzig
  • Zhovten
  • "Kiev"
  • "Ukraine"
  • "Kievan Rus"
  • "Butterfly"
  • “Cinema Line”
  • Multiplex
  • "Oscar"
  • Odessa-cinema
  • "Zoryany"
  • "Florence"
  • Leningrad
  • "Russia"
  • IMAX
Национальный музей истории Украины

Architectural monuments

  • Kiev Opera House (1867) - architect I.V. Shtrom.
  • Old Exchange (1873)
  • Central Museum of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (1931) - architect I. Yu. Karakis
  • Vladimir Cathedral - architect I.V. Shtrom.
  • National Historical Museum of Ukraine (1939) - architect I. Yu. Karakis
  • National Bank of Ukraine (1902-1905) - architects Alexander Kobelev and Alexander Verbitsky
  • “House with Chimeras” - architect V.V. Gorodetsky
  • Administration of the President of Ukraine
  • National Academic Drama Theater. Ivan Franco
  • Children's preschool institution No. 1, the so-called "Palace of children's happiness" (1939) - I. Yu. Karakis

Kiev also has the highest lattice structure and the deepest metro station in the world.

Михайловский собор
St. Michael's Cathedral
Золотые ворота
Golden Gate
Большая колокольня Киево-Печерской лавры
The large bell tower of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
Троицкая надвратная церковь Киево-Печерской лавры
Trinity Gate Church of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
Софийский собор
Sophia Cathedral
Дом с химерами
House with Chimeras

Football clubs

  • Arsenal
  • Dynamo
  • Obolon

Great Kiev princes

Николаевский костёл
Родина-мать (Киев)
Владимир I Святославич с сыновьями, Борисом и Глебом

  • Cue, Cheek and Horeb (legendary)
  • Askold and Deer - 864–882 - did not possess the title of Grand Duke.
  • Oleg the Prophetic - 879—912
  • Igor Rurikovich - 913—945
  • Olga (Princess of Kiev) - 945–957
  • Svyatoslav I - 957–972
  • Yaropolk Svyatoslavich - 972—978
  • Vladimir I Svyatoslavich (the Baptist) - 978-1015
  • Svyatopolk I the Cursed - 1015—1016,1018—1019
  • Yaroslav I the Wise - 1016-1018,1019-1054
  • Izyaslav Yaroslavich - 1054-1068.1069-1073.1077-1078
  • Vseslav Polotsky - 1068-1069
  • Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich - 1073-1076
  • Vsevolod Yaroslavich - 1076-1077.1078-1093
  • Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich - 1093-1113
  • Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh - 1113-1125
  • Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great - 1125-1132
  • Yaropolk II Vladimirovich - 1132–1138
  • Vsevolod II Olgovich - 1139–1146
  • Vyacheslav Vladimirovich - 1146-1155 (only nominally, in fact - Izyaslav)
  • Izyaslav II Mstislavich - 1146–1149,1151–1154
  • Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky - 1149-1151.1155-1157
  • Rostislav Mstislavich - 1154–1155
  • Izyaslav III Davydovich - 1157
  • Mstislav II Izyaslavich - 1157–1169
  • Vladimir Mstislavich - in 1167 and 1171 (three months)
  • Gleb II Yuryevich - 1169–1171
  • Roman Rostislavich - 1171–1173 and 1174–1176
  • Rurik Rostislavich - in 1173, 1180–1182,1194–1202,1203–1205,1206–1206,1207–1210
  • Mikhail Yuryevich and Vsevolod III Big Nest - in 1173
  • Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich Chernigovsky in 1173.1177–1180 and 1182–1194
  • Ingvar Yaroslavich - in 1202 and 1214
  • Rostislav Rurikovich - in 1205
  • Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Cherny - 1206-1207 and 1210-1214
  • Mstislav Romanovich the Old - 1214-1224
  • Vladimir Rurikovich - 1224-1235
  • Izyaslav Vladimirovich - 1235-1236
  • Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich - 1236-1238
  • St. Michael Vsevolodovich - 1238—1246
  • Rostislav Mstislavich - in 1240
  • Daniil Romanovich Galitsky - in 1240 (he was not in the city, controlled through the thousands before taking the Tatar-Mongols)
  • Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky - 1246-1263 (as the Grand Duke Vladimir, according to the Khan’s label, was not in the city, the Hordes added to the lot of Vladimir on Klyazma completely destroyed by them and depopulated Kiev

