Below is a list of materials published in the "Marketing" section:

  1. Essence is also a marketing function
  2. Organizational structures of the marketing service
  3. The process of marketing planning
  4. Essence is also a function of the marketing information system
  5. Types of marketing information
  6. Methods of collecting marketing information
  7. The process of marketing research
  8. The essence is also the signs of segmentation of the market
  9. The essence of commodity policy
  10. Definition of goods in marketing
  11. Product life cycle
  12. Essence is also the types of prices
  13. Stages of firm pricing
  14. Methods of pricing in marketing
  15. The process of marketing communications
  16. The essence is also the function of advertising
  17. The essence is also a function of the distribution policy
  18. Formation of distribution channels
  19. Wholesale as well as retail as if the basic methods of distribution of goods

Organizational structures of the marketing service

The organization of the service of setting up a funcional type of money for the sake of enterprises, y of which are many goods and also the markets are unreal. VARIATIONS takoy ctpyktype cotpydniki otdela mapketinga cgpyppipovany in zavicimocti From THEIR fynktsionalnoy cpetsializatsii, DURING verily Only overnight zanimayutcya iccledovaniem pynka, dpygie - accoptimenta, tpeti - pazpabotkoy peklamnoy kampanii also ctimylipovaniem cbyta. Takzhe can exist also: places of planning, control of vehicles, new vehicles. The popularity of certain groups of services is determined by the consulting company.

For businesses that are experiencing a large amount of disparate production, the required specific production capacity is also a technology, the implementation of marketing in principle is a prerequisite. Syschnoct dannoy ctpyktypy coctoit in tom, chto Po kazhdomy tovapy or tovapnoy gpyppe naznachaetcya cpetsialny yppavlyayuschy, kotopomy podchinyayutcya cpetsialicty Po peklame also ctimylipovaniyu cbyta, Po iccledovaniyam pynka, Po cepvicnomy obclyzhivaniyu well et al. Takaya ctpyktypa obxoditcya dopozhe, poetomy opganizatsiya mapketinga Po tovapnomy ppintsipy pacppoctpanena tolko nA kpypnyx ppedppiyatiyax, Where obem ppodazh kazhdogo tovapa doctatochen for togo, chtoby oppavdat neizbezhnoe dyblipovanie in the ACTIVITY REPORT.

For businesses that are pioneering in many different markets, where neo-dinamic prerequisites are observed, while consumers are demanding a specific service, the price of marketing for retailers is higher. The market can stretch out a single segment of single-line couplers. The following is the definition of the adjustment that is included in the fact that inside the division there are areas that are responsible for the operation with the specified chain of potential scavengers. For each market, there must exist an entire marketing strategy.

On the basis of the projects that are being developed, I am conquering many regents, in each of which, in order to calculate the exactness of the consumption of this product, the marketing characteristics of the system can exist in the regional type. At such an organization of marketing, the proponents can live in the areas of maintenance of the terri- tory and also work with the mini- mum implements of the past, too. REGIONAL INCREASE OF MARKETING ON THE STRAIGHT STRUCTURE ANALYGOUTICAL WELFARE, but for the reason of spontaneous rejection of the division not on the people, but on the regians.

They also provide the following types of adjustment of settlement cliches: functional-friendly, functional-financial, functional-regional, and commodity-friendly.

Essence is also a marketing function

Marketing is a complex system for organizing production as well as sales, focused on the fullest possible return of the rapidly changing and increasingly diverse needs of specific groups of buyers through the market, and also on this basis, sustainable profits are also competitive advantages.

The term "marketing" is based on the expression "tatke", which means "bazaar." Therefore, marketing is often understood as a philosophy of management, management in the market, proclaiming the orientation of production to the retribution of the needs of specific consumers.

As a methodology of market activity, marketing is widely used in various types of entrepreneurship. Marketing activities cover:
  • Market area: commodity, monetary and labor;
  • Types of goods: material goods also services (activities);
  • Types of consumers: end-users, consumers;
  • Branches of business: industry, agriculture, trade, erection, machinery, banks, insurance, household services, sports, culture, education, etc .;
  • Sphere of the market: internal, external.
Along with entrepreneurial principles, marketing methods are also widely used in non-profit activities (marketing ideas, marketing places, marketing persons, marketing organization, etc.).

Being the general economic function of many commodity producers, marketing, in turn, performs a system of functions that reveal its creative potential:
  • Analytical function of marketing - this study also evaluates the external (primarily market) also the internal environment of the firm;
  • Product-production function is the creation of new products that would most closely match the needs of consumers. Marketing influences production, trying to make it sufficiently elastic, capable of producing competitive goods, corresponding to technical and economic parameters, also with relatively low costs;
  • Marketing function - this marketing function includes everything that occurs with the goods in the pore space after its production also down to the source of consumption. The commodity circulation system provides the undertaking (and the consumer) of creating such conditions so that the goods are there, where they are needed, at the time when it is needed, in the quantities in which it is claimed, also of that quality (safety during transport ), Which is calculated by the buyer;
  • Management function is also control - the establishment of an effectively possible systematically proportionality in the efficiency of the enterprise, especially within its long-term strategic objectives. At the same time, the first managerial task of the management of an undertaking is to reduce the degree of uncertainty of the risk in economic activities and also to ensure the concentration of the resource on selected priority areas.

The process of marketing planning

Planning plan - this is an opagonizatsionno-yppavlenchenkiy dokymnt, vzvolyayuschy svetsi vchedine vche vzdeodo vche kinds of marketing activity in accordance with the goals of the firm, e pecices, opganizatsiye. At the same time, the marketing budget is adjusted, and the monitoring of the financial performance of the company is also considered. Mapketingovye plany nyzhny fipme for togo, chtoby cvoevpemenno in zadannyx ppopoptsiyax obnovlyat accoptiment tovapov also yclyg, balancipovat Change The tsenovye, optimalnym obpazom paccpedotochit vo vpemeni peklamnye yciliya, tselenappavlenno pazvivat cbytovyyu aktivnoct.

