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Kiev (Kiev, Kyiv, Kiev) - the capital of Ukraine

Content:
Панорамы Киева
Kiev flag
Флаг Киева
Coat of arms of Kiev
Герб Киева
A country
Ukraine
Status
capital
Coordinates 50 ° 27'00 "W. 30 ° 30'00" c. d / 50.45 ° c. sh. 30.5 ° c. d.
Internal division
10 districts
Mayor
Vitaliy Klichko
Based
VI — VII century
First mention
[[con. V— beg. VI centuries. n e.]]
City with
IX century
Square
870.5 km2
Highest point
203 m
Population
- 2 888 470 people
Density
^ 3408 person / km2
Agglomeration
Kiev agglomeration
4,071,000
National composition
(according to the 2001 census) Ukrainians - 82.2%,
Russians - 13.1%,
Jews - 0.7%,
Belarusians - 0.6%,
Poles - 0.3%
Confessional composition
Orthodox, Protestants, Greek Catholics, Catholics, Muslims, Jews
Ethno-horonim
Kiev resident, Kiev resident, Kiev residents
Timezone
UTC + 2, in the summer UTC + 3
Telephone code
+380 44
Zip Codes
01000-6999
Car code
AA, KA / 11, 28, AI, KI / 10
Koatuu
8,000,000,000
Official site
kievcity.gov.ua (Ukrainian)
Awards
Hero CityThe order of LeninThe order of LeninOrder of Friendship of Peoples
Patron saint
archangel Michael
Unofficial names
Mother of Russian Cities, New Jerusalem

Kiev

Kiev (Ukrainian Kyiv, pronounced [kiyiv]) is the capital of Ukraine, the hero city, the "mother of Russian cities".

Kiev is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, the hero-city. Located on the Dnieper River. It is the center of Kiev agglomeration. Kiev is a separate administrative-territorial unit of Ukraine, a cultural, political, socio-economic, transport and scientific and governmental center of the country. Kiev is also the administrative center of the Kiev region, although it is not part of it, having a special legal status (see section 5 of this article). Located in the north of the central part of Ukraine. Kiev is the seventh largest city in Europe after Moscow, London, Paris, St. Petersburg, Berlin and Madrid.

Kiev is located on both banks of the Dnieper, in its middle course, below the confluence of the left tributary - the Desna. The northern part of the city is located on the Podolsk lowland, the south-west (right bank) - on the Dnieper Upland, the south-east (left bank) - on the Dnieper lowland.

The climate of Kiev is moderately continental, with a fairly mild winter and warm summer.

During its long history, Kiev was the capital of the glades, Kievan Rus, Kiev principality, the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Ukrainian State, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and since 1991, an independent Ukraine.

The city has its own emblem and flag. Due to its historical significance as the center of Kievan Rus, the city is still called the “Mother of Russian Cities”. The length of the city from north to south is 50 km, from west to east is 56 km.

Symbols of Kiev - The modern emblem of Kiev. The main element of the coat of arms of Kiev - the figure of the Archangel Michael is found on the seals and coins of Kiev princes (where he usually depicts the prince himself). One of the first surviving images of the Kiev coat of arms depicting an angel holding a sword in his hand is in the Titulnik of 1672, the same emblem is also shown in the armorial of 1730.

Symbolism of the Region - In the azure shield with a green base, St. George, George, on a white horse in gold armor and a helmet, a purple cloak with a spear in his hands and a halo around his head. The rider pierces the spear of a brown snake with folded krill. The shield is decorated with two oak branches with green leaves and brown acorns, as well as six spikelets of wheat, which are located symmetrically on three spikelets on both sides of the shield. Above the shield is a tiara that has nine segments. In the central segment of the diadem is an image of Christ the Savior with a halo. In the segments to the right of Christ the Savior - the image of St. Prince Vladimir with a halo over his head, followed by Prince Yaroslav the Wise. In the segments to the left of Christ the Savior - the image of the Holy Princess Olga with a halo over her head, behind her - Anna Yaroslavna. In the 3rd and 4th segments, a stylized ornament is depicted on the right and left of Christ the Savior.

Since 1960, the city has been working underground.

In 2005, Kiev became the venue for the 50th Eurovision Song Contest.

In 2012, he was one of four Ukrainian cities that hosted the European Football Championship 2012.

Title

origin of name

According to one of the legends, the name of the city comes from the name of Kyi, the oldest of the three brothers, who, according to legend, are considered to be the founders of Kiev. This legend reached us in the chronicle of the XII century "The Tale of Bygone Years":

Происхождение названия Киев

There is another hypothesis of the origin of the name of the city. Kiev is so named because its first inhabitants were workers (Kiyans, Kiyans) who served the crossing of the Dnieper. The crossing was a wooden flooring on poles (cues) driven into the bottom. The Tale of Bygone Years says:

Происхождение названия Киев

Chronicler justified it as follows:

Происхождение названия Киев

A curious version of the origin of the name of the city gives the Slavic chronicle of Helmold:

“Dans call Russia also Ostrogard for the reason that, being located in the east, it is replete with all the benefits. She is also called Hunigard, because the Huns first lived on these places ... ... her main city is Hue. ”

Peculiarities of transliteration of the name into other languages

In Slavic languages, the second vowel in the name of this city varies considerably, which in some cases is due to the peculiarities of the formation of an adjective on behalf of Kyi. For example, in Russian the city is called Kiev, in Polish - Kijow ([? Cijuf]), in Serbian and Croatian - Kijev, etc. Since Kiev was a part of the Russian Empire and USSR for a long time, the name of the city was assimilated in non-Slavic languages Russian: English Kiev, German Kiew, etc. After Ukraine gained independence, the authorities ordered to take the Ukrainian names of all proper names as a basis for their transmission by “means of the English language”, despite the established traditions of this language. This affected, in particular, the English name of Kiev: as a result, the word Kyiv appeared, which, however, is unusual for English speakers and is therefore used less often than Kiev.

