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Solving the problems of commercial power losses

Electric power in the Russian Federation does not matter, but refers to one of the types of services supplied by power systems, and therefore theft of electricity is not considered property theft, and the power thief, if found theft, may suffer only administrative punishment, and the very fact of such theft is rather difficult to prove.

This state of affairs for a long time allowed us to work out mechanisms for the theft of electricity in very large quantities. So, according to the estimation of energy sales organizations in the private sector, the average amount of electricity theft in Russia is up to 60%, and in the municipal sector up to 25% of all electricity consumed by household consumers. Therefore, without new technical means of accounting for electricity consumption, some organizational measures can not cope with this problem.

If large and medium-sized enterprises have recently developed relatively reliable technical and commercial electricity metering systems that significantly reduce the possibility of its theft, then for household and small-engine consumers, especially in the private sector, the required electricity metering devices that protect against theft of electricity, a reduction in operating costs , Reliable in operation and maximally suitable for integration into automated systems for commercial metering of household electric power Consumers (ASKUE BP) until recently was not.

So the method of removing electricity meters to the facades of private houses or to power grid supports, recommended to reduce commercial losses in the private sector, has a number of drawbacks:

  • Removal requires the installation of electricity meters in a securely protected box, with reliable grounding and quick disconnect devices when a person is exposed to voltage, requires the use of SIP, etc .;
  • Do not solve the problem of calculating the balance of the received and consumed electricity;
  • The problems of automation of information collection are not solved

ASKUE PP for communal housing, for example, the well-known "Continium" system solves the problem of ASKUE PP for communal housing, but since the data from the meter to the concentrator do not go digital, and in the form of telemetry pulses proportional to the power consumption, the loss of communication between the meter and The concentrator leads to a loss of electricity readings from the meter in proportion to the time of loss of communication.

Specialists of ZAO "RiM" in conjunction with Novosibirsk Energy Saving Foundation for Energy Conservation in the Novosibirsk region have developed a concept for accounting for electricity that formed the basis for the systems developed below.

The main thrust of these systems is:

  • Reduction of commercial and technical losses of electric power;
  • Reduction of operating costs;
  • Calculation of the balance of electricity received and consumed.

At the same time, the household sector of electricity consumption can be divided into two subsectors, these are:

  • Private (single-family houses, cottages);
  • Communal (apartment buildings).

Proceeding from this, the development of electricity metering devices was carried out taking into account the specificity of electricity consumption in these subsectors.

The following main features are typical for the private housing sector:

  • Large level of commercial power losses, up to 60%;
  • Great difficulty in accessing the meter to verify readings or to check its technical condition.

For the communal housing sector, the following features are characteristic:

  • Underestimation of meters when paying for electricity by consumers, commercial losses can reach up to 20%;
  • Energy sales organizations do not have the ability to monitor the consumed and paid electricity;
  • Difficulties in accessing the meter to verify the readings or to check its technical condition.

To solve these problems, AMR systems of the household sector were developed, which most fully took into account the peculiarities of each subsector-private and communal, such as PMC-2050 and PMC-2060b.

The PMC-2050 system is designed for the private sector and the solution of the following tasks:

  • The metering devices must ensure that electricity is accounted for both in the authorized and unauthorized connection of the subscriber and make any unauthorized connections meaningless;
  • Organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual consumption of electricity by each consumer;
  • Finding the meter must be in a private area , i.e. Responsibility for safety and serviceability of the device is borne by the subscriber (the electric power consumer);
  • To ensure the calculation of the electricity balance for the set settlement day and hour.

For the practical implementation of these solutions, a set of hardware and software components included in the RMS-2050M system was developed:

  • Single-phase multi-tariff counter - SOEB-2P DR with data transmission over the radio channel and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff counter - STEB-04 / 2-80-DR with data transmission over the radio channel and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff meter - STEB-04 / 1-7,5-P with data transmission over the radio channel for installation in the TP in order to obtain data for calculating the balance of consumed electricity;
  • The portable reader of the controller is PMRM-2055RK. Receiving data over a radio channel, then transferring them to a computer via the RS-232 interface;
  • Software with data transfer drivers to the existing Energy Sales database for further processing.

