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Treatment of bone
Glossary of terms
For coloring the horn in gray paint, boil it first for 15-30 minutes in a saturated solution of lead sugar, then wash it in clean water also put for 20-25 minutes in a solution heated up to 60 ° C with nitric acid, mercuric oxide. This tool is not suitable for combs, as if the teeth suffer from cooking.
Red mordant for the horn
To paint the horn in scarlet paint, the following method is recommended. The light-horn horn is cooked for 30 minutes in a solution consisting of 20 grams of safflower and 10 g of soda in 0.5 liters of water, and later it is put on for half an hour in a powerless solution of tartaric acid. Then they take it out and wash it again, put it back in the safflower solution, and then again into the solution of tartaric acid, and so continue until the desired color is educated. Thus, it is easy to get all the shades from the lightest up to the dark red color. It is only necessary not to forget that the wine cellar must always be the last.
Black stains for the horn
As you know, horny products, such as combs, buttons, cufflinks, etc., are often painted black for forgery for more expensive varieties.
There are several ways for this:
A) The items from the horn are soaked in the following solution, what makes preparations in the cold: 8 parts of mercury dissolve in 8 parts of concentrated nitric acid and 32 parts of soft water. In this mordant, the products are left overnight, after which they are removed and washed with water until the rinse water becomes acidic. From this finish, the crests are painted in a scarlet color, but in the case of using a more concentrated solution of mercury - in brown. After that, the crests are transferred to the impotent solution of the sulfuric liver (1 g per 1 liter of water) for 1-2 hours. Painted now in black paint combs are washed first with clean water, then acidified with vinegar and, after all, clean water. After that, they are dried and polished. With the help of such a finish, horny products are obtained, not inferior, according to experts, to products made from the horn of a buffalo. Polishing colored objects should be done carefully, as if the mordant does not sneak into the horn deep enough.
B) Horn products are put in a cool aqueous solution of nitric acid lead oxide (1: 4 ratio) overnight, after which they are placed for half an hour in a 3% solution of hydrochloric acid and, finally, washed with water. If the coloring turns uneven, then the operation is repeated once more. This beautiful mordant significantly increases the value of horny products.
Tortoise stains for the horn
If they want to give horny products a tortoise color, then the following method is used. Horny products are treated first with dilute nitric acid (1 share in 3 parts of water) at a temperature of 30-35 ° C and then etched with a mixture of 2 elements of soda, 1 part of freshly burned lime, and 1 part of the lead gland. Acts of mordant should last no more than 10-15 minutes, so that the speck on the horn turned yellow-brown. After that, washing off the horn with a mordant, wiping it with a cloth is also put in a cold dye bath consisting of 4 elements of the decoction of the crimson tree (at 10 ° Boma), as well as 1 element of sodium hydroxide solution (20 ° Bom). Then the horn is removed from the bath, thoroughly washed with water and polished after 12-16 hours. The decoction makes preparations by digesting 0.5 kg of fernambuk logs in 4-6 liters of water. If you add tin salts to the mordant, you will get a bright red hue.
To return the yellowed ivory to the original whiteness, practice one of the following ways. Ivory is covered with a thin layer of turpentine and put up for 3 or 4 days in the sun. Another way: the ivory is immersed for some time in hydrogen peroxide, after which it is wiped dry. To accelerate the process of whitening, the bone is subjected to the action of the rays of a blue quartz electric lamp. With that also the buddy's method, the bone becomes completely snow-white.
Silver Ivory Polished
Products made of ivory can be given a very spectacular bright silver polish. Here is a very simple way: after finishing the ivory product plunges into a powerless solution of silver nitrate and also, as if only it is painted in a dark yellow color, it is immersed in clean water and exposed to the sun. After about three hours the bone is completely black; At that time it is carefully rubbed rawhide, after which the bone acquires a beautiful shiny silver polish.
Staining of billiard balls
To paint billiard balls in scarlet color, they should be immersed in vinegar, which is pre-soaked cochineal, and boil in this vinegar for a few minutes. Then, to give the color a more viscous shade, the balls are transferred for 10-15 seconds into a very powerless potash solution.
After keeping the billiard balls 6-8 hours in vinegar or alum solution, they are easy to then color in an excellent yellow color, for which it is enough to lower it for some time in the saffron alum. Coloring in green is achieved by immersing the balls in vinegar, in which 1 part of ammonia is dissolved into 3 parts of a copper coin. If then transfer these balls into hot liquor from potash, then they will turn blue. Finally, to paint the billiard balls in black, they should be held for several minutes in a hot decoction of the logs (blue sandalwood), but then transferred to a solution of acetic acid salt.
Aniline stains for bone
The etching of the bone with aniline paints is easier than with other methods, as if it is carried out in a cold bath, which eliminates the possibility of cracking of objects. Etching is carried out as follows: objects put in a basin also pour so much water that they were completely covered by it. Then add 2 teaspoons of vinegar to the liquid also near 1 g of the paint, all the same, whether the latter is soluble in alcohol or water. For the right shades, choose the appropriate aniline paints or make up several of them. Bone objects are left in the liquid for 4-8 hours also taken out immediately after reaching the desired thickness of the tone. Then they are washed with water, dried and polished with Viennese lime and soap. Alcohol paints and varnishes can not be consumed here, as they can dissolve the paint on the surface of the bone.
If you want to paint a billiard ball of ivory in a pair of colors in parallel strips, then it is already sanded between sanded between three thin sticks inserted vertically into a small plank, the middle strip is covered with oil varnish, and first one segment is stained, plunging the ball together with the plaque into the corresponding aniline Mordant. Having finished coloring, allow it to dry out, but the varnish is peeled off with turpentine and stains this part in the required color, having preliminarily closed the finished share of the ball with oil varnish. Similarly, they act if the ball needs to be painted on three or four sides.