Story

Крещение киевлян, К. Лебедев
Золотые ворота Киев

Archaeological excavations show that settlements on the territory of the Kiev region already existed 15,000–25,000 years ago. The period of the Neolithic and Eneolithic (copper age) is represented by the Tripoli culture, the monuments and periods of which the researchers divide into three stages: early (4500–3500), medium (3500–2750) and late (2750–2000 BC). For the period of the Bronze Age, the Belogrudov culture is characteristic of the territories of the southwestern part. Zarubintsy culture is characteristic of the north-west of the Kiev region of the second half of I millennium BC. er - first half of I mil. N. er

The Iron Age on the territory of modern Kiev and the Kiev region is represented by the Chernyakhov archeological culture, which is also called the “Kiev culture” and which existed at the turn of the II — III centuries. - the turn of the IV — V centuries. in the forest-steppe and steppe from the Lower Danube region in the west to the left bank of the Dnieper and Chernihiv region in the east.

Legend has it that Kiev was founded by the three brothers Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and sister Lybed as the center of the Polyan tribe. Named after an older brother. The Armenian version of the Kiev legend is contained in the work of Zenob Glak - “The History of Taron”, which refers to the founding of Kuar (Kiev) in the country of half a penny (glade) by Kuar, Mentei and Herean. According to Boris Rybakov, the legend about the founding of Kiev by Kiy and his brothers in the land of the glade was formed in the Poliansky itself, the Slavic land sometime before the year 737. According to some archaeological research, the first urban settlement appeared in the VI century.

According to the chronicle legend, at the end of the 9th century in Kiev the warriors of the Varyag Rurik, the Varangians Askold and Dir reigned; in 882, Kiev was conquered by a relative of Rurik, Novgorod prince Oleg, who transferred his residence there, saying: “wake up mt (and) the city of Russia”. From that moment on, Kiev became the capital of the new state - the so-called. Kievan Rus. The Byzantine emperor Konstantin Bagryanogodny, who wrote in the middle of the X century, noted that Kiev had a second name - Samvatas. It was probably either the ancient name of the city or its designation in a non-Slavic environment. The word, probably, comes from the Khazar language and in this case can mean “upper fortifications”. Eastern authors, as well as some European and Jewish writers, called Kiev Mankerman.

Свержение памятника Столыпину в Киеве, 1917 г. (на нынешней площади Независимости)

The results of some archaeological excavations are interpreted in such a way that supposedly already in the VI-VII centuries. settlements on the right bank of the Dnieper can be considered urban. This concept, supported by the celebration of the 1,500th anniversary of Kiev in 1982, was regarded as generally accepted. However, some researchers indicate that the archaeological sources found do not provide sufficient grounds for the proposed interpretation. In contrast to the “anniversary concept”, some historians and archaeologists believe, as before, that the formation of Kiev as a city took place in the 8th — 10th centuries. Only at the end of this period, the individual settlements merged into a single urban settlement.

In Kievan Rus, the possession of the Kiev Grand-Ducal table belonged (at least theoretically) to the eldest of the family and provided the supreme power over the princes. Kiev remained the real political center of Kievan Rus, at least until the death of Vladimir Monomakh and his son Mstislav the Great (in 1132). During the period of fragmentation, Kiev formally continued to be considered the senior table of Russia and served as a constant object of struggle between strong Russian princes [16]. A serious blow to the city was dealt by the defeat of the army of Vladimir Andrew Bogolyubsky in Vladimir in 1169 and the Smolensk prince Rurik Rostislavovich in 1203. In 1240, Kiev was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars.

Since November 1917, Kiev repeatedly changed hands, power has been constantly changing:

  • On November 7 (20), 1917, the Ukrainian Central Rada took power in the city.
  • January 16 (29), 1918, the January uprising of the Bolsheviks began. The uprising was crushed on January 22 (February 4), 1918, the independence of the Ukrainian People’s Republic was proclaimed - Kiev became its capital.
  • January 26 (February 8), 1918 the city was captured by the troops of Soviet Russia. Red Terror, the establishment in the city of Soviet power.
  • March 1, 1918 the capture of the city by Ukrainian troops under the command of S. V. Petlyura. Return to the city government of the Central Council.
  • April 29, 1918 the overthrow of the Central Rada by German troops and the proclamation of PP Skoropadsky as the hetman of Ukraine.
  • December 14, 1918 the capture of Kiev by the troops of the Ukrainian People's Republic under the command of S. V. Petlyura.
  • February 5, 1919 the entry into Kiev of the Red Army troops.
  • August 31, 1919 (morning) the entry into Kiev of the Galician army and the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic (the red troops left the city on August 30);
  • On August 31, 1919 (afternoon) the troops of the Volunteer Army of the Armed Forces of Southern Russia entered the city and the Ukrainian troops retreated from Kiev.
  • October 14, 1919 capture of the city by the Red Army.
  • October 16, 1919. The Volunteer Army recaptured the city back.
  • December 16, 1919 capture of Kiev by the Red Army.
  • On May 7, 1920, units of the Polish Army entered Kiev.
  • June 12, 1920 the capture of Kiev by the Red Army.
  • On June 12, 1920 finally became part of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1934, by decision of the Council of People's Commissars of Ukraine, the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was transferred from Kharkov to Kiev.
  • On September 19, 1941, the 37th Army of the Red Army, defending the city, left it and began to break out of encirclement. On the same day, the troops of the 6th German Army entered Kiev.
  • November 5, 1943 in the morning the Wehrmacht began to withdraw troops from the city. By the morning of November 6, Kiev was liberated by the Red Army.
  • In 1951, the first MESM computer in the USSR and continental Europe was created in Kiev.
  • Since December 1991, Kiev is the capital of independent Ukraine.

Physiographic characteristic

Climate

The average annual temperature is +8.4 C °

Average annual wind speed - 2.5 m / s

The average annual humidity is 74%

The total duration of sunshine per year is 1927 hours, or 43% possible.