The meters with the anti-theft protection (single-phase and three-phase) are designed with an external remote (and) power sensor (DDM), which allowed to take control of the entire supply line to the subscriber starting from the 0.4 kV overhead line support. The structural diagram of the single-phase counter SOEB-2P DR simplified and extended is presented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, respectively, and the appearance on the photo1.


Fig. 1


Fig. 2


Picture 1.

The principle of operation of the counter is based on the fact that the processor of the base unit (BB) analyzes data from the output of 2 meters, one of which is in the DDM, the second in the base unit and sums the data only from the meter that currently has the maximum measured power. The data from the DDM to the base unit is transmitted digitally over the power network, for this, the transmitter is located in the DDM. The principle of transmission is frequency shift keying (FSK). Transmission is carried out at 4 frequencies in the range 50 - 93 kHz. The confident range of transmission through the power channel is not less than 60 meters. The data from the counter via the radio channel is transmitted to the data transfer console (reader) PMRM-2055RK. The carrier frequency is 433.92 MHz, frequency shift keying (FSK), the transmitter power is not more than 10 MW. This provides a range of confident reception on the car antenna up to 100 meters.

Proceeding from the principle of the meter's operation, let's consider the main types of power theft:

  • - Any impact separately on DDM or BB will cause an unbalance of data from DDM and BB and the data will be fed to the adder from the meter with the maximum output at the output. For example, the BB was shunted or a "sketch" was made on the supply wires, then the current passing through the DDM would be greater than through the BB (Iddm> IBB), the data to the adder would be taken from the DDM and vice versa, by shunting the DDM Iddm <IBB, the data in the adder would be taken from BB.
  • - The counter is off, a temporary connection is made bypassing the counter, see Fig.3


Fig. 3

Since DDM in such a scheme conducts the account of the consumed electric power, when the consumption scheme is restored, the data from the DDM will go to the base unit and will be added to the summing counter. Thus, data on consumption will not be lost, but will be taken into account in full. In addition, the operational log of the meter will display information about:

  • Time on / off the counter;
  • Amount of consumed kWh at tariffs before and after switching on;
  • Status information before and after switching on.

In this way, you can conduct a full analysis of the consumption and operation modes of the meter.

Features of this type of meter:

  • Two measuring channels;
  • Self-diagnosis;
  • LCD indicator with a temperature range of -36 ° C;
  • Technological reserve according to the accuracy class;
  • Resistance to climatic, mechanical and electromagnetic influences;
  • Remote digital data transmission over a radio channel for a distance of up to 100 meters;
  • Work at a voltage of the network 160 - 380 V.

Main characteristics of the meter:

  • 1. Accuracy class according to GOST 30207-94 2.0;
  • 2. Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
  • 3. Range of working currents, A 5 - 50;
  • 4. Power detection of NSP, kVA, not less than 0.1;
  • 5. Detection time, no more than, min. 5;
  • 6. Transmitter power (433.92 MHz), mW 10;
  • 7. Power consumption, VA is not more than 10;
  • 8. Additional communication channels-radio channel; RS-232.

Counter functionality:

  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed by the cumulative total, separately for three tariffs;
  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on the first day of the current month, separately for three tariffs;
  • Automatic tariff switching;
  • Indication of the current tariff;
  • Automatic transition to "winter" and "summer" time;
  • Fixing adjustments to the tariff schedule and the current time;
  • Fixing the checksum of the tariff schedule;
  • Accounting of the total operating time of the meter;
  • Accumulation of data on the amount of electricity consumed, separately for three tariffs for the last 12 months in the internal log of the meter;
  • Accumulation of operational data on the operating modes of the meter. Counter capacity is 79 records.
  • Automatic daily clock correction (± 30 s / day);
  • Data transmission over the radio channel to the mobile data transfer station PMRM-2055 RK.