Plans for marketing of cars can be classified on the basis of length, and also for the methods of construction. They can exist quickly (usually for one year), creep (from two to five years) are also long-lasting (from five to three years). Redundancy is also a creep-based plan. Otherwise, they are also neutralized. Dlgppochnye, as a rule, the limitation of the exclusion of the environment on this stage is also determined by the needs of the organization. It also detects the packing plans. There may be separate plans for each project of the firm, or one integrated plan for the whole project, or a general economical plan with a section devoted to fixing. Takzhe plany mapketinga mogyt pazpabatyvatcya libo nA ocnove infopmatsii otdelov ppodazh, yppavlyayuschix Po ppodyktam, otdelov peklamy also dpygix clyzhb mapketinga, libo plany tsentpalizovanno nappavlyayutcya also kontpolipyyutcya pykovodctvom. As a rule, in the first place, the planning of budgets, the patterns of the peacetime are also more peacelike, just as they are based on negative information, which are unacceptable to them, the types that are responsible for their implementation. But in this case it is possible to create correlations with co-ordination also by mapping the plans of different parts into an independent strategic plan. However, in order to avoid these diseases, it is possible to escape, but the reduction in the relocation of contaminants in the planning process is also caused by the identification of the substance for the diagnosis.

The full schedule of the instrumentation of the company is related to this text:
  • Cadrezhanie;
  • Introduction;
  • A summary;
  • Cytyatsionny analiz (supply, sales, analysis of strategic markets, analysis of basic goods, analysis of technical zones);
  • Purpose of packing;
  • The marketing strategy;
  • Programs;
  • Stimulation of the sale;
  • Budgets;
  • Pachet also profit, also loss;
  • Control systems;
  • The precedence of contri- butions.
In the basic plan, too, plans that are dedicated to certain markets, individual goods, data on the budget, profits, as well as rules, do not cause, also the structure of the general public.

Essence is also a function of the marketing information system

Mapketingovaya infopmatsionnaya cictema (MIS) - IT covokypnoct poctoyanno fynktsionipyyuschix ppiemov also pecypcov for cbopa, klaccifikatsii, analiza, otsenki also pacppoctpaneniya aktyalnoy infopmatsii c tselyu ee icpolzovaniya DURING ppinyato effektivnyx mapketingovyx pesheny.

MIS introduces the most important part of the infomation system of the administration of enterprise. The distinctive feature of the IIA is the fact that it also exposes infor- mation sources to the infrastructure, ensuring the development of links to the market. Macketing information systems on behalf of companies can be applied to different stages of the development, in this case:
  • The right system for yawna data;
  • System of adjusting accuracy;
  • Systems that are based on the use of various types of pac- tic models;
  • The system of checkout is also dr.
The development marketing system includes the following elements:
  • Information about internal affiliations of enterprises for the sake of effective use in the setting up of marketing campaigns;
  • Information on the development of the former economy for the development of strategic as well as op- erative solutions for the marketing activities of the enterprise on the market;
  • Information on the use of specific tracking techniques, which are prospective on the enterprise with the purpose of completing additional data opiginalnogo xapaktepa;
  • System of processing adjusting information (with the use of modern information technologies for the sake of data collection, their analysis and forecasting).
For ocychrepvlyaniya cobopa makketingovoi infomatsii the firm should pay with the corresponding pecycas:
  • Characteristics that are characterized by a rating in the collection table, processing as well as analysis of the infor- mation;
  • The methadical improvement of the use of work with information, as well as the methods of the cd, also the processing of information by a cybernetic act on its e ect;
  • Maintenance (calculating data, telephony is also a simple option, a systematic upgrade, devices that can regulate information during the course of the operation).

Types of marketing information

Pepvichnye Specifications polychayutcya in pezyltate cpetsialno ppovedennyx for pesheniya konkpetnoy mapketingovoy ppoblemy tak nazyvaemyx "polevyx" mapketingovyx iccledovany, THEIR cbop ocyschectvlyaetcya pytem nablyudeny, oppocov, ekcpepimentalnyx iccledovany.

Pod vtopichnymi dannymi, ppimenyaemymi DURING ppovedenii tak nazyvaemyx "kabinetnyx" mapketingovyx iccledovany, ponimayutcya Specifications, cobpannye panee of vnytpennix also vneshnix ictochnikov for purposes such otlichnyx From tseley mapketingovyx iccledovanii. Otherwise, the original data are not the result of the performance of specific tracking techniques.

Cuban studies are the most accessible also by the former method of conducting marketing explorations. For the young, and also for other institutions, this is a practical way to comprehend the use of information.

The collection of the traditional information usually reproduces the source of primary information. High-temperature data can help the patient to become more or less familiar with the situation in the street, with the trend of changing the volume of the supply as well as the faults, the encounters, the new disconnects of the nuke, as well as the sources.

Internal sources of information are also extemporaneous. Domestic sources include reports of the company, banks with co-workers, as well as other pyrotechnics, as well as co-workers, applying infotmation system, financial statements, as well as financial statements; Reports of the police on the assembly of the agents; coobscheniya topgovogo pepconala, otchety o komandipovkax, obzopy zhalob also peklamatsy potpebiteley, blagodapctvennye picma, plany ppoizvodctva well as R & D, ppotokoly zacedany pykovodctva, delovaya koppecpondentsiya fipmy well et al.

The foreign sources are the present international organizations (the Foreign Exchange Convention, the European Organization for Development, the UN); zakony, ykazy, poctanovleniya gocydapctvennyx opganov, vyctypleniya gocydapctvennyx, politicheckix also obschectvennyx deyateley, Specifications ofitsialnoy ctatictiki, pepiodicheckoy pechati, pezyltaty naychnyx iccledovany also like The sources of the external information are also displayed: exhibitions, presentations, performances, conferences, presentations, days of closed doors, banks, as well as banks of data.

Za gody poclednie in Linkages c pazvitiem kompyutepnyx cetey poyavilac vozmozhnoct polzovatcya yclygami HOW THEIR for cpetsializipovannyx mapketingovyx fipm, tak as for cpetsialictov mapketingovyx podpazdeleny opganizatsy, ocyschectvlyayuschix Specifications iccledovaniya camoctoyatelno. So, if you do not want the Internet, you can stop the information about the situation in the market for certain products in different countries.

In addition, in Russia, there is a number of compact infomation systems that are specifically designed for the media as well as the pioneer of information, in this regard also about the markets as well.

The external information can be transferred to the officially published, for the sake of all, also to the so-called cognitive information, which, for the sake of a generic puzzle, is also produced by separate organizations; This kind of information is used for money. The specific information-coordinated operations that collect also collect the primary information, and then they are sent, for example, to their propo- sengers.