The climate of Kiev (norm 1981-2010)
Indicator Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sen Oct But I Dec Year
Absolute Maximum, ° C 11.1 17.3 22.4 30.2 33.6 35.0 39.4 39.9 33.8 27.9 23.2 14.7 39.9
Average maximum, ° C -0.9 0.0 5.6 14.0 20.7 23.5 25.6 24.9 19.0 12.5 4.9 0.0 12.5
Average temperature, ° C -3,5 -3 1.8 9.3 15.5 18.5 20.5 19.7 14.2 8.4 1.9 -2,3 8.4
Average minimum, ° C -5,8 -5.7 -1,4 5.1 10.8 14.2 16,1 15.2 10.2 4.9 0.0 -4.6 4.9
Absolute minimum, ° C -31,1 -32,2 -24,9 -10,4 -2,4 2.4 5.8 3.3 -2.9 -17,8 -21.9 -thirty -32,2
Precipitation rate, mm 36 39 36 46 57 82 72 61 58 40 48 44 619

Administrative division

The city consists of 10 districts on the right and left banks of the Dnieper.

Административное деление Киев
Панорама города Киев
Area Orig. name Area, km? Population, people Density, people / km?
The right bank of the Dnieper:
Goloseevsky district Golosiivskyi district 156 228,130 1462
Solomensky district Solom'yansky district 40 335 563 8389
Svyatoshinsky district Svyatoshinsky district 101 326 421 3232
Obolonsky district Obolonsky district 110 311 173 2829
Podolsky district Podіlsky district 34 185,609 5459
Pechersk district Pecherskiy district 27 133,762 4954
Shevchenko district Shevchenko district 25 222,804 8912
Left Bank of the Dnieper:
Darnitsa district Darnitskiy district 134 301,752 2252
Dnieper district Dnipro District 67 342,945 5119
Desnyansky district Desna district 148 351,193 2373

The General Plan of the Development of Kiev until 2020, approved by the Kyiv City Council, provides for the expansion of the capital region, which will include the districts of the Kiev region:

  • Baryshevsky, Borodyansky, Brovarsky, Vasilkovsky, Vyshgorodsky, Kiev-Svyatoshinsky, Makarovsky, Fastovsky;
  • A number of satellite cities, including Boryspil, Boyarka, Butch, Brovary, Vasilkov, Vishnevoe, Vyshgorod, Irpen, Fastov.

Special legal status of the city

Площадь Независимости

According to Art. 133 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the city of Kiev, as the capital of Ukraine, has a special status determined by the Law of Ukraine “On the Capital of Ukraine - the Hero City of Kiev” and is not subject to regional leadership (Sevastopol has the same rights in Ukraine). According to this Law and its interpretation by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, the Kiev mayor automatically becomes the head of the Kyiv City State Administration (KSCA), elected in direct elections by achieving the highest number of votes cast by the voters who participated in the elections of the mayor.

Authorities

Администрация президента
In May 2008, 120 deputies were elected during the elections to the city council:
  • 43 deputies from the Block of Chernivtsi,
  • 32 - from the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc,
  • 15 - from Blok Klitschko,
  • 11 - from the People’s Bloc of Litvin,
  • 8 - from the civil asset of Kiev,
  • 6 - from the Party of Regions,
  • 5 - from the Nikolai Katerinchuk Blok.

In 2010, the functions of the mayor and the chairman of the Kyiv city state administration were separated. Leonid Chernovetsky remained the mayor of Kiev, and, by the decree of the President of Ukraine, Alexander Popov was appointed head of the KSCA. Ruslan Kramarenko, Alexander Puzanov, Alexander Mescheryakov, Alexander Mazurchak, Anatoly Golubchenko, Leonid Novokhatko, Viktor Sivets became the deputies.

On June 3, 2012, the Acting Mayor of Kiev became the secretary of the Kiev city council, Galina Fedorovna Gerega.

Population

Площадь Независимости Киев
At the end of the XVIII century, the population was about 30,000 people. According to the 2001 census, there were 2,611,300 inhabitants in Kiev. Currently, the population is growing by an average of 20 thousand people a year. From January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2010, the population of Kiev grew by 174 thousand people. As of June 1, 2012, 2,814,577 people live in Kiev. The natural increase in the population of the city is positive, its value is significantly higher than in the country as a whole (+2.2 people per thousand versus -4.17 in Ukraine as a whole) and this is one of the highest rates of population growth in Ukraine after the Transcarpathian and Rivne regions (+3.7 and +2.4 respectively). According to the Institute of Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine at the beginning of 2009, the actual population of Kiev was 3,144.3 thousand people, which was 420 thousand more than the population at the time according to official statistics.

National composition

According to the results of the general census of the population of Kiev, conducted at the end of 1917, 54.7% of the total population lived in Kiev; Jews - 19.0%; Ukrainians-12.2%. In total, representatives of 68 nationalities lived in Kiev.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the share of Ukrainians in Kiev as an indigenous nationality increased from 72.5% in 1989 to 82.2% in 2001. At the same time, the number of other nationalities decreased. The Russian diaspora decreased the most, from 536.2 thousand people (20.9%) in 1989 to 337.3 thousand people (13.1%) in 2001. The number of Belarusians (1989 - 25.3 thousand people, 2001 - 16.5 thousand people) and Poles (1989 - 10.4 thousand people, 2001 - 6.9 thousand people) also decreased. By the beginning of the XXI century, the process of emigration of Jews was completed (from 1989 to 2001, the absolute number of Jews in Kiev decreased from 100.6 to 17.9 thousand people, and their share in the city’s population decreased from 13.9% in 1959 to 0.7 % in 2001).

According to the 2001 census, the city’s population was 82.2% Ukrainians and 13.1% Russians. In a poll conducted in November 2006, 83% of city residents called themselves Ukrainians, 14% Russians, 3% Jews, Armenians, and other nationalities.