The following information is transmitted:

  • Own address;
  • Electricity consumed by 3 tariffs as a cumulative total;
  • Consumed electricity at 3 tariffs for the 1st day of the current month;
  • Total operating time of the meter;
  • Current date and time;
  • Service information;
  • The checksum.

MOBILE CONTROLLER CONTROLLER.

The mobile reader RMRM-2055 RK (see photo 2) is intended for reading data from electricity meters by radio channel, and transferring them to a PC. Additionally, in the counter, the reader will program the tariff schedule, record No. DDM, time correction and read the counter log through the RS-232 channel.


Photo.2

To simplify the work of the controller with the reader, there are three main modes:

  • 1. Reception of data only from a specific counter number;
  • 2. Receiving data from all the meters in the reception area (general reception);
  • 3. Receiving data only from the specified counter numbers (selective reception).

In the latter case, the procedure is as follows. From the energy sales database, through the communication program with the reader, information is entered into the reader from which subscribers it is necessary to receive data. At the same time, the following data are entered for each subscriber: - the personal account, the counter number, the street name and the home number. And so on each route. Routes can be multiple and in each route you describe what counters you need to take. If for some reason the data from some counters is not received on the route, the controller on the reader's display will see which numbers have not been accepted, as well as the addresses of unregistered counters, in order to specifically understand what's happening. After receiving the data from all planned counters, the data via the communication program with the reader is downloaded to the energy sales organization's database for further processing.

The reader is a microprocessor unit that provides management of all device nodes, calendaring, storage, viewing and retrieval of accounting information in the reader database, as well as control of the radio receiver. All modes are set using the keyboard and are indicated on the LCD displays.

The main characteristics of the reader:

  • 1. Memory capacity for 7000 subscribers;
  • 2. Display on the LCD of all types of electricity consumption;
  • 3. Communication time on the radio channel is not more than 30 seconds;
  • 4. The range of radio reception is not less than 50 m, the car antenna is not less than 100 m;
  • 5. The rate of exchange by RS-232 is not less than 9600 baud;
  • 6. Power consumption no more than 1W;
  • 7. The food is autonomous or from an external source.

Functionality:

  • Selective reception of information from meters by radio channel;
  • General reception of information on the radio channel;
  • Radio search by number of the counter;
  • View information on the database;
  • Issuance of information on request from an external device via the RS-232 interface;
  • Storage of received information with the power off (with integrated power elements of the console);
  • Performance of technological functions (programming in the new tariff schedule, time correction, entry of DDM);
  • Indication of the status of batteries;
  • Charging of batteries installed instead of AA 1.5V;
  • Additionally, the reader can be powered from the 12V vehicle's on-board network or through an external power supply from the 220V network.

The three-phase counter STEB-04 / 2-80-DR is constructed similarly to the single-phase SOEB-2P DR and has exactly the same functions, it is intended for installation in consumers having three-phase input.

Three-phase meter STEB-04 / 1-7,5-P for installation in transformer substations in order to ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity consumed. The appearance of the counter is presented in photo 3.


Photo 3

Features:

  • Counters have a liquid crystal eight-digit indicator with a wide range of operating temperatures.
  • The indicator has a pointer of the type of the displayed parameter.
  • Modifications of the meters, which are distinguished by additional transmitting devices:
    • Counters with the "K" index have an RS-485 interface, two-wire with an external power supply of 9 ... 12 V.
    • Counters with the "P" index have a radio transmitter (433.93 MHz, 10 mW) for data transmission by the reader to the reader of the PMRM-2055RK. The communication distance is not less than 50 m.
  • Functionality:

    • By phase and total energy accounting - current and on the first day of the month;
    • By phase and general measurement of average power for a period of 5 ... 30 min;
    • Tariffication of consumption at three tariffs and six tariff zones;
    • Automatic tariff switching;
    • Indication of the current tariff;
    • Automatic transition to summer or winter time;
    • Accounting of the total operating time of the meter;
    • Automatic daily clock adjustment;
    • Maintenance of energy accounting journals by phase and total by months during the year;
    • Maintenance of energy accounting journals by phase and total by day within a month;
    • The following data is transmitted over the radio channel:
      • The amounts of electricity consumed at the three tariffs are current and on the first day of the month;
      • Total operating time of the meter;
      • Current date and time;
      • Number of the counter;
      • Service information;