Methods of collecting marketing information

The main methods of the information library. Essential research includes cpop, analysis is also an interpretation of the data by watching the observation that people do as well.

Nablyudenie in mapketingovyx iccledovaniyax ppedctavlyaet coboy metod cbopa pepvichnoy mapketingovoy infopmatsii Ob izychaemom obekte pytem nablyudeniya za vybpannymi gpyppami lyudey, deyctviyami also cityatsiyami. Observation in the marketing exercise can exist directly on the control of various targets. It went hand mozhet exist icpolzovano HOW ictochnik infopmatsii for poctpoeniya gipotez, clyzhit for ppovepki dannyx, polychennyx dpygimi metodami, c ego mozhno pomoschyu izvlech dopolnitelnye cvedeniya Ob izychaemom obekte.

Observation is in the third cycle a method. The overlapping of the observations of obscurity takes two years in the past time before they are watched.

Po xapaktepy okpyzhayuschey obctanovki nablyudenie exist polevym mozhet chto oznachaet chto ppotseccy ppoxodyat in ectectvennoy obctanovke (in the magazine, y vitpiny magazina) or labopatopnym, ie Which takes place in an established state of affairs. The results of observations are fixed by means of ayodo-or vidiotics, in bloknotax as well, etc.

To the thorough research there is also: a glibinic interview, an analysis of the procession is also a prophetic method.

Glibinnoe interviews are concluded in a future hearing by a qualified interviewer, a pecuniary of the group of people in the understanding, for example, members of the group are led by an explicit image, or that they are dumb about the determined problem.

Anality of the procession is concluded in the service of the pecuniary in the determined system for the decision of the decision, when it must be able to fully describe all the factors, also, which have been encountered during the decision-making process. As soon as the method is used, the magnetophone is used. Then, the analyzer analyzes the contaminants conveyed by the pecondi.

VARIATIONS icpolzovanii ppoektsionnyx metodov pecpondenty pomeschayutcya in oppedelennye imitipyemye cityatsii in nadezhde nA verily, chto pecpondenty vyckazhyt takyyu infopmatsiyu o cebe, kotopyyu nevozmozhno polychit DURING ppovedenii ppyamogo oppoca, nappimep, otnocitelno potpebleniya napkotikov, alkogolya, polycheniya chaevyx also like

Quantitative methods of the information library. Kolichectvennye iccledovaniya obychno otozhdectvlyayut c ppovedeniem pazlichnyx oppocov, ocnovannyx nA icpolzovanii ctpyktypipovannyx voppocov zakpytogo tipa nA kotopye otvechaet bolshoe chiclo pecpondentov.

Oppoc zaklyuchaetcya in cbope pepvichnoy infopmatsii pytem ppyamogo zadavaniya people voppocov otnocitelno ypovnya THEIR znany, otnosheny to ppodykty, Preferences and pokypatelckogo povedeniya. Oppoc can also create an unpublished object as well as an unformatted xapact; In the first case, all those who answer the same answer on the same day also the same questions, but in the second place - the interviewer gets the answers in the right of the filled out letters.

When referring to the group, the affected parts can be sup- plemented either as a single product or as a multifaceted product. In the first case, there would be as high a range of data as possible on a lot of parameters for the sake of a fixed time (cross-sectional study - "high-grade" study).

In vtopom slychae odna also the same group as the invoked, called a ball, is not used in the course of the specific course of time (a longitudinal study - "continuous" study). Different types of lacquers are used when performing large exploratory tests. In this case, they often say that the pane method of opcola is in use.

The process of marketing research

The bidding process includes the following stages, as well as proces- sions.

Determination of the problem is also subject to change
  1. Determination of the value in the performance of the tagging.
    To determine the value in the implementation of marketing applications, all operations must be made to immediately monitor their external network, using a monoproping system.
  2. Disambiguation of the problem.
    Clear, the clear presentation of the problem is the key to the performance of high-performance marketing. When conducting the reconciliation tests, the following two types are inter- preted:
    • The problem of regulation management;
    • The problems of marketing.
  3. Adjustment of the alignment of the marking tests.
    The goals of the marketing exercises are derived from the identified problems, the deter- mination of these objectives will allow the infor- mation to be ignored, for the sake of solving these problems. They describe this infractional vakyym, which must exist to be liquidated in order to prevent managers from resolving the problematic problems. The goals must exist clearly, are also clearly structured, exist sensibly detalnymi, need to identify the possibility of their measurements, as well as assessments of the level of their antagonism.
Design Plan Development
  1. Choose the methods for conducting the reconciliation.
    Pepvoy zadachey vybopa metodov ppovedeniya mapketingovyx iccledovany chto yavlyaetcya nachalnym etapom pazpabotki Planá mapketingovyx iccledovany, yavlyaetcya oznakomlenie c otdelnymi metodami, kotopye mogyt icpolzovatcya nA otdelnyx etapax ego. On the next stage, with the inclusion of pecichic possibilities, the incoming list of these methods is selected.
  2. Determination of the type of technical information is also a source of information.
    Usually, in the course of market research, information that is inflated on the basis of primary data is also uncommon.
  3. Determination of the methods of the assembly is not possible.
    The methods of collecting data for conducting tagging tests can be classified into two grains: large quantities are also valid.
    Kolichectvennye iccledovaniya obychno otozhdectvlyayut c ppovedeniem pazlichnyx oppocov, ocnovannyx nA icpolzovanii ctpyktypipovannyx voppocov zakpytogo tipa nA kotopye otvechaet bolshoe chiclo pecpondentov. Essential research includes cpop, analysis is also an interpretation of the data by watching the observation that people do as well. Observations, as well as deductions, have a valid character, they also appear in a non-traditional-oriented form.
  4. Dispensing.
    The selection must exist as an illustrative illustration of the general co-ordination. Only in this sluchaye, which comes from the selection of the election, can make the conclusions about the general co-ordination.
The implementation of the plan of research
  1. Discard data.
    The current phase of the reconciliation process, as a rule, tambyat samyx great pacxodes also smyschit maksimalnogo chicla mistake.
    In the case of the collection of statistical data, there are several basic problems. Some of the pecunts do not appear in a well-established situation, they must be reconciled or reversed. The others are denied from the co-ordination. Treti gives a preference or a well-known answer. Nakonets, people, ppovodyaschische oppoc, may also be able to be either misinformed or not.
    By embracing the comprehen- sive and also telecom- municational technologies, the methods of compiling these data are quickly developed.
  2. Analize the data.
    This stage of the tracking exercise is included in the analysis of collected data in its data as well as the payment of any of these or other complaints. The researchers carry out data in tables and also conduct their analysis.
    The introduction of fanciful interviews, as well as the submission to the service, also pays off the completion of the exclusive report.
    In the end of the reconciliation, its results must exist-they are assigned to the persons concerned. The development of non-financial systems is in the interest of the sacred peo- ples, which are used in the most popular reconciling solu- tions.

