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Addressing commercial power loss issues

Electricity in the Russian Federation does not have the value of goods, but is one of the types of services supplied by power systems and therefore the theft of electricity is not considered theft of property, and the thief of electricity when it is detected theft can incur only administrative punishment, and the fact of such theft is rather difficult to prove.

This state of affairs for a long time allowed to work out the mechanisms of the theft of electricity in very large quantities. Thus, according to the estimates of energy sales organizations in the private sector, electricity theft on average in Russia is up to 60%, and in the utility sector up to 25% of all electricity consumed by household consumers. Therefore, without new technical means of metering electricity consumption, organizational measures alone cannot cope with this problem.

While for large and medium-sized enterprises, relatively reliable systems of technical and commercial electricity metering have been recently developed, significantly reducing the possibility of its theft, for residential and small-motor consumers, especially in the private sector, required electricity metering devices that protect against electricity theft and lower operating costs. , reliable in operation and most suitable for integration into the automated systems of commercial metering of household electricity consumers (ASKUE BP) until recently was not.

So recommended to reduce commercial losses in the private sector, the method of removal of electricity meters on the facades of private houses or on supports of electrical networks has several disadvantages:

  • carrying out requires installation of electricity meters in reliably protected boxes, with reliable grounding and quick disconnect devices when a person comes under voltage, requires the use of self-supporting insulated wires, etc .;
  • they do not solve the problem of calculating the balance of received and consumed electricity;
  • questions of automation of information gathering are not solved

ASKUE BP for communal housing, for example, the known Kontinium system solves the problem of ASKUE BP for communal housing, but since the data from the meter to the hub are not in digital form, and in the form of telemetry pulses proportional to power consumption, the loss of communication between the meter and a hub leads to a loss of electricity from the meter in proportion to the time of loss of communication.

The specialists of JSC “RiM” together with the Novosibirsk Energy Sales and Energy Saving Fund in the Novosibirsk Region developed a concept for electricity metering which formed the basis of the systems developed below.

The main focus of these systems is:

  • reduction of commercial and technical energy losses;
  • reduction of operating costs;
  • calculation of the balance of received and consumed electricity.

At the same time, the household sector of electricity consumption can be divided into two subsectors, these are:

  • Private (single-family houses, cottages);
  • Communal (apartment buildings).

Based on this, the development of electricity metering devices was carried out taking into account the specifics of electricity consumption in these subsectors.

The private sector has the following main features:

  • A large level of commercial losses of electricity, up to 60%;
  • The great difficulty of access to the meter for verification of indications or to check its technical condition.

The following features are characteristic of the housing sector:

  • Understatement of meter readings when paying for electricity by consumers, commercial losses can reach up to 20%;
  • Energy sales organizations do not have the operational control of consumed and paid electricity;
  • Difficulties of access to the meter for verification of indications or to check its technical condition.

To solve these problems, AMS systems of the domestic sector were developed, which most fully took into account the peculiarities of each private and public sub-sector, these are PMC-2050 and PMC-2060b.

The PMC-2050 system is designed for the private sector and the following tasks:

  • metering devices should provide electricity metering both in case of authorized and unauthorized connection of the subscriber and make any unauthorized connections meaningless;
  • organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information about individual consumption of electricity by each consumer;
  • the metering device must be located in a private area , i.e. the responsibility for the safety and operability of the device is borne by the subscriber (consumer of electricity);
  • to ensure the calculation of the balance of electricity on the set settlement day and hour.

For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software included in the PMC-2050M system was developed:

  • Single-phase multitariff meter - SOEB-2P DR with data transmission over the air and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multitariff meter - STEB-04 / 2-80-DR with data transmission over the air and protection against theft;
  • Three-phase multi-tariff meter - STEB-04 / 1-7,5-Р with data transmission over the radio channel for installation in the TP in order to obtain data for calculating the balance of consumed electricity;
  • The controller’s portable reader is RMRM-2055RK. Reception of data over the air, with subsequent transfer to the computer via RS-232;
  • Software with data transfer drivers to the existing Energy Sales database for further processing.

Counters with theft protection (single-phase and three-phase) are designed with external remote (and) power sensor (s) (DDM), which made it possible to take control of the entire supply line to the subscriber, starting from the VL tower 0.4 kV. The simplified and extended single - phase SOEB-2P DR metering block diagram is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, respectively, and the external view is shown in Photo1.


Fig. one


Fig. 2


Photo 1.