Language situation

The language history of Kiev is complex and controversial. In many ways, it is a reflection of its long and rather contradictory history, as well as various changes in the language policy of the last centuries. So, commenting on the results of the first census of the population in 2001, the magazine Demoscope called Kiev “rather Ukrainian-speaking (in any case, willing to seem so)”. According to the last census of 2001, 72.1% of Kyiv residents called their native language Ukrainian, 25.3% - Russian. This ratio has changed greatly since the last Soviet census of 1989. At the same time, according to the majority of opinion polls, the predominant language of everyday communication is more than half of the city’s inhabitants being Russian. Only 12-18% of citizens use mainly or exclusively Ukrainian. At the same time, Russian-Ukrainian bilingualism is also widespread. About a third of the respondents use both languages ​​equally. Intensive mixing of two closely related languages, which led to the emergence of the so-called surzhik, was noted in Kiev in the second quarter of the nineteenth century.

Religion

Андреевская церковь
Михайловский златоверхий собор
In 2007, there were 719 religious communities in Kiev, among them the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate - 177, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate - 91, Jehovah's Witnesses - 49, Baptists - 45, UAOC - 24, Seventh-day Adventists - 21, Pentecostals - 15, UGCC - 9, Muslims - 8, Roman Catholic Church - 8, Jews - 7, Old Believers of the RPSC - 1 and at least 4 unregistered Buddhist communities.

As of July 1, 2009, 1067 religious organizations are officially registered and operating in Kiev. Among them: 813 religious communities, 44 spiritual centers, 21 offices, 106 missions, 21 brotherhoods, 41 religious schools and 21 monasteries.

In a survey conducted in November 2006, 64% of Kiev residents called themselves believers, 9% identified themselves as believers in supernatural forces, 19% did not define their religious affiliation, 8% were atheists. 11% of all respondents regularly attend religious services and institutions, 64% - occasionally. From 23% (fortune-telling and predictions) to 52% (talismans) believe in various superstitions.

The temples

In Kiev, the first stone church of Kievan Rus was built - the Tithe Church. The most famous Kiev churches are the St. Sophia Cathedral and the churches of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, as well as St. Michael and Vladimir Cathedrals, St. Andrew’s Church, Vydubitsky Monastery, Florovsky Monastery. In Kiev, there are 7 synagogues.

Since 2004, the territory has been expanded around the Ar-Rahma mosque to build an entire Islamic complex. In 2009, construction of the first minaret in Kiev began.

Education

Since the 9th century, Kiev has been an important center for the intellectual development of Eastern Europe. Since the end of the XVII century, the Kiev-Mohyla Academy has prepared many famous scientists. However, the first modern European-style university was founded by the decree of Nicholas I in 1834, as the Kiev Imperial University of St. Vladimir. Kiev University became the seventh university of the Russian Empire. And today Kiev is one of the largest centers of science and education in Ukraine. A large number of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions are located in Kiev, including several universities of international importance, in particular, the three most prestigious universities of Ukraine: the Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University, the National

There are about 350 schools in Kiev, more than 100 gymnasiums and lyceums, about 70 universities, including:

  • Kiev National University of Economics
  • National Transport University
  • National Aviation University
  • Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture (KISI)
  • National Pedagogical University. M.P. Dragomanova
  • State University of Information and Communication Technologies
  • National University "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy"
  • Kiev Conservatory
  • Advertising Institute
  • Kiev National Linguistic University (INYAZ)
  • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU)
  • National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
  • Kiev National University of Internal Affairs
  • Kiev Art Academy
  • O. O. Bohomolets National Medical University
  • International Solomon University
  • National University of Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine (INFIZ)
  • Kiev National University of Theater, Cinema and Television named after IK Karpenko-Kary
  • Kiev National University of Culture and Arts
  • Kiev National University of Technology and Design
  • National University of Food Technologies
  • Kiev University of Market Relations
  • Kiev National University of Trade and Economics
  • Boris Boris Grinchenko Kyiv University

Industry

Бульвар Шевченко
Kiev is a major industrial center of Ukraine. Many branches of the national economy are represented in the city: light and food industries, printing, engineering, metallurgy, aircraft manufacturing.

The main enterprises:

  • Obolon beer factory
  • Kiev Ship Repair and Construction Plant
  • Kiev Jewelry Factory
  • Kiev Vitamin Factory
  • Pharmacological enterprise "Darnitsa"
  • ASTC them. Antonov
  • Kiev mechanical plant
  • Kiev factory of sparkling wines "Stolichny"
  • New buildings in Kiev
  • Kiev factory of automatics
  • Kiev plant "Bolshevik"
  • Kiev plant "Leninskaya smithy"
  • OJSC "Kyivhimvolokno"
  • Kiev factory of special mechanics
  • ZAO Rostok
  • Kiev factory of building materials
  • SE "Burevestnik"
  • LLC PTK "Agromat"
  • Otis CJSC (Kiev Elevator Plant)
  • 410 civil aviation plant
  • Kiev State Mechanical Plant
  • Kiev mechanical repair plant
  • Kiev Aviation Plant "Aviant"

Economic indicators

Новостройки Киева
N indicator units value in 2006
one Export of goods million $ 4398.3
2 Ud. weight in general Ukrainian % 11.5
3 Import of goods million $ 17573.0
four Ud. weight in general Ukrainian % 39.0
five Balance export-import million $ 13 13174.7
6 Capital investment million UAH 29946.5
7 average salary uah (as of 09/01/09) 3250
eight average salary $ (as of 09/01/09) 406

Based on materials from the Statistics Committee of Ukraine.

Transport

Министерство инфраструктуры Украины
Kiev is a major transportation hub (railways and highways; river port; airports). Since 1960, operates underground. Bus, trolleybus and tram networks are developed, the funicular is working.