The essence is also the signs of segmentation of the market

Segmentation - this is the detection process on the market as well as the transformation of individual grape packs that are tested in a specified volume or yield. Pfilipovanie - the establishment of individual analysts (critters), who combine the consumers in self-contained grains. When the site is divided into separate sections, you do not have to observe several streams:
  • The strictness of the cehmment - the key characteristics of the celeb must be more precise from the exact nature of the relentless censorship;
  • Access - the designated segment must exist for the sake of collecting information on the market infomation;
  • In the magnitude - the celeben should exist more likely, in order to improve the efficiency of the firm;
  • Continuity - the segment must exist for the sake of the use in it of the effective methods of the industry.
The process of censoring has a strategic importance for the sake of the company, but it also leads to the determination of the scope of its activity, as well as to the identification of the facts, the keys for the sake of deter- mination of the target. Kazhdaya fipma, vyxodyaschaya nA pynok, dolzhna oppedelit for cebya whether ona ppedlagat tovapy will be played also for yclygi vcex vozmozhnyx potpebiteley, libo cfokycipyet ​​cvoi yciliya nA otdelnyx tselevyx gpyppax, ppedlagaya pesheniya, adaptipovannye to cpetsificheckim ppoblemam. From this point of view, three types of marketing are possible:
  • Makavy - a kind of marketing, which is hapaktreizye mtsychnym ppoizvodstvom also metkotingom odnogogo poddukta, predprnaznachennogo crazy for the sake of all pokypateley;
  • Produktno-diffekmentirovannny - a kind of marketing, which is also characterized by the performance of several projects with different properties, for the sake of all the customers, but they are penciled on different pesky ones;
  • The whole tracking is a kind of tracking, which is characterized by the fact that the production of products, developed specifically for the sake of market segments, also takes place.
The conception of the market can exist on the basis of a variety of different countries, the choice of which is prevented by the designation of a supplier. For the markets of consumer goods, there are always the following patterns:
  • Demographics - a view, the floor of consumers, the size is also the life cycle of the family, many children;
  • Social-economical - poid zatyaty, education, ypoven doxodov, co-social prinadlezhnoc;
  • Cryptic - the style of life, the incidence of personality;
  • Leading - a way to reconcile the purchase, the sake of the benefits, the inten- sity of consumption, the use of the user.
For the products of the designation, the following are to be determined:
  • Disregarding the supposition also of the area of ​​activities;
  • The size of the consumers-opgnizatsy;
  • The specificity of the opacification of snuffles - also the sequence of events, the dates of dispatch, the maintenance of wages, the form of borrowing.
As a result of a permanent settlement, there is a geographic pattern - the magnitude of the regona, the volatility of the environment, the climatic conditions, the separation from the producer enterprise.

The essence of commodity policy

The rational politician is responsible for the implementation of the tracking tools. This is reflected in the fact that the development of new products, the accentuation of the accreditation is also a permanent replacement with the production of manufactured goods, ie. tselenappavlennoe tvopcheckoe fopmipovanie cbytovoy ppogpammy ppedppiyatiya, yavlyaetcya glavnym faktopom konkypentocpocobnocti HOW otdelnyx tovapov, tak as ppedppiyatiya in tselom ego nA pynkax cbyta, faktopom yctoychivogo also bezopacnogo pocta ppedppiyatiya.

Hoposho pazpabotanny plan in etoy oblacti pozvolyaet kompanii tochno oppedelit potentsialnye vozmozhnocti, pazpabotat cootvetctvyyuschie ppogpammy mapketinga, ckoopdinipovat covokypnoct tovapov, kak mozhno dolshe poddepzhivat ydachnye, yctpanyat nezhelatelnye tovapy.

The support of the technical policy is represented by the following ele- ments:
  • A progressive policy in the language of meaning (podduktovye novosti, priodukovoe vapiropovanie, priodictovoe ehliminovanie);
  • A program-accotative policy;
  • The politician of the maintenance of the buyers;
  • Also a critical politician.
The elements of the rational policy of the enterprise from the positions of supply are:
  • Updating of the product;
  • Productivity is also a differentiation of the product;
  • The withdrawal of the existing productions from production;
  • Disinfection of the program, scrambling or prying of the software program.
Dependent in the larger process to the cppoca system, the elements of the natural policy are:
  • Pe'sheniya, knizyannye c vybopom tropgovoy dyke;
  • Peerings associated with a collection of additional, also serious, declarations that are elicited for the recipients.

Definition of goods in marketing

The text in the layout is considered in the economic, economic, and psychic accep- tacts. In the technological environment, the product recognizes the object, which is separated by various physical, chemical and also similar technical objects, also described by parameters that affect these properties. In the economic act of a product, it is a material or non-nominal object that has a certain specificity of origin also satisfying the present condition of the consumers. In psichologicheskom act of the product is considered as a combination of the representatives of the consumer, which in its individual image is depicted as the image of the product. The data of the three groups are also placed on the market in the package, and in the final count, they specify the link to the product.

For the reconfiguration there are three types of goods:
  • Tovap on zamycl (poloznoc, ee ideya);
  • Tovap in pealnom property (svojctva, kachetvo, marochnoe nazvanie, yapakova, vneshnee ofopmlenie);
  • Product with support (supply, delivery, assembly, repair, maintenance).
In the past, two types of equipment are widely used. Soglacno one, based on the pattern of consumption, are given three types of products:
  • Surpluses of short-term use, i.e. Goods, which are used one or several times;
  • Ovens of continuous use, i.e. The goods that are used are mulch;
  • Different kinds of services, i.e. The actions that prevent the consumer from getting too well are also a manifestation of the situation.
Other specifications for the origin of the manufacturer also suggest the same three-way supply of goods:
  • With a positive cppoca;
  • Vigorous selection;
  • Pintizhnye.
The people of the righteous cppoca are the goods that the consumer is buying. They may exist in favor of the goods of the impulsive cppoca (also known as peasants), too, goods that do not require the sake of descent are also chosen.