    Technical specifications:

    • Rated voltage - V 3'220
    • The range of phase voltages is B 150 ... 400
    • Rated current - A 5
    • The maximum current is A 50 (7.5)
    • Rated frequency - Hz 50
    • Accuracy class - 1.0
    • Range of radio communication - m 50

    Software supplied by default:

    • Program configuration and input of meters such as SOEB, STEB in operation;
    • The program of service of the mobile reader of the controller.

    The PMC-2060b system is intended for the municipal sector and the solution of the following tasks:

    • (A) organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual consumption of electricity by each consumer;
    • (B) The location of the meter must be in a private area, for example, in an apartment or on a closed part of a landing; Responsibility for safety and serviceability of the device is borne by the subscriber (the electric power consumer);
    • (C) The system should not require the laying of additional communication lines (or require a minimum number of such lines);
    • (D) The system should take into account the common house and apartment consumption with the possibility of detecting unauthorized connections;
    • (E) Ensure the calculation of the electricity balance for the set settlement day and hour.

    At the same time, the task should be solved in such a way that ordinary linear personnel can perform the installation of the system as a routine replacement of meters.

    For the practical implementation of these solutions, a set of hardware and software components are included in the lower level of the system:

    • Electronic single-phase electricity meter SOEB-2PK-01 with remote transmission of data on power wires;
    • Electronic single-phase multi-tariff electricity meter SO-2PK with remote indication of power wires;
    • Electronic three-phase multi-tariff electricity meter STEB 04-7,5-1K with remote transmission of readings via RS485 interface and the possibility of phase-by-phase metering of consumed electricity;
    • The device for data collection and transmission RM-USPD 2064M, which includes:
      • The receiver of the data on a power network and on interface RS485;
      • Cellular GSM / GPRS modem;
    • The device for data collection and transmission of RM-USPD 2064, differing from the RM-USPD 2064M by the absence of a GSM / GPRS modem;
    • The software includes:
      • Program configuration and input of meters such as SOEB, STEB in operation;
      • A top-level program designed for system configuration, collection and preliminary processing of information.

    The structural scheme of the system per one block of flats is shown in Fig. 4


    Fig. 4

    Система представленная на рис.4 имеет в своем составе минимальное количество составляющих элементов, т.е. непосредственно сам электросчетчик со встроенным передатчиком по силовой сети и УСПД (устройство сбора и передачи данных). Данные с УСПД посредством встроенного GSM-модема передаются сразу на связной компьютер энергосбыта смотреть рис.5.


    Fig. 5

    Таким образом смонтировать систему на доме может обычный линейный электротехнический персонал который обслуживает счетчики. После установки счетчиков и передачи данных о соответствии № счетчика № квартиры со связного компьютера проводится активация системы, т.е. в УСПД сообщается эти данные и система готова к функционированию. Данные с УСПД передаются в связной компьютер по запросу последнего.

    Электросчетчик СОЭБ-2ПК

    Приборы учета СОЭБ-2ПК устанавливаются вместо существующих индукционных счетчиков и предназначены для коммерческого учета потребления электроэнергии до трех тарифов и передачи данных о потребленной абонентом электроэнергии по силовым проводам на УСПД.

    Основные характеристики счетчика.

