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Bone processing

Gray mordant

To dye the horn in gray paint, boil it first for 15-30 minutes in a saturated solution of lead sugar, then rinse it in clean water and also put it in a solution of nitric acid and nitrous oxide heated to 60 ° C for 20-25 minutes. This tool is not suitable for combs, as if the teeth are suffering from cooking.


Red Mordant for Horn

The following method is recommended for dyeing horn in scarlet dye. The horn of light is boiled for 30 minutes in a solution consisting of 20 g of safflower and 10 g of soda in 0.5 l of water, and later it is put for half an hour in an impotent solution of tartaric acid. Then they take it out and, having washed, they put it again in the safflower solution and then again in the tartaric acid solution also continue until the desired color is developed. Thus, it is easy to get all the shades from the lightest to the deep red. It is only necessary not to forget that the wine-bath tub should always be the last.


Black dressings for horns

As you know, horny items, such as combs, buttons, cufflinks and the like, are often painted in black paint to fake them for more expensive varieties.

There are several ways to do this:

a) Products from the horns are soaked in the following solution, which makes preparations in the cold: 8 parts of mercury dissolve in 8 parts of concentrated nitric acid and 32 parts of soft water. In this dressing, the products are left overnight, after which they are also taken out, washed with water until the wash water becomes more acidic. From this finish combs are painted in scarlet color, but in the case of the use of a more concentrated solution of mercury - in brown. After that, the ridges are transferred to a powerless solution of sulfuric liver (1 g per 1 liter of water) for 1-2 hours. The combs painted now in black paint are washed first with clean water, then acidified with vinegar and, finally, with clean water. After that, they are dried and polished. With the help of such a decoration, horn products are obtained that are in no way inferior, in the opinion of experts, to products made from the horn of a buffalo. Polishing of painted objects should be done carefully, as if the mordant does not creep into the horn deep enough.

b) Horn products are placed overnight in a cool aqueous solution of lead nitric oxide (in the ratio 1: 4), after which they are placed for half an hour in 3% hydrochloric acid solution and finally washed with water. If the color turns out to be uneven, then the operation is repeated once more. This beautiful mordant greatly enhances the value of horny products.


Tortoiseshell horn

If you want to give a horny products tortoise color, then use the following method. Horny products are treated first with diluted nitric acid (1 fraction to 3 parts of water) at a temperature of 30-35 ° C and then also are treated with a mixture of 2 soda elements, 1 part of freshly calcined lime and 1 part of lead leaflet. The dressing of the mordant should not last more than 10-15 minutes in order for the speck on the horn to turn yellow-brown. After that, rinsing from the horns a mordant, wiping it with a rag also put into the cold dyeing bath consisting of 4 elements of the decoction of the scarlet tree (at 10 ° Baume) also 1 elements of the solution of caustic sodium (at 20 ° Baume). Then the horn is removed from the bath, thoroughly washed with water and polished after 12-16 hours. Dyeing decoction makes preparations by boiling down 0.5 kg of a fernambic log in 4-6 liters of water. If tin salts are added to the mordant, you get a bright red tint.


Ivory Whitening

To return the yellowed ivory to its original whiteness, one of the following methods is practiced. The ivory is covered with a thin layer of turpentine and exposed for 3 or 4 days in the sun. Another way: ivory is immersed for some time in hydrogen peroxide, after which it is wiped dry. To speed up the whitening process, the bone is exposed to the rays of a blue quartz electric lamp. At the same time as a friend of the way the bone is made completely snow white.


Silver polished ivory

Ivory products can make a very impressive bright silver polish. Here is a very unsophisticated way: after finishing the product, the ivory product is immersed in an impotent solution of silver nitrate and also, as if it only turns a deep yellow color, it is immersed in clean water and exposed to the sun. After about three hours, the bone turns completely black; at that time, it is carefully rubbed with a rawhide skin, after which the bone acquires a beautiful shiny silver polish.


Coloring billiard balls

To paint the billiard balls in scarlet, they should be immersed in vinegar, in which cochineal is presoaked, and boiled in this vinegar for a few minutes. Then, in order to give the color a more viscous shade, the balls are transferred for 10-15 seconds to a very impotent solution of potash.

Having kept the billiard balls for 6-8 hours in vinegar or alum solution, they are then easy to dye in an excellent yellow color, for which it is enough to lower for some time into the alum saffron decoction. Coloring in green is achieved by immersing the balls in vinegar, in which 1 part of ammonia is dissolved in 3 parts of the coppersmith. If then to transfer these balls to hot liquor from potash, then they will be painted in blue color. Finally, in order to paint the billiard balls black, they should be held for a few minutes in a hot broth of the logs (blue sandalwood), but then transferred to a solution of acetic acid salt.


Aniline Mordant for Bone

Etching the bone with aniline dyes is easier than with other methods, as if it is carried out in a cold bath, which eliminates the possibility of cracking objects. Etching is performed as follows: the objects are put into the basin and also so much water is poured that they are completely covered with it. Then add 2 teaspoons of vinegar to the liquid, also near 1 g of paint, and it doesn't matter if the latter is soluble in alcohol or water. For the desired shades choose the appropriate aniline dyes or make them from several. Bone objects are left in the liquid for 4-8 hours and also taken out immediately upon reaching the desired thickness of tone. Then they are washed with water, dried and polished with Viennese lime and soap. Alcohol varnishes and polishes cannot be consumed here, as they can dissolve the paint on the surface of the bone.

If it is necessary to paint an ivory cue ball in a pair of colors with parallel stripes, then it is already ground, clamped between three thin rods inserted vertically into a small plank, the middle strip is covered with oil lacquer and also painted first with one segment, immersing the ball together with the plank into the corresponding aniline mordant After finishing the coloring, they allow it to dry out, but the varnish is cleaned with turpentine and the given fraction is painted in the desired color, having previously closed the finished portion of the ball with oil varnish. In a similar way, they act if the ball should be painted on three or four sides.