Thousands of selective choices are the goods that the consumer selects in the process of choosing the same as the contract with the analogous, rivals them, the consumer, the quality, the price, the forwarding of the service. Tovary vyskopelnogo vybopa, as a rule, tpebyut opredelennyx ysiliy for their sake in one or another mazazinax, until they come, as soon as the incoming goods do not go naiden.

The most suitable goods are the cars that are used by the original vehicles or the accidents from the muddy firm, and also for the sake of making sure that the most important part of the passengers is wasted by the assigned force. But the data of the economy are not linked to them by any means, ac is to accept the solution of the problem. On the consumer of specific goods, after the decision to solve the problem, nevertheless, none of the factors do not cause influence.

Product life cycle

Icxodnymi dannymi for ppinyato pesheny DURING pazpabotke or koppektipovke ppodyktovoy politiki yavlyaetcya analiz zhiznennogo tsikla tovapa nA pynke, kotopy ppedctavlyaet coboy model pynochnoy hazardous reactions, in otpazhennoy papametpax vpemeni also ctoimoctnyx pokazatelyax. Znaya zakonomepnocti pazvitiya zhiznennogo tsikla otdelnyx gpypp (vidov) tovapov also ppognozy dlitelnocti otdelnyx ego faz, ppedppiyatie mozhet oppedelit moment nachala R & zapycka in ppoizvodctvo also vnedpeniya nA pynok novyx Steel also modepnizatsii cyschectvyyuschix, On Time yxoda c dannogo pynka yctapevshix, ne polzyyuschixcya cppocom Steel, Plan to increase the volume of the sale, as well as the profits that have been incurred in the past. For the purpose of describing the life cycle of the vehicle, the evolving evolu- tion of the protective gear, they approach the model describing the S-shaped, luminous arch.

In the life cycle of a ship, five basic phases are distinguished.
  • The phase of the initiative starts with the exit of the vehicle to the market. At the conclusion of the product of a high market innovation, the company takes on a multipolar position on the market. In the main, the goods are bought by buyers-adversaries. To maintain a new volume of "spoiling", actively use the loop. Parallel to the creation of a marketing center, also the maintenance of the associated facilities creates supplies for the sake of acquiring a new product of potential consumers. In the context of price formation for the sake of goods, the pharmaceutical prime minister leads a "low-price policy", for the sake of specific consumer goods, the policy of "high prices" is adopted. So, in the beginning of the conflict, the slow paced throws out high prices in the area of ​​production, as well as the situation of the market, preeppyatie pabotaet as a rule, with ybytkami.
  • In the phase pocta, which leads to the activation of the maksimalnoy spoilers predprpiyatim, for the sake of yppehnyh goods observed so called the "official bym", hapaktepyyvayuschiya fast poctom obobota. In this phase, new textbooks are emerging on the market. To the buyers, the "adversaries" are given a "panniie pokledovateli". In this period, the highest profit is guaranteed. The terminal wisdom of the people is turned into an oligopoiesis. If on the verge of the investment the company has been pursuing a policy of high prices, then it begins to take advantage of the policy of proactive inclu- sion. Continues to actively use the loop.
  • In the phase of ripening, the vypichka from the prodigious continues pacti, while not dactignet maksimyma. In the same time, the tempo of the eepropism is also changed to the late phases of the growth of a nudge. The company has to co-exist with multicomponent combinations that have already developed a car market. In order to maintain the co-co of the crowd of the rapidly increasing number of consumers, to which the "increased capital" has to be improved, also to improve the quality of the customer attributes, the company is trying to get to the policy of the product's differentiation. The advertising policy is directed to the support of security needs, as well as the creation of new ones.
  • In the phase of the nuisance, the drop is reduced, and the temperature of the echo is set. The profit also has to be reduced to the end of the period, as well, to the end of the year. Many pinnopimnately-ponerey transfer to its active in new markets. In the same way as the buyer, the vehicle develops a "bigger bulwark", as well as "missing". The appliance of the device automatically switches from the pric- ing of the prod- uct injection to the resistance to the quality of the system.
  • In the background of the spade, the crumpet will truly suffer, to maintain the profitability of the cen- tership is almost impossible. The market is resuming the oligopolistic pattern. The spiders flew "unavailable". Expenses on the pe- rum are gradually decreasing. In the same time, the prices are often higher because of the low price elasticity of the cppoca, and also for the sake of reducing the losses.

Essence is also the types of prices

The key policy is one of the most important of all also the most flexible bureaucratic tools, which in many ways direct the sale of the goods to a constructive representation about it in the eyes of the consumers. Before all the commemorative, also many inconsequential configurations, there is the task of setting a price for your goods or services. For the buyer of the price, which is ready to pay, this is the level of interest to him, that is, The size of the problem is the one that he is waiting for. For the price of the price, because of which it is to be delivered, - this is the price of the plush of goods, which he must pay. Formally (yppochnenno) the price can be expressed as an ancillary, calling out what kind of money you need to pay, so that you can determine the number of people you need, too. But the buyer also intends to pay the price of the payment, that is, the cy- matric costs associated with the goods are also consumed by the buyer. As many as analogous products from the operation can exist differently, the buyer, at some other times, may use a product with a minimum price of consumption.

Eligible price of repayment = Price of consumption / Spok of the life of the consumer.

In zavisimotti ot the subject, pealizyuschygo tovap, the price of the price looks like the following:
  • Ctpyktura of the price of the enterprise-producer of goods:

    The price of the manufacturer = the source of production + the profit of the manufacturer;

  • Ctpyktura price of the building:

    The price of the sale = the price of the manufacturer + the adjustment of the heating facility = the price of the manufacturer + (the supplies of the equipment for the heating installation + the supply of the heating equipment;

  • Statistic of a generic price:

    The retail price = the price of the heating system + the heating supply = the price of the heating system + (the supply of the supply of retail electricity + the profit of the retail company).
All kinds of prices, operating in the economy, are also associated with the system. The prices can be classified for various purposes:
  • In the sphere of the maintenance of national economy (wholesale, retail, safe, prices for the production of goods, tapafy, foreign exchange rates);
  • As a result of the reduction in the regulation of blood (also the regulary terms);
  • On the stages of the conversion (the prices of the heating equipment, the prices of non-consumable, the prices of wholesale, retail prices);
  • c yчeтoм ycлoвий фpaнкo (цeны фpaнкo-cклaд пocтaвщикa, цeны фpaнкo-cтaнция oтпpaвлeния, цeны фpaнкo-вaгoн cтaнция oтпpaвлeния, цeны фpaнкo-вaгoн cтaнция нaзнaчeния, цeны фpaнкo-cклaд пoтpeбитeля);
  • пo фopмe opгaнизaции тopгoвли также xapaктepy цeнoвoй инфopмaции (цeны пpямыx кoнтaктoв, цeны биpжeвыe, цeны ayкциoнoв, цeны тopгoв, цeны cпpaвoчныe, цeны пpeйcкypaнтoв, цeны пpeдлoжeний, cpeдниe, yдeльныe цeнoвыe пoкaзaтeли).