The principle of operation of the counter is based on the fact that the base unit processor (BB) analyzes the data from the output of 2 meters, one that is in the DDM, the second one in the base block and only summarizes the data from the meter that currently has the maximum measured value. power. Data from DDM to the base unit is transmitted in digital form through the power network, for this purpose there is a transmitter in the DDM. The principle of transmission is frequency shift keying (FSK). Transmission is carried out on 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz. Confident transmission distance in the power channel at least 60 meters. Data from the meter is transmitted via radio to the data transfer station (reader) of PMPM-2055RK. The carrier frequency is 433.92 MHz, frequency shift keying (FSK), the transmitter power is not more than 10 MW. This provides a range of reliable reception on the car antenna to 100 meters.

Based on the principle of the meter, we consider the main type of electricity theft:

  • - Any impact separately on the DDM or BB will cause an imbalance of the data from the DDM and the BB and the adder will receive data from the meter that has the maximum power output. For example, shunted BB or made a “surge” on the supply wires, then the current passing through the DDM will be more than through the BB (Iddm> IBB) the data in the adder will be taken from the DDM and vice versa when shunting the DDM Idm <IBB, the data in the adder will be taken from BB.
  • - The counter is disconnected, a temporary connection is made to bypass the counter, see fig. 3


Pic.3

Since the DDM in such a scheme counts the electricity consumed, when the consumption scheme is restored, the data from the DDM will go to the base unit and add to the totalizer. Thus, data on consumption will not be lost, but will be taken into account in full. In addition, the on-line counter log will display information about:

  • Time on / off counter;
  • The amount of kWh consumed by tariffs before and after switching on;
  • Status information before and after inclusion.

Thus, it is possible to conduct a full analysis of consumption and operation modes of the meter.

Features of this type of counter:

  • Two measurement channels;
  • Self-diagnosis;
  • LCD indicator with temperature range up to -36 ° С;
  • Technological grade accuracy;
  • Resistance to climatic, mechanical and electromagnetic effects;
  • Remote digital data transmission over the air to a distance of 100 meters;
  • Work at a voltage of 160 - 380 V.

The main characteristics of the counter:

  • 1. Accuracy class according to GOST 30207-94 2.0;
  • 2. Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
  • 3. The range of operating currents, A 5 - 50;
  • 4. Power detection NSP, kVA, not less than 0.1;
  • 5. Detection time, no more than, min 5;
  • 6. Transmitter power (433.92 MHz), mW 10;
  • 7. Power consumption, VA not more than 10;
  • 8. Additional communication channels-radio channel; RS-232.

Counter functionality:

  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on an accrual basis, separately for the three tariffs;
  • Accounting and indication of the amount of electricity consumed on the first day of the current month, separately for the three tariffs;
  • Automatic tariff switching;
  • Indication of the current tariff;
  • Automatic transition to "winter" and "summer" time;
  • Fixing tariff schedule adjustments and the current time;
  • Fixing the checksum of the tariff schedule;
  • Accounting for the total time of the counter;
  • The accumulation of data on the amount of electricity consumed, separately for the three tariffs for the last 12 months in the internal journal of the meter;
  • The accumulation of operational data on the modes of operation of the counter. The capacity of the counter is 79 records.
  • Automatic daily correction of the clock (± 30 s / day);
  • Data transmission over the air to the mobile data transfer console PMMP-2055 RK.

The following information is transmitted:

  • Own address;
  • Electricity consumed at 3 tariffs on an accrual basis;
  • Electricity consumption at 3 tariffs on the 1st day of the current month;
  • The total time of the counter;
  • Current date and time;
  • Service information;
  • Checksum.

MOBILE READER CONTROLLER.

Mobile reader RMRM-2055 RK (see photo 2) is designed to read data from electricity meters over the air, and transfer them to a PC. Additionally, the reader in the meter reads the programming of the tariff schedule, recording the DDM number, time correction and reading the meter log via the RS-232 channel.


Photo.2

To simplify the controller’s work with the reader, it has three main modes:

  • 1. Receive data only from a specific counter number;
  • 2. Receive data from all meters located in the reception area (general reception);
  • 3. Receiving data only from the specified numbers of counters (selective reception).

In the latter case, the procedure is as follows. From the power supply database, through the communication program with the reader, information is entered in the reader from which subscribers the data should be received. In this case, the following data is entered for each subscriber: - personal account, number of the counter, name of the street and number of the house. And so on each route. There can be several routes and each route describes which counters need to be taken. If for some reason the route does not receive data from some counters, then the controller on the reader's display will see which numbers are not accepted, as well as the addresses of not accepted counters, in order to specifically understand what is going on. After receiving the data from all the planned counters, the data is downloaded into the database of the energy sales organization for further processing via the communication program with the reader.

The reader is a microprocessor unit that provides control of all the nodes of the device, keeping a calendar, storing, viewing and searching account information in the reader's database, as well as controlling a receiving device. All modes are set using the keyboard and displayed on LCD displays.

