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Solving the problems of commercial electricity losses

Electricity in the Russian Federation does not matter as a commodity, but refers to one of the types of services provided by energy systems, and therefore the theft of electricity is not considered property theft, and an electricity theft can only be administratively punished if it is discovered, it’s quite difficult to prove the theft.

For a long time, this state of affairs made it possible to work out mechanisms for the theft of electricity in very large quantities. Thus, according to energy retail organizations in the private sector, theft of electricity on average in Russia is up to 60%, and in the communal sector up to 25% of all electricity consumed by household consumers. Therefore, without new technical means of accounting for electricity consumption, organizational measures cannot cope with this problem.

If for large and medium-sized enterprises recently relatively reliable systems of technical and commercial electricity metering have been developed that significantly reduce the possibility of theft, for household and small-motor consumers, especially in the private sector, the required electricity metering devices that provide protection against theft of electricity, reduce operating costs reliable in operation and maximally suitable for integration into household automated energy metering systems consumers (ASKUE BP) until recently there were no.

So, the recommended method for moving electric meters to the facades of private houses or to the supports of electric networks, which is recommended to reduce commercial losses in the private sector, has a number of disadvantages:

  • removal requires the installation of electric meters in reliably protected boxes, with reliable grounding and quick disconnect devices when a person comes under voltage, requires the use of self-supporting insulated wires, etc .;
  • do not solve the issue of calculating the balance of electricity received and consumed;
  • issues of automation of information collection are not being addressed

ASKUE BP for communal housing, for example, the well-known Kontinium systems solves the problem of ASKUE BP for communal housing, but since the data from the meter to the concentrator are not digital, and in the form of telemetry pulses proportional to power consumption, communication between the meter and the hub leads to the loss of electricity readings from the meter in proportion to the time of communication loss.

The specialists of RiM CJSC together with Novosibirsk Energosbytomi Energy Saving Fund in the Novosibirsk Region developed a concept for electricity metering which formed the basis of the systems developed below.

The main focus of these systems is:

  • reduction of commercial and technical losses of electricity;
  • reduction in operating costs;
  • calculation of the balance of electricity received and consumed.

At the same time, the household sector of electricity consumption can be divided into two subsectors, these are:

  • Private (single-family houses, cottages);
  • Communal (apartment buildings).

Based on this, the development of electricity metering devices was carried out taking into account the specifics of electricity consumption in these subsectors.

The following main features are characteristic of the private housing sector:

  • A large level of commercial electricity losses, up to 60%;
  • Great difficulty accessing the meter to verify readings or to check its technical condition.

The following features are characteristic of the housing sector:

  • Underestimation of meter readings when paying for electricity by consumers, commercial losses can reach up to 20%;
  • Energy sales organizations do not have the ability to quickly monitor consumed and paid electricity;
  • Difficulties accessing the meter to verify readings or to check its technical condition.

To solve these problems, the systems of the automatic energy management system for the household sector were developed that most fully took into account the characteristics of each subsector, private and communal, these are RMS-2050 and RMS-2060b.

The RMS-2050 system is designed for the private sector and for solving the following problems:

  • metering devices should provide electricity metering both for authorized and unauthorized connection of the subscriber and make any unauthorized connections meaningless;
  • organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual electricity consumption by each consumer;
  • The meter must be located in a private area , i.e. the responsibility for the safety and serviceability of the device lies with the subscriber (electricity consumer);
  • to ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity for a specified settlement day and hour.

For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software tools included in the RMS-2050M system was developed:

  • Single-phase multi-tariff meter - SOEB-2P DR with data transmission over the air and anti-theft protection;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff meter - STEB-04 / 2-80-DR with data transmission over the air and anti-theft protection;
  • Three-phase multitariff meter - STEB-04 / 1-7,5-R with data transmission over the air for installation in a TP in order to obtain data for calculating the balance of electricity consumed;
  • The portable reader of the controller is RMRM-2055RK. Reception of data via a radio channel, with their subsequent transfer to a computer via the RS-232 interface;
  • Software with drivers for transferring data to the existing Energosbyt database for further processing.

Thefts with theft protection (single-phase and three-phase) are designed with external remote (s) power sensor (s) (DDM), which made it possible to take control of the entire supply line to the subscriber starting from the 0.4 kV overhead support. The structural diagram of a single - phase counter SOEB-2P DR simplified and extended are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, respectively, and the appearance in photo1.


Fig. one


Fig. 2


Photo 1.