From 1254 to 1320, the title of Grand Duke of Kiev was nominally used by the Russian Kings - the descendants of Daniil Romanovich Galitsky until the suppression of the male dynasty, which, however, despite repeated attempts, failed to expel the Tatar-Mongols from there. At the same time, the city remained practically deserted - the papal legate J. di Plano Carpini, passing Kiev on the way to Saray, noted the presence of the Mongolian tumen (10 thousand horsemen) on the outskirts and not more than a thousand inhabitants in ruins “most in the most cruel slavery of the Mongols” the city itself

D 1320 the throne of Galicia was occupied by the nephew of the last King of Russia Andrei Yurievich on the maternal side, the Mazovian prince from the Piast dynasty Boleslav (in the Orthodox baptism of Yuri) Troidenovich. His relations with both the boyars and the gentry of the region are eloquently testified by the absence in the title of both the kingdom of the Russian and Grand Duchy of Kiev. In the same year, the Kievans, taking advantage of the obviously weakening after the death of Nogai of the Horde pressure, swore allegiance to the Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas

Crime

In 2011, the number of crimes increased by 3.8% compared to 2010. [45]. In general, the crime rate is higher than in Europe, but lower than in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Mayors of Kiev

The first mayor was elected in 1835.

Print media

Popular print media in Kiev, newspapers: Facts and Comments, Today, Komsomolskaya Pravda in Ukraine, Telenedelya.

Leading editions in the field of education: Suchasna Ovita, Work and Study.

In Kiev, more than 40 different newspapers and magazines are printed. The largest circulation has the advertising and informational newspapers "Rio" (circulation 1 100 000 copies), "Kyiv on the valleys" (circulation 1 050 000 copies), "Misto +" (circulation 908 178 copies).

Children's publications: the newspaper "Kazkovy Vecir" (Ukrainian), the magazines Barvinok (Ukrainian), Malyatko (Ukrainian), Professor Craid, Poznayka.

Famous natives

  • Alexander Arkhipenko is a Ukrainian and American artist and sculptor, one of the founders of cubism in sculpture.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov is a Russian writer, author of the novel "The Master and Margarita."
  • Artemy Vedel - composer and singer (tenor) of the 18th century, author of polyphonic church music.
  • Alexander Vertinsky is a Russian pop artist, film actor, composer, poet and singer.
  • Ksenia Derzhinsky - Russian Soviet opera singer (soprano). People's Artist of the USSR.
  • Boris Efimov - Soviet graphic artist, political cartoonist.
  • Milla (Militsa) Jovovich is an American actress of Slavic origin.
  • Serge (Sergey) Lifar is one of the famous dancers of the 20th century. He performed in France and in many other countries.
  • Valery Lobanovsky - Soviet and Ukrainian football player and football coach.
  • Kazimir Malevich - avant-garde artist, founder of Suprematism. The author of the famous "Black Square".
  • Golda Meir (Mabovich) - Israeli political and statesman, ex. head of the government.
  • Victor Nekrasov is a Soviet and Russian writer, author of a number of works that have been sharply criticized by the Soviet authorities.
  • Vaclav Nizhinsky is a Russian dancer and choreographer of Polish descent.
  • Boris Paton - Academician, President of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
  • Igor Sikorsky is a Russian-American aircraft designer, one of the largest figures in the history of aircraft construction. Creator of a modern helicopter.