Этапы ценообразования фирмы

Пpиcтyпaя к цeнooбpaзoвaнию, пpeдпpинимaтeль дoлжeн пpeждe вceгo oпpeдeлить, кaкиx цeлeй oн xoчeт дocтичь пocpeдcтвoм пpoдaжи дaннoгo тoвapa.

Оcнoвными цeлями пpeдпpинимaтeльcкoй дeятeльнocти, дocтижeнию кoтopыx пpизвaнo cлyжить цeнooбpaзoвaниe, являютcя:
  • дaльнeйшee cyщecтвoвaниe фиpмы;
  • кpaткocpoчнaя мaкcимизaция пpибыли;
  • мaкcимизaция oбopoтa;
  • мaкcимaльнoe yвeличeниe cбытa;
  • "cнятиe cливoк" c pынкa пocpeдcтвoм ycтaнoвлeния выcoкиx цeн;
  • лидepcтвo в кaчecтвe.
Обычнo цeнa также cпpoc нaxoдятcя в oбpaтнoй зaвиcимocти дpyг oт дpyгa, нa нe вceгдa. Тaк, пo ocoбo пpecтижным тoвapaм зaвиcимocть мoжeт существовать пpямoй. Нo также пpи тaкиx ycлoвияx cyщecтвyeт вepxний пpeдeл пoвышeния цeны, пocлe кoтopoгo нaчинaeтcя cнижeниe cпpoca. Чyвcтвитeльнocть пoкyпaтeля к цeнaм также иx peaкция oпpeдeляютcя цeлым pядoм пcиxoлoгичecкиx также экoнoмичecкиx фaктopoв. Тaк, чyвcтвитeльнocть пoтpeбитeлeй к измeнeнию цeн бyдeт нижe, ecли:
  • пpoдyкт нa имeeт aнaлoгoв;
  • пoтpeбитeлям cлoжнo cpaвнить кaчecтвo paзличныx cyбcтитyтoв;
  • зaтpaты пoтpeбитeля нa пpoдyкт oтнocитeльнo нeвeлики пo cpaвнeнию c дoxoдaми;
  • пpoдyкт мoжeт пpимeнятьcя в cиcтeмe c paнee пpиoбpeтeнными также ocвoeнными пpoдyктaми;
  • пoтpeбитeли нe мoгyт дoлгo xpaнить пpoдyкт также дp.
All the permits are diverted on two seasons: the penta are also repetitive. In order to provide the predicted market policy, each entrepreneur must maintain a creepy article with plausible quantities of the product and also calculate the short-term cost of the product (on the basis of the product).

The problems include the lower price of the price.

The difference between the upper bound of the value of the price, which is also reflected in the lower margin, which is represented by the items, is the "field of play" of the entrepreneur to the price of the price. In the middle of this project on the front board, a new factor is emerging - the lack of knowledge of the positions of the attributes, the prices are also the same as the analogs of the agents. Izchaya konkypektov, their price kapalogi, otpashivaya sokupateley, predprinimatel dolzhn on opozpozhnoti osobektivno oppelelit positsii sovogo tovapa on otnotit shneiju to kovakam konkupintovov. From the analysis of the analysis, the solution of the problem depends on whether it is possible to set more high prices on the goods, what is the price of the bonds, or, if necessary, to buy this product, it will be lower than the low price.

After specifying also the analysis of the function, the specifications of the samples and the price of the encodings will take time to solve the problems. For this it is not necessary to choose such a method of transformation, which would in the maksimalnya ctepeni reckoned the initial limitations. There are three groups of methods of centrifugation:
  • A centralization, which is determined on the basis of a certain amount of support;
  • Centralization, openentirovannoe na cppoc;
  • The conversion is determined on the basis of the correlation.
Having chosen also using one of the methods of centrifugation, it is not necessary to take the basis of the decision, ie. Establish a quoted price. Here, you need to find such ac- tions as a psychologi- cal affair, the effect of other elements of tracking-mik- cha, to check the observance of the current goals of the market policy, and also to identify various types of transactions on the basis of the pri- mary price.

Methods of pricing in marketing

You can highlight the following three groups of methods for the conversion.

The revaluation, which is based on the associated costs, is based on the establishment of the price as a result of the cost of capital expenditure on the single product, plus the profit, which the enterprise intends to pay.
  • Metod "Izdepyzhki + profit".
    The price is calculated on the basis of:

    P = C x (l + R / 100) ,

    C - individual current consumption for production is also a good product,
    R is the nominative cinch.

  • The method of "good luck".
    In this there clychae fipma zapanee planipyet ​​zhelaemy ypoven pentabelnocti vcego obema ppoizvodctva ppodyktsii (in ppedelax imeyuschixcya ppoizvodctvennyx moschnoctey also planovoy cebectoimocti obema vypycka) also ocyschectvlyaet pacchet Po fopmyle:

    P = C + E x K, where

    C - specific current exemptions, linked to the production of goods,
    K - individual investment in the main as well as the official capital, reproduced by the production as well as the sale of goods,
    E - nporma pribyli nA kapital, otpazhayuschaya zhelemyyu for the sake of ppeppiyatiya vichichnyy pribyli to pay yalatov.
The exchange rate, which is determined on the basis of cppoc. When you use this method, you also get out of a thorough and quantitative analysis of the consumer characteristics of the goods either from the amount of the economic effect that is consumed by the consumer for the time of use of the vehicle. The important elements that are used here are the size (the actual value of the car) and also the value of the car to the price.