The principle of operation of the counter is based on the fact that the processor of the base unit (BB) analyzes the data from the output of 2 meters, one that is in the DDM, the second in the base unit and sums the data only from that meter, which currently has the maximum measured power. Data from the DDM to the base unit is transmitted digitally via the power network, for this there is a transmitter in the DDM. The transmission principle is frequency shift keying (FSK). The transmission is carried out at 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz. Confident transmission distance on the power channel of at least 60 meters. Data from the counter over the air is transmitted to the data transfer panel (reader) RMRM-2055RK. Carrier frequency 433.92 MHz, frequency shift keying (FSK), transmitter power not more than 10 MW. This provides a range of reliable reception on a car antenna of up to 100 meters.

Based on the principle of operation of the meter, we consider the main types of theft of electricity:

  • - Any effect individually on the DDM or the BB will cause an imbalance of data from the DDM and the BB and the adder will receive data from the meter with the maximum power output. For example, they shunted the BB or made a “surge” on the supply wires, then the current passing through the DDM will be more than through the BB (Idm> IBB) the data in the adder will be taken from the DDM and vice versa when shunting the DDM Idm <IBB, the data in the adder will be taken from BB.
  • - The meter is turned off, a temporary connection is made bypassing the meter, see fig. 3


Fig.3

Since DDM in such a scheme records energy consumed, when restoring the consumption scheme, data from DDM will go to the base unit and will be added to the totalizing counter. Thus, consumption data will not be lost, but will be taken into account in full. In addition, information on:

  • Time on / off counter;
  • The amount of kW / h consumed at the tariffs before and after switching on;
  • Status information before and after inclusion.

Thus, a complete analysis of the modes of consumption and operation of the meter can be carried out.

Features of this type of meter:

  • Two measurement channels;
  • Self-diagnosis;
  • LCD indicator with a temperature range up to -36 ° С;
  • Technological stock in accuracy class;
  • Resistance to climatic, mechanical and electromagnetic influences;
  • Remote digital data transmission over a radio channel at a distance of up to 100 meters;
  • Work at a network voltage of 160 - 380 V.

Main characteristics of the counter:

  • 1. Accuracy class according to GOST 30207-94 2.0;
  • 2. Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
  • 3. Range of working currents, A 5 - 50;
  • 4. The detection power of the NSP, kVA, not less than 0.1;
  • 5. Detection time, no more, min 5;
  • 6. Transmitter power (433.92 MHz), mW 10;
  • 7. Power consumption, VA no more than 10;
  • 8. Additional communication channels-radio channel; RS-232.

Functionality of the counter:

  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on an accrual basis, separately at three rates;
  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on the first day of the current month, separately at three rates;
  • Automatic tariff switching;
  • Indication of the current tariff;
  • Automatic transition to "winter" and "summer" time;
  • Fixing tariff schedule adjustments and current time;
  • Fixing the checksum of the tariff schedule;
  • Accounting for the total operating time of the counter;
  • Accumulation of data on the amount of electricity consumed, separately at three tariffs for the last 12 months in the meter’s internal journal;
  • Accumulation of operational data on meter operation modes. Capacity counter 79 records.
  • Automatic daily correction of the clock (± 30 s / day);
  • Data transmission via radio channel to the mobile data transfer console RMRM-2055 RK.

The following information is transmitted:

  • Own address;
  • Electricity consumption at 3 tariffs on an accrual basis;
  • Electricity consumption at 3 tariffs on the 1st day of the current month;
  • The total operating time of the counter;
  • Current date and time;
  • Service information;
  • Checksum.

MOBILE READER OF THE CONTROLLER.

The mobile reader RMRM-2055 RK (see photo 2) is designed to read data from electricity meters over the air and transmit them to a PC. In addition, in the meter, the reader programms the tariff schedule, records the DDM number, corrects the time and reads the meter log through the RS-232 channel.


Photo 2

To simplify the work of the controller with the reader, it has three main modes:

  • 1. Reception of data only from a specific counter number;
  • 2. Reception of data from all meters located in the reception area (general reception);
  • 3. Reception of data only from preset meter numbers (selective reception).

In the latter case, the procedure is as follows. From the energy sales database, through the communication program with the reader, information is entered into the reader from which subscribers it is necessary to receive data. At the same time, the following data is entered for each subscriber: - personal account, counter number, street name and house number. And so on each route. There can be several routes and each route describes which counters should be taken. If for some reason data from some counters are not received on the route, the controller on the reader’s display will see which numbers are not accepted, as well as the addresses of not accepted counters, in order to specifically figure out what is happening. After receiving data from all planned meters, the data is downloaded through the communication program with the reader to the base of the energy sales organization for further processing.