The main characteristics of the reader:

  • 1. Memory capacity for 7000 subscribers;
  • 2. Display on the LCD of all types of electricity consumption;
  • 3. Communication time by radio channel is not more than 30 seconds;
  • 4. Radio reception range not less than 50 m, to a car antenna not less than 100 m;
  • 5. The exchange rate for RS-232 is not less than 9600 baud;
  • 6. Power consumption not more than 1W;
  • 7. Autonomous power supply or from an external source.

Functionality:

  • Selective reception of information from the meters over the air;
  • General reception of information over the air;
  • Radio search by number of the counter;
  • View database information on the display;
  • Issuance of information on request from an external device through the RS-232 interface;
  • Storage of received information with power off (with built-in remote control batteries);
  • Performance of technological functions (programming in the counters of the new tariff schedule, time correction, entering the DDM number);
  • Indication of battery status;
  • Charging the batteries installed instead of AA elements 1,5V;
  • Additionally, the reader can be powered from 12V on-board vehicle network or through an external power supply from 220V network.

The three-phase meter STEB-04 / 2-80-DR is constructed similarly to the single-phase SOEB-2P DR and has exactly the same functions, intended for installation by consumers with three-phase input.

Three-phase meter STEB-04 / 1-7,5-Р for installation at transformer substations to ensure the calculation of the balance of consumed electricity. The appearance of the counter is shown in photo 3.


Photo.3

Features:

  • Counters have the eight-digit liquid crystal indicator with a wide range of working temperatures.
  • The indicator has a pointer of the type of the displayed parameter.
  • Modifications of meters, characterized by additional transmitters:
    • counters with an “K” index have RS-485 interface, two-wire with external power supply 9 ... 12 V.
    • meters with an “P” index have a radio transmitting device (433.93 MHz, 10 mW) for transmitting data on consumption to the reader of the controller PMMP-2055RK. The communication range is at least 50 m.
  • Functionality:

    • Phase and total energy metering - current and on the first day of the month;
    • Phase and total measurement of average power over a period of 5 ... 30 minutes;
    • Consumption tariffing at three tariffs and six tariff zones;
    • Automatic tariff switching;
    • Indication of the current tariff;
    • Automatic transition to summer or winter time;
    • Accounting for the total time of the counter;
    • Automatic daily adjustment of the clock;
    • Maintaining energy and energy accounting logs for months during the year;
    • Keeping energy-metering logs in phase and total by day during the month;
    • The following data is transmitted over the air:
      • The amounts of electricity consumed at the three tariffs are current and on the first day of the month;
      • The total time of the counter;
      • Current date and time;
      • Counter number;
      • Service information;

    Technical specifications:

    • Rated voltage - V 3'220
    • The range of phase voltages - B 150 ... 400
    • Rated current - A 5
    • Maximum current - A 50 (7.5)
    • Nominal frequency - Hz 50
    • Accuracy class - 1.0
    • Radio range - m 50

    Software supplied regularly:

    • Program configuration and commissioning of counters SOEB, STEB in operation;
    • The service program for a mobile reader controller.

    The PMC-2060b system is designed for the utility sector and the following tasks:

    • (a) organize remote collection and subsequent centralized processing of accounting information on individual electricity consumption by each consumer;
    • (b) The location of the metering device should be in a private area, for example, in an apartment or in a closed part of the landing, i.e. the responsibility for the safety and operability of the device is borne by the subscriber (consumer of electricity);
    • (c) The system should not require the laying of additional communication lines (or require a minimum number of such lines);
    • (d) The system should take into account the general household and apartment-based consumption with the ability to detect unauthorized connections;
    • (e) Ensure the calculation of the electricity balance on the set settlement day and hour.

    In this case, the task should be solved in such a way that ordinary linear personnel could carry out the installation of the system as a usual replacement of meters.

    For the practical implementation of these solutions, a complex of hardware and software is developed that make up the lower level of the system:

    • Single-phase electronic single-rate electricity meter SOEB-2PK –01 with remote transmission of readings via power wires;
    • Electronic single-phase multi-tariff electricity meter SOEB-2PK with remote transmission of readings by power wires;
    • Electronic three-phase multi-tariff electricity meter STEB 04-7.5-1K with remote transmission of readings via the RS485 interface and the possibility of phase-by-phase metering of consumed electricity;
    • The device of collecting and data transmission of RM-USPD 2064M, incorporating:
      • receiver of data on the power network and RS485 interface;
      • cellular GSM / GPRS modem;
    • The device for collecting and transmitting data of the RM-USPD 2064, which differs from the RM-USPD 2064M by the absence of a GSM / GPRS modem;
    • Software includes:
      • Program configuration and commissioning of counters SOEB, STEB in operation;
      • Top-level program designed to configure the system, collecting and preprocessing information.