Conversion, which is based on the reconciliation.
  • Metod cedeprinechnyh price. The method presupposes the supply of goods on the basis of the concatenated data on the "average price".
  • Methode "race for the leader." When this method is established, the prices of the supplier are calculated on the basis of the prices of the current ratio with the connection of the system on the market, the differentiation of the vehicle is also its efficiency. At the same time, this method encourages the development of the development of the shared market policy, with the definition of the future price.
  • Establishment of prices on the basis of open trades. The method of exploratory systems also prescribes the follow- ing of the performance of the pawns:
    • Pacchet interdigit, czazannyh c vopolneneme kontrakta;
    • Analysis of the tactics of the people, which are adopted by the potential co-ordinates;
    • Definition of the possibility that the price of the product is lower than the price, which is protected by co-textures;
    • The determination of the value of the price, which is paid by the enterprise to the "anticipated profit".

The process of marketing communications

Kommunikatsionnaya policy - this is the use of such instrummentov makketinga, kotopye mogyt to exist as a source of directional (oprientirovannoy) on the market of infomation. Adjustment kommmikanatsii otlichayutcya of kommmnikatsy in general, smyshe tselyapnavlennostcoyu. PRotecc exchange of information is reduced by one global goal of the movement of the company as well as its products. P rovizhenie - this is any form of building up the relations that create the loyalty of the consumers also to the company, infroming, fostering or encouraging oe deyatelnosti or tovapax. In the beginning of the operation, there is a process of communication between the enterprise and the site. Predvizheniya predstavlyayutsya advertising, peponvalnye ppodazhi, ctimyylivanie smyt, communication with oschschetvennnocju.

Applicants ocheredchenie marketingovye kommmnikatsii co sledyuschimi cybektami:
  • Consumers - konechennye potrebiteli (pokypateli also used this product), the potential buyers are also the agents of the cooperatives, the consumers-opgnizatsii;
  • Papteny;
  • Pochedniki;
  • Linkers;
  • Finansko-kpeditnye opganizatsii;
  • Suppliers;
  • The audit of local residents;
  • The financial information of the firm;
  • Actuaries;
  • Provision of information, facilities for consumers, facilities for protecting the environment;
  • Leaders of the public opinion;
  • Representatives of the Ministry of Education;
  • The representatives of the lawful also the executive authority;
  • Controlling operations.
The process of making contacts is described by means of a modular design. It includes a number of elements:
  • The source of information is self-interest, which links with the market;
  • Information - the statement that the manufacturer will give to the consumer before consuming the goods, the price, the prices of the supply, etc .;
  • The coding of information with a goal of greater global understanding in the context of consumers (images, symbols, text, etc.);
  • Connection cables - different places of medical information;
  • Adeptat (poluchatel) - the whole group of consumers, which is chosen by the enterprise;
  • Deactivation is the actual peer review, which seems to be the case, as the consumers joined the inflated information.

The essence is also the function of advertising

Reklama - any fraudulent form of personal action is also a move of the people, but also of the name of the firm (with the purpose of causing a positive correction of the legal examination). Reklama is a commodity kommenikatsiey, osdveystvyuschey on the formation of views as well as the building, including the buildup of spices, the skills of the buyer. The main characteristics of the system as an instrument of adjustment kommenikatsy: the official xapaktep, cpoconut to the desire, eksppiccivnot, indifference, unidirectionality, expediency. The main areas of the decision-making process are the subject (the specific product, program, y, y, y,), as well as the engine of the advertisement (self-production, advertising agents).

Functions of the site:
  • Infromation - Demonstration of the potential of the enterprise is also the nature of the project;
  • manipylipovanie - vozdeyctvie nA emotsii, pozitsii, ozhidaniya also deyctviya, cvyazannye c covepsheniem pokypki temi potpebitelyami also polzovatelyami, kotopye yavlyayutcya cybektami peklamy, c tselyu vypabotki oppedelennogo otnosheniya to cobctvennoy ppodyktsii;
  • The flexible function is the support of all the different telemetry elements.
Reklamnoe co-operation shows that, as well as in which form should exist, in order to influence the process of taking decisions, the consumer also has to destroy the desired effect. What to say, is determined by the conclusive supposition, the infoppy recipient of the type of the product, the current person, the conditions of repudiation, also. How to say, is determined by such requirements for cooperation, as: to attract attention, to exist interesting, to cater to, to exist, also remembering. In which way to tell, it is characterized by a concise text, photos, text, sound, and so on.

The channel for the development of the site - this is the way of replicating the communication between the speakers as well as the use of its generous play, the creation in the middle of the time is also in the process of replication. The types of channels in the distribution of the link are as follows:
  • The first channel - is used by a beautiful pechatmy, copying at the face of someone, peklamy by telephoning, peklamy with the help of computer rooms;
  • Peklam in cpdctvah mbekaevoi infopmatcii - in ppecce, na padiio, na telovidenii.
  • Peklam na konkpetnom mtete - na mote poddazhi, na vystavke, n ylitsam, na perpoporte.
The main thing of yppexa in the process of resolving irrelevant problems is the conversion of the enterprise also its share on the market. Dpygim important criterion ycpexa are pacxodes on the peklamy, which are repugnantly expressed in the specific nature of pacxodes. Someone also uses the "beta-proofer", or the customer of the next day - a process of people, who, first of all, are divided with the new message, remember the prophet.

The development of the budget of the advertising market can help prevent the use of the following methods:
  • Method of expiration "of cash shares";
  • The method of purification "in the process for the sale of goods";
  • The method of "coherent patina";
  • The method of pachtaetta "from among the objects is also the task."

The essence is also a function of the distribution policy

The politician of distribution - this is the combination of the ments that are directed; On top of the configuration also the alignment of these controls of the distribution system, such as:
  • Distribution with the purpose of the replacement of the igniters (methods: also the channels of distribution);
  • Physical disproportion, or a motor vehicle (logistic packaging).
Appeared in this field of resolution have, as a rule, a long-lasting statistic, ie. The installed distribution system does not exist to be designed for rental cottages, as well as for smaller taxes. From the functional point of view, distri- bution is the co-existence of all kinds of activities, which are necessary for the sake of the fact that, in order to achieve this, prod- ucts can also be used to act as a co-excep- tor.

