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Addressing commercial power loss issues

Electricity in the Russian Federation does not have the value of goods, but is one of the types of services supplied by the power systems, and therefore the theft of electricity is not considered theft of property, and the thief of electricity can suffer only administrative punishment if it is detected theft, and the very fact of such theft is difficult to prove.

This state of affairs for a long time allowed to work out the mechanisms of the theft of electricity in very large quantities. So, according to the estimates of energy sales organizations in the private sector, the average electricity theft in Russia is up to 60%, and in the utility sector up to 25% of the total electricity consumed by household consumers. Therefore, without new technical means of metering electricity consumption, organizational measures alone cannot cope with this problem.

While for large and medium-sized enterprises, relatively reliable systems of technical and commercial electricity metering have recently been developed, significantly reducing the possibility of its theft, then for household and small-motor consumers, especially in the private sector, required electricity metering devices that protect against electricity theft and lower operating costs reliable in operation and most suitable for integration into the automated systems of the commercial metering of household electricity consumers (ASKUE BP) until recently was not.

So recommended to reduce commercial losses in the private sector, the method of removal of electricity meters on the facades of private houses or on supports of electrical networks has several disadvantages:

  • Removal requires installation of electricity meters in reliably protected boxes, with reliable earthing and quick disconnect devices when a person is energized, requires the use of self-supporting insulated wires, etc .;
  • they do not solve the issue of calculating the balance of received and consumed electricity;
  • questions of automation of information gathering are not solved

ASKUE BP for communal housing, for example, the known Kontinium system solves the problem of ASKUE BP for communal housing, but since the data from the meter to the hub are not in digital form, and in the form of telemetry pulses proportional to the power consumed, the loss of communication between the meter and a hub leads to a loss of electricity from the meter in proportion to the time of loss of communication.

The specialists of JSC “RiM” together with the Novosibirsk Energy Sales and Energy Saving Fund in the Novosibirsk region developed a concept for electricity metering which formed the basis of the systems developed below.

The main focus of these systems is:

  • reduction of commercial and technical energy losses;
  • reduction of operating costs;
  • calculation of the balance of received and consumed electricity.

At the same time, the household sector of electricity consumption can be divided into two sub-sectors, these are:

  • Private (single-family houses, cottages);
  • Communal (apartment buildings).

Based on this, the development of electricity metering devices was carried out taking into account the specifics of electricity consumption in these subsectors.

The private sector has the following main features:

  • A large level of commercial losses of electricity, up to 60%;
  • The great difficulty of access to the meter for verification of indications or to check its technical condition.

The following features are characteristic of the housing sector:

  • Understating of meter readings when paying for electricity by consumers, commercial losses can reach up to 20%;
  • Energy sales organizations do not have the operational control of consumed and paid electricity;
  • Difficulties of access to the meter for verification of indications or to check its technical condition.

To solve these problems, AMS systems of the household sector were developed, which most fully took into account the peculiarities of each private and public sub-sector, these are PMC-2050 and PMC-2060b.

The PMC-2050 system is designed for the private sector and the following tasks:

  • metering devices should provide electricity metering both in case of authorized and unauthorized connection of the subscriber and make any unauthorized connections meaningless;
  • organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information about the individual consumption of electricity by each consumer;
  • the location of the metering device must be in a private area , i.e. the responsibility for the safety and operability of the device is borne by the subscriber (electricity consumer);
  • to ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity on the set settlement day and hour.

For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software included in the PMC-2050M system was developed:

  • Single-phase multitariff meter - SOEB-2P DR with data transmission over the radio channel and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff meter - STEB-04 / 2-80-DR with data transmission over the air and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff meter - STEB-04 / 1-7,5-Р with data transmission over the radio channel for installation in the TP in order to obtain data for calculating the balance of consumed electricity;
  • The controller’s portable reader is PMPM-2055RK. Reception of data via radio, with subsequent transfer to the computer via RS-232 interface;
  • Software with data transfer drivers to the existing Energy Sales database for further processing.

Counters with theft protection (single-phase and three-phase) are designed with external remote (and) power sensor (s) (DDM), which made it possible to take control of the entire supply line to the subscriber, starting from the VL 0.4 kV tower. The simplified and extended single - phase SOEB-2P DR metering block diagram is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively, and the external view is shown in Photo1.


Fig. 1


Fig. 2


Photo 1.