Air

There are three airports in Kiev:

  • Boryspil International Airport (located south-east of Kiev, in the city of Borispol, Kiev region)
  • International airport "Kiev" (Zhuliany)
  • Gostomel Airport (cargo airport Antonov)

The experimental airfield Svyatoshyn (test airfield of the Kiev Aviant Aviation Plant) is also located within the city. In the vicinity of the city there are also military airfields in the cities of Vasilkov, Uzin, Belaya Tserkov. The plans to use Vasilkov and Belaya Tserkov airfields as passenger airports were repeatedly discussed. Near the city there are a number of small airfields: Chaika (former DOSAAF base, parachute base, sports aviation), Buzovaya (glider base), Dolyna (sport aviation), Nalyvaykovka (sports aviation), Byshev, Borodyanka (parachute base), Kiev-Yuzhny (Ridges, agricultural. Aviation, parachute base, helicopters) and others.

В районе ст. м. «Левобережная»

Railway

Kiev is a major railway junction. In Kiev, the headquarters of the South-Western Railway. The central railway station is Kiev Passenger. In Kiev, five main lines converge in the directions of Fastov, Korosten, Nezhin, Grebyonka, Mironovka. Also in Kiev passes the "Northern Ring", which runs from the station. Borschagovka and Art. Svyatoshin through Art. Kiev-Petrovka and Kiev-Dneprovsky to st. Darnitsa. All trunk lines are electrified. There is a departmental non-electrified railway line from Art. Kiev-Petrovka to Vyshgorod. A suburban diesel train runs through it several times a day.

In 2009, the first line of the city's electric train was launched, from October 4, 2011, the trains run along the entire length of the city ring, with transfers to all metro lines.

Railway stations:

  • Kiev Passenger
  • South Station
  • Suburban Station
  • Karavaev Dachi (suburban)
  • Darnitsky railway station
  • Kiev-Moscow

According to the plans of the Russian Railways and Ukrzaliznitsa for 2015, it is planned to launch a high-speed train with the Moscow-Kiev message. The maximum train speed will be 250 kilometers per hour, and the travel time between the two capitals will not exceed 4 hours.

Улица Вадима Гетьмана в Киеве

River

Kiev river port was built in July 1897. The port berths stretch from the harbor to the Dnipro metro station. Cargo and passenger transportation on the Dnieper carried out shipping company "Ukrrichflot." In Soviet times, passenger transportation was unprofitable, but was subsidized by the state. After the privatization of Ukrrichflot on November 11, 1992, the volume of traffic began to fall, at the same time passenger ships and ships were sold abroad, went for scrap. Today, on the Dnieper for passengers sightseeing tours are carried out only in the area of ​​Kiev. In 2009, a type of public transport that was forgotten for Kiev was launched - the so-called “river tram”, for communication between the right and left banks of Kiev. The tram runs only in the warm season. Dnieper is used to transport bulky cargo.

Underground

The construction of the metro in Kiev started in 1949, the first section was opened on November 6, 1960. At present, there are three lines (Svyatoshinsko-Brovarskaya, Kurenyovsko-Krasnoarmeyskaya, Syretsko-Pecherskaya) with a total length of 65.18 km with 50 stations. Every day, the metro carries about 1,422 million passengers (according to 2011 status). Metro stations of the first stage are architectural monuments.

A bridge is being built across the river. Dnepr on the future fourth line - Podolsko-Vigurovskaya, the fifth is being designed - Vyshgorod-Darnytska line. In 2010–2011, four stations were opened on the Kurenyovsko-Krasnoarmeyskaya line - “Demiyevskaya”, “Goloseevskaya” and “Vasilkovskaya” and “Exhibition Center”. The construction of the Kurenyovsko-Krasnoarmeyskaya line in the direction of Teremkov continues.

Tram

Kiev is the first city of the Russian Empire in which the electric tram appeared. The first line, 1.5 km long, was opened on June 1 (13), 1892, on Aleksandrovsky Descent (now Vladimirsky Descent) and Aleksandrovskaya Street (Sagaidachnogo Street). In 1978, the first high-speed tram line in the USSR from Victory Square to the Borschagovka residential area was opened in Kiev.

1990 was the culmination of the development of the tram network - the total length of the lines was 275.9 km, the production base was 904 passenger trams, the annual traffic reached 438,000,000 people. From the mid-1990s, the tram economy gradually fell into disrepair, in 2005 the corresponding figures decreased to 258.3 km and 509 trams, the annual traffic volume was about 175.6 million. After the reconstruction of the Paton Bridge in 2004, the city’s tram network was broken into two separate parts - left bank and right bank.

Нижняя станция фуникулёра

Funicular

The funicular was built as an effective way to shorten the way from the Upper City to the Hem. It was commissioned in May 1905. The length of its path was 193 m. It was reconstructed in 1928 (extended by 38 m), 1958 and 1984.

Trolley bus

Works on the organization of the trolleybus movement in Kiev were started in 1934 with the return of the status of the capital to Kiev. The first trolleybus route was st. Chervonoarmiyskaya (Chervonoarmiyska - in Ukrainian).

Rolling stock is represented mainly by Skoda 14Tr, K12, YuMZ, ElectroLAZ-12, ElectroLAZ-20, MAZ-103T and Bogdan vehicles.

For the year 2000, 35 trolleybus routes are operating in Kiev. The total length of trolleybus lines is 324.9 km, the park consists of 640 cars. Since May 2006, the number of trolleybus routes has reached 44. As of December 2010, there are 37 routes. Works 4 trolleybus depot.

Bus

For the first time, they tried to launch a regular bus service in Kiev in 1913. In fact, the full work of the bus began in 1925. Then on the only route there were 2 buses. Now in Kiev, there are about 90 municipal bus routes. The number of buses exceeds 700 units. There are 8 bus fleets.

Shuttle taxi

In Kiev, in parallel with most of the lines of municipal transport, there are lines of the route taxi. Also lines of a fixed-route taxi connect the city with suburbs. Shuttle taxi lines are serviced by private haulage companies and public utilities ATP.