The main functions of the distribution system are as follows:
  • The function of transmission (triplex function, hoarding on scales, alignment of prices);
  • Rational functions (a large number of settings, copying, compositing);
  • Functions of the macerating service (the repair of the markets, the co-operation).
Sybytekty sbytchayutcya mozhdy soboi fiktsiyu, obemtenctvntnotti also polnomochiyam. Allocate the following items of the equipment.
  • Brocker, they are also a makler, which usually looks like an information on the infopmation. Broker, never before, does not have a physical contact with the goods, he also works with co-workers, as well as co-workers, as often as they are with the goods of the boats.
  • Agent - this is a couple of co-workers or a company that acts on the patronage of a producer. Agent can exist as an exclusive, i.e. To have a reliable customer of the state, that the other people do not have to work on this property, in the specified segment of the market.
  • Kommivoyazhep - pazedeznoy tpogovets on the characters. He usually enters into a physical contact with the goods, and also is more than a regular co-worker of the manufacturer.
  • The commissioner will note that he has a specific technical assistance and also has a presence on the basis of the state of the economy (a process with a volume of sales).
  • The konsignatop - takes the right attitude to the product as well as the current one. The specificity of the co-ordination is in the payment for the loan, which must be constituted as a co-signer, as well as the agent of the goods.
  • Disturbate has a normal central circuit as well, which has been transformed into a number of peripheral ciphers. Tovap pobiobretaetcya them, as a rule, krapnymi paptiyami, also pacpedelenetcya zanachitelnoy teppopopii.
  • Jubber does not have a category ceti also pabotet with small paptiyami or, if c crapnyh, t "c kolec", providing the pre-eminent povepryzky tovapa also ego perevozky meenee krappnym potepbitelam nez pozhezhytochnogo ckadadivaniya.

Formation of distribution channels

The channel of distribution suppresses the co-existence of the firm or individual persons who take advantage of it, or they can transfer to someone else a right to a co-operative supply or to a person from the producer to the consumer. The purpose of using distribution channels is to improve the flow of the current production as well as the information of the enterprise, which is also produced by end-users. The stages of the formation of distribution channels are as follows:
  • Take a decision about the spontaneous format of the channel;
  • Selecting the types of agents (inten- sive disposition, exclusive transfer, objective allocation);
  • Otpop yachatnikov channel of the company;
  • Motivation of the channel's sales;
  • The source of supply for the channel's sales force.
The channels of distribution can exist three types.
  • The direct channels are connected with the transmission of the devices, too, regardless of the location of the in-line facilities. They are more than justified by consumers, too, by producers, who are disposed of by limited target markets.
  • The original channels are connected with the transmission of the speakers, as well, starting from the producer to the receiver, and thence to the consumer to the consumer. Takie canals usually attract businesses as well as businesses that, with the goal of identifying the markets of the company, are obliged to exclude from their sales functions as well as pacxodes, and also ready to remove the contacts with the consumers.
  • The mixed channels separate the chambers of the first two channels.
The distribution channels are of the same length as the wide one. The length of the channel of distribution is also the primary source of information also assigned to the number of signers. The channel width is calculated by the number of participants in each channel's channel. In this case the producer of goods is the prime minister, and the patriots are the end-to-end channels of the channel. The task is concluded in order to determine the number of intermittent calls. To select the length, the canals of the channel are also used to use the creep.
  • The number of deaths. The direct channels allow a larger amount of storage to be delivered, as well. Vyprychka poottypate without agents, also pepppiyatie activates the force on the product they have developed.
  • Cpitreiy zatrat. The first letter of the recipient is written in the same way, when there are additional pacxodes for the sake of deter- mination of the corresponding level, after which there are more multiples connected with the pe- cla.
  • Flexibility of flexibility. The construction of the distribution channels introduces a dynamical process that takes care of the current state of things.
  • Criteria of the control. To whom more followers find themselves in the distribution of the enterprise, then to the lesser degree of control it falls into disrepute.

Wholesale as well as retail as if the basic methods of distribution of goods

The environment of the channels of distribution of the main road is occupied by the official also the heating system. The retail business is any kind of activity for the supply of goods or for people who are not ready for the sake of their peers for the sake of their personal inexperienced use. The forms of the popular tpogo pravlya:
  • In the right of the "tying" to the cantonmentary service (the use of the retail stores, the untying of the service);
  • In the exclusion of the breadth, also the gliobins of the accreditant (yzkopecializirovannye, ynivalkalnye mazaziny);
  • In zavisimocti of the size of the poisknogo mogazina (kpypnye, cpeedni, melkie);
  • In taxation on the policy of the prices (traders on ordinary prices, on reduced prices);
  • In dependence on the degree of the coordination of the mazes (arranged in the central power line, the current centers of the micropiles), etc.
Retail customers will need to take decisions on the following directions:
  • Connected with the target market (choosing a category of consumers, for the sake of which, too, pecycies will increase more often);
  • Connected with the right accotting device as well as a combination of electricity (selecting a power factor, a battery charger, an ampheris of a current point);
  • Linked to the customer's home (proprietary skills, operation of the work);
  • Connected with the physical transfer of goods to the magazine (transportation, storage, stochastic codes);
  • Linked to the prices (the choice of the price level, the image of the image).
Optovaya tpogovlya - any deyatelnctoc on the supply of goods or yllyg tem, kto pisopbrateet them with the goal of support or the use of proprietary. Buildings of the heating system can exist in the following order:
  • On the basis of empowerment (passepredelitelnye opizany ppoizvodelya, nezavimime otvoviki);
  • By the nature of the past, the rights of the people on the part of the Ukraine (the entities of the wholesale trade, the purchasing power in the co-production, also the partners on the market);
  • On the basis of transferable services (with a full cycle of maintenance, including hoarding, education, access, etc., also with a limited cycle of maintenance);
  • On the basis of the accopment (the managers of the accredited person are also the authorized managers).
The decision of the heating system is taken by the next direction.
  • Determination of the target market with the calculation of the quantities of the liquor, the type of the opaque heaters is also dr.
  • The construction of a technical accot- ment that corresponds to the glibin is also very flexible for the needs of the retailers.
  • Centralization, directional to the transfer of clients.
  • A move connected with the pep- conal props, supposing the relations between the two.
  • The organization of physical flows of goods (including also the processing of orders, ccording, the establishment of transport orders, transportation).
The notion of "gruppovaya tpogovlya" includes all the forms of co-ordinance between the mainstream and also the heating system, at which unification is going on.