The principle of operation of the counter is based on the fact that the base unit processor (WB) analyzes data from the output of 2 meters, one that is in the DDM, the second one in the base unit and summarizes the data only from the meter that currently has the maximum measured value. power. Data from DDM to the base unit is transmitted in digital form through the power network, for this purpose there is a transmitter in the DDM. The transmission principle is frequency shift keying (FSK). Transmission is carried out on 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz. Confident transmission distance in the power channel at least 60 meters. Data from the meter is transmitted over the air to the data transfer station (reader) of PMPM-2055RK. The carrier frequency is 433.92 MHz, frequency shift keying (FSK), the transmitter power is not more than 10 MW. This provides a range of reliable reception on the car antenna to 100 meters.

Based on the principle of operation of the meter consider the main type of theft of electricity:

  • - Any impact separately on the DDM or BB will cause an imbalance of the data from the DDM and the BB and the adder will receive data from the meter that has the maximum power output. For example, shunted BB or made a “surge” on the lead wires, then the current passing through the DDM will be greater than the BB BB.
  • - The counter is disconnected, a temporary connection is made to bypass the counter, see fig. 3


Pic.3

Since the DDM in such a scheme counts the electricity consumed, when the consumption scheme is restored, the data from the DDM will go to the base unit and add to the totalizer. Thus, data on consumption will not be lost, but will be taken into account in full. In addition, the on-line counter log will display information about:

  • Time on / off counter;
  • The number of kWh consumed at the rates before and after switching on;
  • Status information before and after inclusion.

Thus it is possible to conduct a full analysis of the consumption and operation modes of the meter.

Features of this type of counter:

  • Two channels of measurement;
  • Self-diagnosis;
  • LCD indicator with temperature range up to -36 ° С;
  • Technological grade accuracy;
  • Resistance to climatic, mechanical and electromagnetic effects;
  • Remote digital data transmission over the air to a distance of 100 meters;
  • Work at a voltage of 160 - 380 V.

The main characteristics of the counter:

  • 1. Accuracy class according to GOST 30207-94 2.0;
  • 2. Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
  • 3. The range of operating currents, A 5 - 50;
  • 4. Power detection NSP, kVA, not less than 0.1;
  • 5. Detection time, no more than, min 5;
  • 6. Transmitter power (433.92 MHz), mW 10;
  • 7. Power consumption, VA not more than 10;
  • 8. Additional communication channels-radio channel; RS-232.

Counter functionality:

  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on an accrual basis, separately for the three tariffs;
  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on the first day of the current month, separately for the three tariffs;
  • Automatic tariff switching;
  • Indication of the current tariff;
  • Automatic transition to the "winter" and "summer" time;
  • Fixing tariff schedule adjustments and the current time;
  • Fixing the checksum of the tariff schedule;
  • Accounting for the total time of the counter;
  • The accumulation of data on the amount of electricity consumed, separately for the three tariffs for the last 12 months in the internal journal of the meter;
  • The accumulation of operational data on the modes of operation of the counter. The capacity of the counter is 79 records.
  • Automatic daily correction of the clock (± 30 s / day);
  • Data transmission over the air to the mobile data transfer console PMMP-2055 RK.

The following information is transmitted:

  • Own address;
  • Electricity consumption at 3 tariffs on an accrual basis;
  • Electricity consumption by 3 tariffs on the 1st day of the current month;
  • The total time of the counter;
  • Current date and time;
  • Service information;
  • Checksum.

MOBILE READER CONTROLLER.

Mobile reader RMRM-2055 RK (see photo 2) is designed to read data from electricity meters over the air, and transfer them to a PC. Additionally, the reader in the meter reads the programming of the tariff schedule, recording the DDM number, time correction and reading the meter log via the RS-232 channel.


Photo.2

To simplify the work of the controller with the reader, it provides three basic modes:

  • 1. Receive data only from a specific counter number;
  • 2. Receive data from all meters located in the reception area (general reception);
  • 3. Reception of data only from the specified numbers of counters (selective reception).

In the latter case, the procedure is as follows. From the power supply database, through the communication program with the reader, information is entered in the reader from which subscribers the data should be received. In this case, the following data is entered for each subscriber: - personal account, number of the counter, name of the street and number of the house. And so on each route. There can be several routes and each route describes which counters need to be taken. If for some reason the route does not receive data from some counters, then the controller on the reader's display will see which numbers are not accepted, as well as the addresses of the not accepted counters, in order to specifically understand what is going on. After receiving the data from all the planned counters, the data is downloaded to the database of the energy sales organization for further processing via the communication program with the reader.