Residential areas and other areas

Небоскрёб в Киеве
  • Academgorodok
  • Aviatown
  • Askold's Grave
  • Bagrinova Gora
  • Baykovo
  • Batujev Mountain
  • Belichi
  • Bereznyaki
  • Berestovo
  • Bortnichi
  • Borshchagovka
  • Bratsk Borshchagovka
  • Bykovnya
  • Wind Mountains
  • Vigurovshchina-Troyeshchina
  • Winegrower
  • Vita
  • Resurrection
  • Vydubychi
  • Vyshgorodsky array
  • Galagans
  • Hydropark
  • Goloseev
  • Pears
  • Darnitsa
  • DVRZ
  • DVC
  • Demiivka
  • Good Way
  • Dorogozhichi
  • Zabaykovye
  • Menagerie
  • State cottages
  • Karavaev Dachi
  • Throw Sadness
  • Kitaevo
  • Clove
  • Komsomol array
  • Uproot
  • Oblique caponier
  • Kurenyovka
  • Kuchmin Yar
  • Left Bank
  • Forest
  • Limes
  • Lukyanovka
  • Bald Mountain
  • Microdistrict them. Dzerzhinsky
  • Minsk array
  • Mikhailovskaya Borshchagovka
  • Mousetrap
  • Nivki
  • Lower Telichka
  • New Darnitsa
  • Novobelichi
  • Obolon
  • Osokorki
  • Island of Watermen
  • Gratifying
  • Pankovshchina
  • Pirogov
  • Pechersk
  • Hemline
  • Poznyaki
  • Bridgehead
  • Predicial
  • Priori
  • Pusha-Voditsa
  • Rainbow
  • Rembaz
  • Rusanivka
  • Samburk
  • Sapper Slobidka
  • Svyatoshino
  • Bluefin
  • Scoops
  • Solomenka
  • Social city
  • Old Darnitsa
  • Raw
  • Tatar
  • Teremki
  • Trukhanov Island
  • Theophania
  • Church
  • Tsymbalov Yar
  • Chokoloka
  • Screen
  • Slag
  • Shulyavka
  • South Borschagivka
  • Pits

Streets

Арка Дружбы народов
Красноармейская улица, Бессарабка
Андреевский спуск
  • Andrew's Descent
  • Bank Street
  • Brest-Litovsk highway
  • Leonid Bykov Boulevard
  • Taras Shevchenko Boulevard
  • Boulevard of Jaroslav Hasek
  • Vladimirskaya street
  • Vladimirsky descent
  • Institutskaya street
  • Khreshchatyk
  • Lavrskaya street
  • Lutheran street
  • Moscow avenue
  • Small ring road (Kiev)
  • Prospect Georgiy Gongadze
  • Proreznaya street
  • Victory Avenue
  • Prospect Lesnoy
  • Reznitskaya street
  • Rylsky lane
  • Streletskaya street (Kiev)
  • Ivan Mazepa Street
  • Lajos Gavro Street
  • Timofey Shamrylo Street
  • Street Yaroslavov Val

Ecology

Kiev has a reputation as one of the greenest and cleanest capitals. However, in recent years, in Kiev, as in all major cities, air pollution from automobiles has become increasingly important. The main air pollutant in Kiev is motor transport: it gives 83.4% of all harmful emissions into the atmosphere.

Culture and Leisure

Театр оперы и балета
Киевская консерватория

In Kiev, there are 27 museums, 25 theaters and studio theaters (for example, the National Academic Opera and Ballet Theater of Ukraine named after T. Shevchenko, the Kiev Municipal Academic Opera and Ballet Theater for Children and Youth, the National Academic Drama Theater named after I.Franko, the National Academic Theater Theater of Russian Drama named after Lesya Ukrainka, Theater on Podol, Kiev Young Academic Theater, Kiev National Academic Operetta Theater, Kiev State Academic Puppet Theater, Kiev Municipal Academic Theater Puppet Theater, Kiev State Academic Drama and Comedy Theater on the Left Bank, Kiev Variety Theater, Silver Island Theater.

In Kiev, there is one of the largest planetariums in the CIS.

Kiev is rich in monuments of culture and art. The most important of them are: Golden Gate, St. Sophia Cathedral (XI century), Vydubitsky monastery (XI century), a complex of buildings of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (XI-XVIII centuries), St. Michael's Golden-domed Monastery, beginning of the XVI century. ), Church of the Savior on Bereste (XII century), Baroque Voskresenskaya, St. Andrew, Pokrovskaya, Trinity churches, painted by Victor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and others. Vladimir Cathedral (XIX century), restored / painted by Mikhail Vrubel Kirillovskaya church (XII century.) ), Klovsky and Mariinsky palaces.

Forests, parks and gardens make up more than half of its area. Within the city there are two botanical gardens.

Kiev is rightly called one of the greenest cities in the world (and it was once considered the greenest). The famous Kiev chestnuts, which bloom splendidly in May, and sometimes twice a year: in spring and autumn, have become one of the symbols of the city.

Large cinema centers

  • Leipzig
  • "Zhovten"
  • "Kiev"
  • "Ukraine"
  • "Kievan Rus"
  • "Butterfly"
  • Cinema Line
  • "Multiplex"
  • "Oscar"
  • "Odessa-cinema"
  • "Zoryany"
  • "Florence"
  • "Leningrad"
  • "Russia"
  • "IMAX"
Национальный музей истории Украины

Monuments of architecture

  • Kiev Opera Theater (1867) - architect I. V. Shtrom.
  • Old Stock Exchange (1873)
  • Central Museum of the Armed Forces of Ukraine (1931) - architect I. Yu. Karakis
  • Vladimir Cathedral - architect I. V. Shtrom.
  • National Historical Museum of Ukraine (1939) - architect I. Yu. Karakis
  • National Bank of Ukraine (1902-1905) - architects Alexander Kobelev and Alexander Verbitsky
  • “House with Chimeras” - architect V.V. Gorodetsky
  • Administration of the President of Ukraine
  • National Academic Drama Theater. Ivana Franko
  • Preschool institution number 1, the so-called "Palace of Children's Happiness" (1939) - I. Yu. Karakis

Kiev also has the tallest lattice structure and the deepest metro station in the world.