Rulers buried in Kiev

  • Alexander Arkhipenko is a Ukrainian and American artist and sculptor, one of the founders of cubism in sculpture.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov is a Russian writer, author of the novel "The Master and Margarita."
  • Artemy Vedel - composer and singer (tenor) of the 18th century, author of polyphonic church music.
  • Alexander Vertinsky is a Russian pop artist, film actor, composer, poet and singer.
  • Ksenia Derzhinsky - Russian Soviet opera singer (soprano). People's Artist of the USSR.
  • Boris Efimov - Soviet graphic artist, political cartoonist.
  • Milla (Militsa) Jovovich is an American actress of Slavic origin.
  • Serge (Sergey) Lifar is one of the famous dancers of the 20th century. He performed in France and in many other countries.
  • Valery Lobanovsky - Soviet and Ukrainian football player and football coach.
  • Kazimir Malevich - avant-garde artist, founder of Suprematism. The author of the famous "Black Square".
  • Golda Meir (Mabovich) - Israeli political and statesman, ex. head of the government.
  • Victor Nekrasov is a Soviet and Russian writer, author of a number of works that have been sharply criticized by the Soviet authorities.
  • Vaclav Nizhinsky is a Russian dancer and choreographer of Polish descent.
  • Boris Paton - Academician, President of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
  • Igor Sikorsky is a Russian-American aircraft designer, one of the largest figures in the history of aircraft construction. Creator of a modern helicopter.
  • [edit] Rulers buried in Kiev
  • Balthazar, ruler of the White Huns - one of the Kiev hills ("Kijaw-uruss")
  • Askold, Prince of Kiev - Askold's Grave
  • Deer, Prince of Kiev - behind the Church of St. Irina
  • Oleg the Prophetic, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Duke of Kiev - Schekavitsa
  • Olga, Princess of Kiev - Tithe Church
  • Yaropolk Svyatoslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev - Tithe Church
  • Oleg Svyatoslavich, Prince Drevlyansky - Tithe Church
  • Vladimir Svyatoslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev - Tithe Church
  • Yaroslav Vladimirovich the Wise, Grand Duke of Kiev - Sophia Cathedral
  • Izyaslav Yaroslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev - Sophia Cathedral
  • Yaropolk Izyaslavich, Prince of Volyn and Turov, titular king of Russia - Dmitrov Monastery
  • Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev - Saint Sophia Cathedral
  • Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev - St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
  • Gleb Vseslavich, Prince of Minsk - Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh, Grand Duke of Kiev - Saint Sophia Cathedral
  • Yaropolk Vladimirovich, Grand Duke of Kiev - Yanchin Monastery
  • Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great, Grand Duke of Kiev - Fedorov Monastery
  • Nikolay Svyatosha, Prince Lutsk - Near caves of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky, Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Grand Duke of Kiev - Church of the Savior on Berestov
  • Rostislav Mstislavich, Prince Smolensky and Grand Duke of Kiev - Fedorov Monastery
  • Vladimir Andreevich, Prince Dorogobuzhsky - Yanchin Monastery
  • Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, Prince of Chernigov and Grand Duke of Kiev - Cyril Church
  • Gleb Yurievich, Prince Turovsky - St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
  • Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Chermny, Prince of Chernigov and Grand Duke of Kiev - Cyril Church
  • Mstislav Mstislavich Udatny, Prince Galitsky - Holy Cross Church
  • Skirgailo, Prince of Kiev and Polotsk, Viceroy Jagiello in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Vladimir Olgerdovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Fedor Danilovich, Prince of Ostrog - Distant caves of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Olelko Vladimirovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Semyon Olelkovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Pyotr Konashevich-Sagaidachny, ataman of the Zaporizhzhya Sich and hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Troops - Kiev-Bratsk Epiphany Monastery
  • Peter Arkadyevich Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire - Kiev Pechersk Lavra
  • Mikhail Sergeevich Grushevsky, Chairman of the Central Council of the Ukrainian People's Republic - Baykovo Cemetery
  • Yuriy Kosmich Glushko-Mova, Head of the Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat - Lukyanovskoye Cemetery
  • Pavlo Grigorievich Tychina, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Demyan Sergeyevich Korotchenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Alexander Evdokimovich Korneychuk, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Mikhail Sergeevich Grechukha, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Ivan Samoilovich Grushetsky, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Alexey Fedoseevich Vatchenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Mikhail Ulyanovich Bely, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Alexander Pavlovich Lyashko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Platon G. Kostyuk, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery

Topographic maps

Map sheet M-36-XIII Kiev. Scale: 1: 200 000. Terrain condition for 1985. 1986 edition

More maps of Kiev >>>