The reader is a microprocessor unit that provides control of all nodes of the device, maintaining a calendar, storing, viewing and searching for accounting information in the reader’s database, as well as controlling a radio receiver. All modes are set using the keyboard and are displayed on the LCD displays.

The main characteristics of the reader:

  • 1. Memory capacity for 7000 subscribers;
  • 2. Display on the LCD of all types of electricity consumption;
  • 3. The communication time over the radio channel is not more than 30 seconds;
  • 4. The range of the radio is not less than 50 m, to the car antenna not less than 100 m;
  • 5. The exchange rate via RS-232 is not less than 9600 baud;
  • 6. Power consumption is not more than 1W;
  • 7. Self-contained power supply or from an external source.

Functionality:

  • Selective reception of information from counters over the air;
  • General reception of information over the air;
  • Radio search by counter number;
  • View the database information on the display;
  • Issuing information on request from an external device via the RS-232 interface;
  • Storage of received information when the power is off (with built-in remote control batteries);
  • Performance of technological functions (programming in the meters of the new tariff schedule, time correction, entering No. DDM);
  • Indication of the state of batteries;
  • Charging batteries installed instead of AA 1.5V cells;
  • Additionally, the reader can be powered from a 12V on-board vehicle network or through an external power supply from a 220V network.

The three-phase meter STEB-04 / 2-80-DR is constructed similarly to the single-phase SOEB-2P DR and has exactly the same functions, it is intended for installation in consumers with a three-phase input.

Three-phase meter STEB-04 / 1-7,5-R for installation at transformer substations in order to ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity consumed. The appearance of the counter is shown in photo 3.


Photo.3

Features:

  • The meters have an eight-bit liquid crystal display with a wide range of operating temperatures.
  • The indicator has a pointer to the type of the displayed parameter.
  • Modifications of meters, characterized by additional transmitting devices:
    • meters with an index "K" have an RS-485 interface, two-wire with external power supply 9 ... 12 V.
    • meters with the P index have a radio transmitting device (433.93 MHz, 10 mW) for transmitting consumption data to the reader of the RMRM-2055RK controller. Communication range is at least 50 m.
  • Functionality:

    • Phase and total energy accounting - current and on the first day of the month;
    • Phase and total measurement of average power over a period of 5 ... 30 min;
    • Tariffication of consumption at three tariffs and six tariff zones;
    • Automatic tariff switching;
    • Indication of the current tariff;
    • Automatic transition to summer or winter time;
    • Accounting for the total operating time of the counter;
    • Automatic daily adjustment of the clock;
    • Conducting energy accounting logs for phase and total for months throughout the year;
    • Logging energy metering by phase and total by day for a month;
    • The following data is transmitted over the air:
      • The amounts of electricity consumed at three tariffs are current and on the first day of the month;
      • The total operating time of the counter;
      • Current date and time;
      • Counter number;
      • Service information;

    Technical specifications:

    • Rated voltage - In 3'220
    • Phase voltage range - V 150 ... 400
    • Rated Current - A 5
    • Maximum current - A 50 (7.5)
    • Nominal frequency - Hz 50
    • Accuracy Class - 1.0
    • Radio communication range - m 50

    Software supplied as standard:

    • Programs for configuration and commissioning of meters such as SOEB, STEB in operation;
    • The service program of the mobile controller reader.

    The RMS-2060b system is designed for the utility sector and for solving the following tasks:

    • (a) organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual electricity consumption by each consumer;
    • (b) The location of the meter should be in a private territory, for example, in an apartment or in a closed part of a staircase, i.e. the responsibility for the safety and serviceability of the device lies with the subscriber (electricity consumer);
    • (c) The system should not require the installation of additional communication lines (or require a minimum number of such lines);
    • (d) The system should take into account common house and apartment consumption with the possibility of detecting unauthorized connections;
    • (e) Ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity for the established settlement day and hour.

    In this case, the problem should be solved in such a way that ordinary linear personnel can perform the installation of the system as a normal replacement of meters.