Михайловский собор
St. Michael's Cathedral
Золотые ворота
Golden Gate
Большая колокольня Киево-Печерской лавры
Great bell tower of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
Троицкая надвратная церковь Киево-Печерской лавры
Trinity Gate Church of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
Софийский собор
Sophia Cathedral
Дом с химерами
House with Chimeras

Football clubs

  • Arsenal
  • Dynamo
  • Obolon

Great Kiev princes

Николаевский костёл
Родина-мать (Киев)
Владимир I Святославич с сыновьями, Борисом и Глебом

  • Kyi, Schek and Horiv (legendary)
  • Askold and Dir - 864-882 - the Grand Duke did not have the title.
  • Oleg Veshchy - 879-912
  • Igor Rurikovich - 913-945
  • Olga (princess of Kiev) - 945-957
  • Svyatoslav I - 957-972
  • Yaropolk Svyatoslavich - 972-978
  • Vladimir I Svyatoslavich (Baptist) - 978-1015
  • Svyatopolk I Cursed - 1015-1016,1018-1019
  • Yaroslav I the Wise - 1016-1018,1019-1054
  • Izyaslav Yaroslavich - 1054-1068,1069-1073,1077-1078
  • Vseslav Polotsky - 1068-1069
  • Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich - 1073-1076
  • Vsevolod Yaroslavich - 1076-1077,1078-1093
  • Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich - 1093-1113
  • Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh - 1113–1125
  • Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great - 1125—1132
  • Yaropolk II Vladimirovich - 1132-1138
  • Vsevolod II Olgovich - 1139–1146
  • Vyacheslav Vladimirovich - 1146-1155 (only nominally, in fact, Izyaslav)
  • Izyaslav II Mstislavich - 1146–1149.1151–1154
  • Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgorukiy - 1149-1151,1155-1157
  • Rostislav Mstislavich - 1154—1155
  • Izyaslav III Davydovich - 1157
  • Mstislav II Izyaslavich - 1157—1169
  • Vladimir Mstislavich - at 1167 and 1171 (three months)
  • Gleb II Yuryevich - 1169-1111
  • Roman Rostislavich - 1171–1173 and 1174–1176
  • Rurik Rostislavich - at 1173, 1180–1182,1194–1202,1203–1205,1206—1206,1207—1210
  • Mikhail Yuryevich and Vsevolod III the Big Nest - in 1173
  • Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich Chernigov at 1173.1177-1180 and 1182-1194
  • Ingvar Yaroslavich - in 1202 and 1214
  • Rostislav Rurikovich - in 1205
  • Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Chermny - 1206–1207 and 1210–1214
  • Mstislav Romanovich Old - 1214–1224
  • Vladimir Rurikovich - 1224–1235
  • Izyaslav Vladimirovich - 1235–1236
  • Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich - 1236-1238
  • Mikhail Vsevolodovich Holy - 1238-11246
  • Rostislav Mstislavich - in 1240
  • Daniel Romanovich Galitsky - in 1240 (he was not in the city, ruled through tysyatskogo before the capture of the Tatar-Mongols)
  • Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky - 1246-1263 (as the Grand Duke Vladimirsky, according to the Khan label, was not in the city, the Horde people attached to the inheritance of Vladimir on Klyazma completely degraded and depopulated Kiev

From 1254 to 1320 the title of Grand Duke of Kiev was nominally used by the Russian Kings - descendants of Daniil Romanovich Galitsky before the suppression of the dynasty along the male line, which, however, despite repeated attempts, did not manage to drive the Tatar-Mongols from there. At the same time, the city remained virtually deserted - the papal legate J. di Plano Carpini, driving through Kiev on his way to Sarai, noted the presence of Mongolian tumen (10 thousand horsemen) on the outskirts and no more than a thousand of the Mongols living in the most cruel slavery on the ruins the city itself

D 1320 Galitsky throne was occupied by the nephew of the last King of Russia Andrei Yuryevich on the maternal side, the Mazovian prince from the Piast dynasty Boleslav (in Orthodox baptism Yuri) Troidenovich. His relations with both the boyars and the nobility of the region are quite eloquently indicated by the absence of the Russian and the Grand Duchy of Kiev in the titles. In the same year, the people of Kiev, taking advantage of the obviously weakening after the death of Nogai's Horde pressure, swore allegiance to the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas.

Crime

In 2011, the number of crimes increased by 3.8% compared to 2010. [45]. In general, the crime rate is higher than in Europe, but lower than in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Kiev mayors

For the first time the mayor was elected in 1835.

Printed editions

Popular prints of Kiev, newspapers: “Facts and Comments”, “Today”, “Komsomolskaya Pravda” in Ukraine, “Telenedelya”.

Leading publications in the field of education: “Suchas osvita”, “Work and Study”.

In Kiev, printed over 40 different newspapers and magazines. The largest circulation has advertising and informational newspapers “Rio” (circulation of 1 100 000 copies), “Kiev in Dolon” ​​(circulation of 1 050 000 copies), “Misto +” (circulation of 908 178 copies).

Children's publications: Kazkovy Vechir newspaper (ukr.), Barvinok (ukr.), Malyatko (ukr.), Prof. Creyd, Poznayka magazines.