    The block diagram of the system per one apartment building is shown in Fig.4


    Fig. four

    The system presented in Figure 4 has a minimum number of constituent elements, i.e. directly the meter itself with a built-in transmitter over the power network and controllers (data acquisition and transmission device). Data from the Data Collection and Transmission Device through the built-in GSM modem is transmitted directly to the communication computer of the energy supply network. See Fig.5.


    Fig. five

    Thus, the usual linear electrical engineering personnel who serve the meters can mount the system on the house. After installing the meters and transferring data about the correspondence of the No. of the Apartment No. Apartment from the communication computer, the system is activated, i.e. The Data Administration System reports this data and the system is ready for operation. Data from the Data Collection and Transmission Device is transmitted to the communication computer at the request of the latter.

    Electric meter SOEB-2PK

    Metering devices SOEB-2PK are installed instead of the existing induction meters and are designed for the commercial metering of electricity consumption up to three tariffs and the transmission of data on the electricity consumed by the subscriber through power wires on the Data Administration Device.

    The main characteristics of the counter.

    • Rated voltage, V 220 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 60;
    • Accuracy class 1 or 2;
    • Power consumption, BA 10.
    • Operating temperature range, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The counter on the power network transmits the following data:
      • Own serial number;
      • The date and time of transmission of the internal real-time clock;
      • The amount of electricity cumulatively;
      • The amount of energy consumed on the 1st day of the current month for each of the three tariffs;
      • Service information.
    • The transmission range of the power network is up to 200m within one phase of one connection. The principle of data transmission over the power network is frequency shift keying (FSK). To increase noise immunity, the transmission is carried out on 4 frequencies in the range of 50 - 93 kHz

    The device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2064M.

    The device for collecting and transmitting data RM-USPD 2063 is intended for receiving data over the power network from meters of the SOEB-2PK type, receiving and managing data through the RS485 interface, as well as for exchanging information over cellular communication with the central server of Energosbyt. The control device is installed in the switchboard house and is connected to the three-phase network. Three-phase meters, taking into account the total consumption and consumption of MOS, elevators, sub-subscribers, etc., are connected to the DRC via the RS485 interface. The power of the RS485 interface is provided from the Data Collection and Transmission Device

    The main characteristics of USPD:

    • Maximum number of subscribers served 256
    • Maximum range of reception on the power network 300m
    • The maximum number of phases from which information is collected, 3
    • Maximum number of devices connected to RS485 interface, 32

    Counter STEB – 04-7.5-1K

    The metering devices STEB-04-7.5-1K are installed instead of the existing three-phase meters and are intended for the commercial metering of electricity consumption at three tariffs and the transmission of data on the electricity consumed by the subscriber via the RS485 interface on the USPD RM-USPD 2064M. Indirect activation counter and is used in conjunction with current transformers, the choice of which depends on the power consumption of electricity in a particular connection. Counters are used to account for total electricity, as well as to record the consumption of common areas, elevators, smoke exhaust systems, etc.

    The main characteristics of the counter:

    • Rated voltage, V 220/380 ± 20%;
    • Rated current, A 5;
    • Maximum current, A 7.5;
    • Accuracy class 1;
    • Power consumption, BA 10.
    • Operating temperature range, ° C -25 ... + 50.
    • The meter can be programmed to record electricity at one, two or three tariffs, varying in accordance with the established tariff schedule, consisting of 6 tariff zones.
    • The counter transmits through the RS485 interface a wide set of data, among which consumption on three tariffs is current and on the 1st day of the current month separately for each phase and total, power profile of the load, etc.

    SOFTWARE

    The software supplied as part of the system is designed to work in the “WINDOWS-2000 / XP / 2003” environment and provides for the collection of data from subscriber counters in MS SQL Server DBMS. The software allows you to organize the collection of data on electricity consumed, both at home and in the city. Data collection is possible through the following communication channels: RS-485, GSM (data transmission) and GPRS. Processing the collected data, the balance of consumption. Analysis of the collected data. Output of the result in tabular and graphical form. The ability to export to Excel spreadsheets. Access to the database on the LAN with the division of powers.

    The most widespread system was PMC-2050, because it is applied in the private sector, where the greatest commercial losses. The system is operated and tested as a pilot project in 19 cities of Russia and in many regions showed an economic effect from the introduction, while not only the unbalance of electricity decreases sharply, but also the load on transformer substations decreases. As experience shows, the solvency of the population (the collection rate of money) remains at the same level, and the unbalance in electricity reaches the level of technical losses.