The reader is a microprocessor unit that provides control of all the nodes of the device, keeping a calendar, storing, viewing and searching account information in the reader's database, as well as controlling the receiving device. All modes are set using the keyboard and displayed on LCD displays.

The main characteristics of the reader:

  • 1. Memory capacity for 7000 subscribers;
  • 2. Display on the LCD of all types of electricity consumption;
  • 3. Communication time by radio channel is not more than 30 seconds;
  • 4. Radio reception range not less than 50 m, to a car antenna not less than 100 m;
  • 5. The exchange rate for RS-232 is not less than 9,600 baud;
  • 6. Power consumption not more than 1W;
  • 7. Autonomous power supply or from an external source.

Functionality:

  • Selective reception of information from the counters over the air;
  • General reception of information over the air;
  • Radio search by number of the counter;
  • View on the display of information databases;
  • Issuance of information on request from an external device through the RS-232 interface;
  • Storage of received information with power off (with built-in remote control batteries);
  • Performance of technological functions (programming in the counters of the new tariff schedule, time correction, entering the DDM number);
  • Indication of battery status;
  • Charging the batteries installed instead of AA 1,5V;
  • Additionally, the reader can be powered from 12V on-board vehicle network or through an external power supply from 220V network.

The three-phase meter STEB-04 / 2-80-DR is constructed similarly to the single-phase SOEB-2P DR and has exactly the same functions, intended for installation by consumers with three-phase input.

Three-phase meter STEB-04 / 1-7,5-Р for installation at transformer substations to ensure the calculation of the balance of consumed electricity. The appearance of the counter is shown in photo 3.


Photo.3

Features:

  • Counters have the eight-digit liquid crystal indicator with a wide range of working temperatures.
  • The indicator has a pointer of the type of the displayed parameter.
  • Modifications of meters, characterized by additional transmitters:
    • meters with an “K” index have an RS-485 interface, two-wire with an external power supply of 9 ... 12 V.
    • meters with an “P” index have a radio transmitting device (433.93 MHz, 10 mW) for transmitting data on consumption to the reader of the controller PMMP-2055RK Communication range not less than 50 m.
  • Functionality:

    • Phase and total energy metering - current and on the first day of the month;
    • Phase and total measurement of average power over a period of 5 ... 30 minutes;
    • Consumption tariffing at three tariffs and six tariff zones;
    • Automatic tariff switching;
    • Indication of the current tariff;
    • Automatic transition to summer or winter time;
    • Accounting for the total time of the counter;
    • Automatic daily adjustment of the clock;
    • Keeping energy and energy accounting logs for months during the year;
    • Keeping energy and energy accounting logs by day and total by day during the month;
    • The following data is transmitted over the air:
      • The amounts of electricity consumed at the three tariffs are current and on the first day of the month;
      • The total time of the counter;
      • Current date and time;
      • Counter number;
      • Service information;

    Technical specifications:

    • Rated voltage - V 3'220
    • The range of phase voltages - B 150 ... 400
    • Rated current - A 5
    • Maximum current - A 50 (7.5)
    • Nominal frequency - Hz 50
    • Accuracy class - 1.0
    • Radio range - m 50

    Software supplied regularly:

    • Programs of configuration and input of meters of SOEB, STEB into operation;
    • The service program for a mobile reader controller.

    The PMC-2060b system is designed for the utility sector and the following tasks:

    • (a) organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual electricity consumption by each consumer;
    • (b) The location of the metering device should be in a private area, for example, in an apartment or in a closed part of the landing, i.e. the responsibility for the safety and operability of the device is borne by the subscriber (electricity consumer);
    • (c) The system should not require the laying of additional communication lines (or require a minimum number of such lines);
    • (d) The system should take into account general and household consumption with the possibility of identifying unauthorized connections;
    • (e) Ensure the calculation of the electricity balance on the set settlement day and hour.

    In this case, the task should be solved in such a way that ordinary linear personnel could carry out the installation of the system as usual replacement of meters.

    For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software tools is developed that make up the lower level of the system:

    • Single-phase electronic single-rate electricity meter SOEB-2PK –01 with remote transmission of readings via power wires;
    • Electronic single-phase multi-tariff electricity meter SOEB-2PK with remote transmission of readings by power wires;
    • Electronic three-phase multi-tariff electricity meter STEB 04-7.5-1K with remote transmission of readings via RS485 interface and the possibility of phase-by-phase metering of consumed electricity;
    • The device of collecting and data transmission of RM-USPD 2064M, incorporating:
      • receiver of data on the power network and RS485 interface;
      • cellular GSM / GPRS modem;
    • The device for collecting and transmitting data of the RM-USPD 2064, which differs from the RM-USPD 2064M by the absence of a GSM / GPRS modem;
    • Software includes:
      • Programs of configuration and input of meters of SOEB, STEB into operation;
      • Top-level program designed to configure the system, collecting and preprocessing information.