Famous natives

  • Alexander Archipenko - Ukrainian and American painter and sculptor, one of the founders of cubism in sculpture.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov - Russian writer, author of the novel “The Master and Margarita”.
  • Artemy Vedel is a composer and singer (tenor) of the 18th century, author of polyphonic church music.
  • Alexander Vertinsky - Russian pop artist, film actor, composer, poet and singer.
  • Ksenia Derzhinskaya - Russian Soviet opera singer (soprano). People's Artist of the USSR.
  • Boris Efimov - Soviet graphic artist, political cartoonist.
  • Milla (Milica) Jovovich - American actress of Slavic origin.
  • Serge (Sergey) Lifar - one of the famous dancers of the XX century. He performed in France and in many other countries.
  • Valery Lobanovsky - Soviet and Ukrainian football player and football coach.
  • Kazimir Malevich - avant-garde artist, the founder of Suprematism. The author of the famous "Black Square".
  • Golda Meir (Mabovich) - Israeli politician and statesman, former. head of the government.
  • Victor Nekrasov is a Soviet and Russian writer, author of a number of works that were sharply condemned by the Soviet authorities.
  • Vaclav Nijinsky is a Russian dancer and choreographer of Polish origin.
  • Boris Paton - Academician, President of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
  • Igor Sikorsky is a Russian-American aircraft designer, one of the largest figures in the history of aircraft manufacturing. The creator of a modern helicopter.

Rulers buried in Kiev

  • Alexander Archipenko - Ukrainian and American painter and sculptor, one of the founders of cubism in sculpture.
  • Mikhail Bulgakov - Russian writer, author of the novel “The Master and Margarita”.
  • Artemy Vedel is a composer and singer (tenor) of the 18th century, author of polyphonic church music.
  • Alexander Vertinsky - Russian pop artist, film actor, composer, poet and singer.
  • Ksenia Derzhinskaya - Russian Soviet opera singer (soprano). People's Artist of the USSR.
  • Boris Efimov - Soviet graphic artist, political cartoonist.
  • Milla (Milica) Jovovich - American actress of Slavic origin.
  • Serge (Sergey) Lifar - one of the famous dancers of the XX century. He performed in France and in many other countries.
  • Valery Lobanovsky - Soviet and Ukrainian football player and football coach.
  • Kazimir Malevich - avant-garde artist, the founder of Suprematism. The author of the famous "Black Square".
  • Golda Meir (Mabovich) - Israeli politician and statesman, former. head of the government.
  • Victor Nekrasov is a Soviet and Russian writer, author of a number of works that were sharply condemned by the Soviet authorities.
  • Vaclav Nijinsky is a Russian dancer and choreographer of Polish origin.
  • Boris Paton - Academician, President of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
  • Igor Sikorsky is a Russian-American aircraft designer, one of the largest figures in the history of aircraft manufacturing. The creator of a modern helicopter.
  • [edit] The rulers buried in Kiev
  • Balthazar, the ruler of the White Huns - one of the Kiev hills ("Kijaw-uruss")
  • Askold, Prince of Kiev - Askold's Grave
  • Dir, prince of Kiev - behind the church of sv. Irina
  • Oleg Veshchy, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Kiev - Shchekavitsa
  • Olga, Princess of Kiev - The Church of the Tithes
  • Yaropolk Svyatoslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev - Church of the Tithes
  • Oleg Svyatoslavich, Prince Drevlyansky - The Tithe Church
  • Vladimir Svyatoslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev - The Tithe Church
  • Yaroslav Vladimirovich the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev - Saint Sophia Cathedral
  • Izyaslav Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev - St. Sophia Cathedral
  • Yaropolk Izyaslavich, prince of Volyn and Turov, titular king of Russia - Dmitrov monastery
  • Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev - Saint Sophia Cathedral
  • Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev - St. Michael's Golden-domed Monastery
  • Gleb Vseslavich, Prince of Minsk - Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Duke of Kiev - Saint Sophia Cathedral
  • Yaropolk Vladimirovich, Grand Prince of Kiev - Yanchin Monastery
  • Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great, Grand Prince of Kiev - Fedorovsky Monastery
  • Nikolay Svyatosha, prince of Lutsk - Near caves of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky, Prince of Rostov-Suzdal and Grand Prince of Kiev - Church of the Savior on Berestove
  • Rostislav Mstislavich, Prince of Smolensk and Grand Prince of Kiev - Fedorovsky Monastery
  • Vladimir Andreevich, Prince Dorogobuzh - Yanchin Monastery
  • Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, Prince of Chernigov and Grand Prince of Kiev - Church of St. Cyril
  • Gleb Yurievich, Prince Turovsky - St. Michael's Golden-domed Monastery
  • Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Chermny, Prince of Chernigov and Grand Prince of Kiev - Church of St. Cyril
  • Mstislav Mstislavich Udatny, Prince Galitsky - Holy Cross Church
  • Skirgaylo, prince of Kiev and Polotsk, governor of Jagiello in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Vladimir Olgerdovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Fyodor Danilovich, Prince of Ostrog - Far Caves of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Olelko Vladimirovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Semyon Olelkovich, Prince of Kiev - Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Petro Konashevich-Sagaidachny, ataman of Zaporizhzhya Sich and hetman of the Zaporizhia Troops - Kiev-Bratsk Epiphany Monastery
  • Petr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire - Kiev-Pechersk Lavra
  • Mikhail Sergeevich Grushevsky, Chairman of the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People's Republic - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Yury Kosmich Glushko-Mova, head of the Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat - Lukyanovskoye cemetery
  • Pavlo G. Tychyna, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Demyan Sergeevich Korotchenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Alexander Korneychuk, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Mikhail Sergeevich Grechukha, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Ivan Samoilovich Grushetsky, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baykovo Cemetery
  • Alexey Fedoseyevich Vatchenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Mikhail Bely, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baykovo Cemetery
  • Alexander Pavlovich Lyashko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery
  • Platon Kostiuk, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR - Baikovo Cemetery

Topographic maps

Map sheet M-36-XIII Kiev. Scale: 1: 200 000. The state of the area in 1985. 1986 edition

More maps of Kiev >>>