    For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software has been developed that is part of the lower level of the system:

    • SOEB-2PK –01 electronic single-phase single-rate electricity meter with remote transmission of readings via power wires;
    • SOEB-2PK electronic single-phase multi-tariff electricity meter with remote transmission of readings via power wires;
    • STEB 04-7.5-1K electronic three-phase multi-rate electricity meter with remote transmission of readings via the RS485 interface and the possibility of phase-by-phase metering of consumed electricity;
    • A device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2064M, comprising:
      • data receiver via power network and RS485 interface;
      • GSM / GPRS cellular modem;
    • Device for data collection and transmission RM-USPD 2064, different from RM-USPD 2064M in the absence of a GSM / GPRS modem;
    • The software includes:
      • Programs for configuration and commissioning of meters such as SOEB, STEB in operation;
      • A top-level program designed to configure the system, collect and pre-process information.

    The structural diagram of the system per one apartment building is shown in Fig. 4


    Fig. four

    The system shown in Fig. 4 incorporates a minimum number of constituent elements, i.e. directly the electric meter itself with an integrated transmitter over the power network and USPD (data acquisition and transmission device). Data from the control panel via the built-in GSM-modem is transmitted immediately to the energy sales communication computer, see Fig. 5.


    Fig. five

    Thus, the ordinary linear electrical personnel who service the meters can mount the system on the house. After installing the counters and transmitting data on the correspondence of the counter number to the apartment number from the connected computer, the system is activated, i.e. USPD reports this data and the system is ready for operation. Data from the DRC are transmitted to the communication computer at the request of the latter.

    Electric meter SOEB-2PK

    SOEB-2PK metering devices are installed instead of existing induction meters and are intended for commercial metering of electricity consumption up to three tariffs and data transmission of electricity consumed by the subscriber via power wires to the USPD.

    The main characteristics of the counter.

    • Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 60;
    • Accuracy class 1 or 2;
    • Power consumption, VA 10.
    • Range of working temperatures, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The meter on the power network transmits the following data:
      • Own serial number;
      • Date and time of transmission according to the internal real-time clock;
      • The amount of electricity cumulative;
      • The amount of energy consumed on the 1st day of the current month for each of the three tariffs;
      • Service information.
    • Power transmission range up to 200m within one phase of one connection. The principle of data transmission over the power network is frequency shift keying (FSK). To increase noise immunity, transmission is carried out at 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz

    Device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2064M.

    The data collection and transmission device RM-USPD 2063 is designed to receive data on the power network from meters such as SOEB-2PK, receive and manage data via the RS485 interface, and also to exchange information via cellular communication with the central Energosbyt server. USPD is installed in the electrical panel house and connected to a three-phase network. Three-phase meters, taking into account the total consumption and consumption of MOSFETs, elevators, sub-subscribers, etc., are connected to the control unit via the RS485 interface. The RS485 interface is powered by the USPD.

    Main characteristics of USPD:

    • Maximum number of subscribers served 256
    • Maximum power range 300m
    • The maximum number of phases from which information is collected, 3
    • The maximum number of devices connected to the RS485 interface, 32

    STEB-04-7.5-1K counter

    STEB-04-7.5-1K metering devices are installed instead of the existing three-phase meters and are intended for commercial metering of electricity consumption at three tariffs and data transmission of electricity consumed by the subscriber via RS485 interface to USPD RM-USPD 2064M. The counter of indirect inclusion and is used in conjunction with current transformers, the choice of which depends on the power consumption of electricity in a particular connection. Meters are used to account for total electricity, as well as to account for the consumption of common areas, elevators, smoke exhaust systems, etc.

    Main characteristics of the counter:

    • Rated voltage, V 220/380 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 7.5;
    • Accuracy class 1;
    • Power consumption, VA 10.
    • Range of working temperatures, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, changing in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The meter transmits a wide range of data via the RS485 interface, among which the current consumption at three tariffs and on the 1st day of the current month separately for each phase and total, load power profile, etc.

    SOFTWARE

    The software supplied as part of the system is designed to work in the “WINDOWS-2000 / XP / 2003” environment and provides data collection from subscriber counters to the MS SQL Server DBMS. The software allows you to organize the collection of data on electricity consumed, both on a home scale and on a city scale. Data collection is possible through the following communication channels: RS-485, GSM (data transfer) and GPRS. Processing collected data, consumption balance. Analysis of collected data. Output of the result in tabular and graphical form. Ability to export to Excel spreadsheets. Access to the LAN database with differentiation of powers.

    The most widespread system was the PMC-2050, because it is used in the private sector, where the biggest commercial losses. The system is operated and tested as a pilot project in 19 cities of Russia and in many regions has shown the economic effect of the implementation, while not only is the power imbalance drastically reduced, but also the load on the transformer substations is reduced. As the experience of using the system shows, the solvency of the population (the level of money collection) remains at the same level, and the imbalance in electricity reaches the level of technical losses.