    The block diagram of the system per one apartment building is shown in Figure 4.


    Fig. 4

    The system presented in Figure 4 has a minimum number of constituent elements, i.e. directly the meter itself with a built-in transmitter over the power network and controllers (data acquisition and transmission device). Data from the Data Collection and Transmission Device through the built-in GSM modem is transmitted directly to the communication computer of the energy supply network. See Fig.5.


    Fig. 5

    Thus, an ordinary linear electrical personnel who serve the meters can mount the system on the house. After installing the meters and transferring data about the correspondence of the No. of the Apartment No. Apartment from the communication computer, the system is activated The Data Administration System reports this data and the system is ready for operation. Data from the Data Collection and Transmission Device is transferred to the communication computer at the request of the latter.

    Electric meter SOEB-2PK

    Metering devices SOEB-2PK are installed instead of the existing induction meters and are designed for the commercial metering of electricity consumption up to three tariffs and the transmission of data on the electricity consumed by the subscriber through power wires on the Data Administration Device.

    The main characteristics of the counter.

    • Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 60;
    • Accuracy class 1 or 2;
    • Power consumption, BA 10.
    • Operating temperature range, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The counter on the power network transmits the following data:
      • Own serial number;
      • The date and time of transmission of the internal real-time clock;
      • The amount of electricity cumulatively;
      • The amount of energy consumed on the 1st day of the current month for each of the three tariffs;
      • Service information.
    • The transmission range of the power network is up to 200m within one phase of one connection. The principle of data transmission over the power network is frequency shift keying (FSK). To increase noise immunity, the transmission is carried out on 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz

    The device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2064M.

    The device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2063 is designed to receive data over the power network from meters of the SOEB-2PK type, receive and control data over the RS485 interface, and also exchange information over cellular communication with the central server of Energosbyt. The control device is installed in the switchboard house and is connected to the three-phase network. Three-phase meters, taking into account the total consumption and consumption of MOS, elevators, sub-subscribers, etc., are connected to the DRC via the RS485 interface. The power of the RS485 interface is provided from the Data Collection and Transmission Device.

    The main characteristics of the USPD

    • Maximum number of subscribers served 256
    • Maximum range of reception on the power network 300m
    • The maximum number of phases from which information is collected, 3
    • Maximum number of devices connected to RS485 interface, 32

    Counter STEB – 04-7.5-1K

    The metering devices STEB-04-7.5-1K are installed instead of the existing three-phase meters and are intended for the commercial metering of electricity consumption at three tariffs and the transmission of data on the electricity consumed by the subscriber via the RS485 interface on the RTU RT-USPD 2064M. The counter is an indirect switch and is used in conjunction with current transformers, the choice of which depends on the power consumption of electricity in a particular connection. Counters are used to account for total electricity, as well as to account for the consumption of common areas, elevators, smoke exhaust systems, etc.

    The main characteristics of the counter:

    • Rated voltage, V 220/380 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 7.5;
    • Accuracy class 1;
    • Power consumption, BA 10.
    • Operating temperature range, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, varying in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The counter transmits through the RS485 interface a wide set of data, among which the consumption of the three tariffs is current and the 1st day of the current month separately for each phase and total, the power profile of the load, etc.

    SOFTWARE

    The software supplied as part of the system is designed to work in the “WINDOWS-2000 / XP / 2003” environment and provides for the collection of data from subscriber counters in MS SQL Server DBMS. The software allows you to organize the collection of data on electricity consumed, both at home and in the city. Data collection is possible through the following communication channels: RS-485, GSM (data transmission) and GPRS. Processing of the collected data, consumption balance. Analysis of the collected data. Output of the result in tabular and graphical form. The ability to export to Excel spreadsheets. Access to the database on the LAN with the division of powers.

    The most widespread system was PMC-2050, because it is applied in the private sector, where the greatest commercial losses. The system is operated and tested as a pilot project in 19 cities of Russia and in many regions showed an economic effect from the introduction, while not only the unbalance of electricity decreases sharply, but also the load on transformer substations decreases. As experience shows, the solvency of the population (the level of collection of money) remains at the same level, and the unbalance in electric power reaches the level of technical losses.