    • Номинальное напряжение, В 220 ±20%;
    • Номинальный ток, А 5;
    • Максимальный ток, А 60;
    • Класс точности 1 или 2;
    • Мощность потребления, ВА 10.
    • Диапазон рабочих температур, °C -25…+50.
    • Счетчик может быть запрограммирован для учета электроэнергии по одному, двум или трем тарифам, в соответствии с установленным тарифным расписанием, состоящим из 6-и тарифных зон.
    • Счетчик по силовой сети передает следующие данные:
      • Собственный заводской номер;
      • Дату и время передачи по внутренним часам реального времени;
      • Количество электроэнергии нарастающим итогом;
      • Количество потребленной энергии на 1 число текущего месяца по каждому из трех тарифов;
      • Служебную информацию.
    • Дальность передачи по силовой сети до 200м в пределах одной фазы одного присоединения. Принцип передачи данных по силовой сети – частотная манипуляция (FSK). Для увеличения помехоустойчивости передача ведется на 4-х частотах в диапазоне 50 – 93 кГц

    Устройство сбора и передачи данных РМ-УСПД 2064М.

    Устройство сбора и передачи данных РМ-УСПД 2063 предназначено для приема данных по силовой сети от счетчиков типа СОЭБ-2ПК, приема и управления данными по интерфейсу RS485, а также для обмена информацией по сотовой связи с центральным сервером Энергосбыта. УСПД устанавливается в электрощитовой дома и подключается к трехфазной сети. Трехфазные счетчики, учитывающие общее потребление и потребление МОП, лифтов, субабонентов и т.д., подключаются к УСПД через интерфейс RS485. Питание интерфейса RS485 осуществляется от УСПД.

    Основные характеристики УСПД:

    • Максимальное количество обслуживаемых абонентов 256
    • Максимальная дальность приема по силовой сети 300м
    • Максимальное количество фаз, с которых собирается информация, 3
    • Максимальное количество устройств, подключаемых к интерфейсу RS485, 32

    Счетчик СТЭБ–04-7,5-1К

    Приборы учета СТЭБ-04-7,5-1К устанавливаются вместо существующих трехфазных счетчиков и предназначены для коммерческого учета потребления электроэнергии по трем тарифам и передачи данных о потребленной абонентом электроэнергии по интерфейсу RS485 на УСПД РМ-УСПД 2064М. Счетчик косвенного включения и используется совместно с трансформаторами тока, выбор которых зависит от мощности потребления электроэнергии в конкретном присоединении. Счетчики используются для учета общей электроэнергии, а также для учета потребления мест общего пользования, лифтов, систем дымоотсоса и т.п.

    Основные характеристики счетчика:

    • Номинальное напряжение, В 220/380 ±20%;
    • Номинальный ток, А 5;
    • Максимальный ток, А 7,5;
    • Класс точности 1;
    • Мощность потребления, ВА 10.
    • Диапазон рабочих температур, °C -25…+50.
    • Счетчик может быть запрограммирован для учета электроэнергии по одному, двум или трем тарифам, меняющимся в соответствии с установленным тарифным расписанием, состоящим из 6 тарифных зон.
    • Счетчик передает по интерфейсу RS485 широкий набор данных, среди которых потребление по трем тарифам текущее и на 1 число текущего месяца раздельно по каждой фазе и суммарное, профиль мощности нагрузки и т.п.

    SOFTWARE

    Программное обеспечение, поставляемое в составе системы, предназначено для работы в среде “WINDOWS-2000/XP/2003” и обеспечивает сбор данных от абонентских счетчиков в СУБД MS SQL Server. Программное обеспечение позволяет организовать сбор данных о потребленной электроэнергии, как в масштабах дома, так и в масштабах города. Сбор данных возможен по следующим каналам связи: RS-485, GSM (передача данных) и GPRS. Обработка собранных данных, баланс потребления. Анализ собранных данных. Вывод результата в табличном и графическом виде. Возможность экспорта в таблицы Excel. Доступ к базе данных по ЛВС с разграничением полномочий.

    Наиболее широкое распространение получила система РМС-2050 , т.к. она применяется в частном секторе, где наиболее большие коммерческие потери. Система эксплуатируется и опробована как пилотный проект в 19 городах России и во многих регионах показала экономический эффект от внедрения, при этом не только резко уменьшается небаланс электроэнергии, но и снижается нагрузки на трансформаторные подстанции. Как показывает опыт применения системы платежеспособность населения (уровень собираемости денег) остается на прежнем уровне, а небаланс по электроэнергии доходит до уровня технических потерь.