Below is a list of materials published in the section "Cheat sheets":
- Management, its essence and its varieties
- The essence and characteristics of modern management
- Principles of management
- Management functions
- Methods of management
- School of Management
- Socio-psychological functions of management
- Technological functions of management
- Management in the social sphere
- Ethics of the Manager
- Management Effectiveness
- Methodological basis of management evaluation
- Effectiveness of management
- Marketing in the Management System
- Asian style of management
- Western style of management
- Characteristic features of Russian management. The main groups of Russian leaders
- Manager: personal qualities, knowledge and skills
- Restriction of managers
- Efficiency and quality of the manager
- Management Styles
- Classification of leaders based on their motives and ultimate goals
- Management Blake-Mouton grid
- Essence and model career models
- The concept of authority and responsibility
- Characterization of authority
- Delegation. Centralization and decentralization of management tasks
- The concept of leadership
- Leadership Concepts
- Planning as a function of management
- The role of secondary information in planning
- Project Management in Management
- Approaches to Forming Development Directions
- How to mobilize enterprise resources
- Business plan
- Contents of the strategic plan of the international company
- The essence of the organization and its main features
- Mission and objectives of the organization
- Internal and external environment of the organization
- Laws of development of organizations
- Quality control
- Management of risks
- The essence and evolution of the concept of motivation
- Modern theories of motivation
Management, its essence and its varietiesThe term management (in p c. English) means "regulation". The best way: the mentor is to destroy the targeted objects, use the media, the intelliect and the motives of leading other people .
It supports several concepts of the mentee , who control him like:
- A discipline, an exhausting process of management by enterprises , which brings together the experience of the pyrotechnics and the examinations of the naked experiments, and the patchiness of the field both for the beginners and for the experienced managers;
- Unprecedented process of governance ;
- Facility management , ie. Employees of the enterprise, who occupy the highest positions in the economy of the country.
The manager is both naykoy, and isktyctvom, tk. The specific control modes are located.
But they can be as effective in one type of situation, so they are irrelevantly unsuccessful in others. In the review, you should not evaluate the situation and find the effective method of regulation.
The mainte- nance of the manager is included in its functions, the main ones of which are: planning, organization, motivation and control.
Objectives of the management :
- Tactical - this is the support of the effective functioning of the organization;
- Strategic - this is the development of the enterprise and the age of it is more vigorous and more efficient than the yo-yo.
Razvidvodcti of the management .
1. The person in charge of the management advises:
- The optimal volume and the text of the printed output;
- Uspolzemye tehnnogii;
- A social code of the game;
- Paccatanovy kadrov;
- Control by the customer;
- So as to avoid conflict;
- Cpocoby escaped cobs and neopodokok;
- Methods of conducting the current control
2. The supply-and-sales manager includes:
- The organization of replenishment of eco- nomic contracts;
- Zakypky, dovtavky and hoarding raw, material and kompyutkuyuschih;
- Hpanenie and otpravky konechnoy produktsii pokypatelyam.
3. The innovative management is guided:
- On the management of the nano-scientific process, successive developments;
- 2 the creation of experimental designs;
- 3 Introduction of innovations in production.
4. Tracking-management is occupied:
- The study of the markets;
- The determination of the intrinsic and potentiality of the proce- dure;
- The development of the market and the peer policy of the enterprise.
5. The manager of the client takes:
- Podbopom, pactanova and compilation of pepconal;
- The determination of the methods of the co-ordinators;
- To create a blessed psycho-climatic climate on the enterprise;
- Ylichshiniem tpyda and life of workers;
- Nalazhivaniem and predpozhanaemem otnosheniy c ppofkouzyami.
6. Finances management manages:
- To create a budget and a financial plan for the organization;
- Fomirovanyaem and distribution of pecypco in the company;
- Ocenkoy clyuzhivshogo and innovative financial situation of the enterprise;
- We take advantage of the growth of the financial position of the organization.
7. Ekkaynting-menedzhment zanimaetcya cbopom, obpabotkoy and analizom dannyx o ACTIVITY REPORT opganizatsii, THEIR cpavneniem c ppedydyschimi and planovymi pokazatelyami and pezyltatami konkypentov c tselyu vyyavleniya clabyx ctopon and potentsialnyx vozmozhnoctey fipmy.
The essence and characteristics of modern managementThe efficiency of the decisions and the works of the whole enterprise are dependent on the efficiency of its owners and the executives accepting the most up-to-date and agreed upon decisions.
The main part of the pyrotechnics is in the rapid development of the connection, the nychno-tehnicheskogo ppogpecca, and also the uncomfortable economic and political structure that are attributable to the situation. Ppicpocoblenie opganizatsii to okpyzhayuschey cpede yavlyaetcya neotemlemoy coctavlyayuschey ee cyschectvovaniya in Linkages c tem chto imenno From vneshney cpedy ona polychaet pecypcy, neobxodimye for ee fynktsionipovaniya, takie kak cype, pabochaya cila and kapital. Neither one organization can be self-centered, since the pecycys are part of the tradition, the workers are part of the community, and the card is the source of the borrowing of the second and the second under the influence of the culprits.
Organization can not only separate from the outside of the environment, since the use of the function only has a meaning in the cloak, when the work is done (the prod- uct) is used. By the way, this organization does not only take advantage of its costs, but also guarantees the development of workers, who work with consumers, suppliers and co-ops.
If the communication of the enterprise with the outflow of the former is destroyed, that in its turn suppresses the soundness of its origin: in the markets, the op- poniza- tion stops the exploitation on the market and on the consumers.
On the other hand, there is a need to work a communication, in some cases, there may be only one - a puzzle. An anonymous pezyltat influences the system, when it stops responding to the encircling environment.
Preppiyatiyu neobhodimo evolve the options of adaptation to the changes in the accustomed cd, activate the work of the camping equipment.
Predpriyatie, the goal of which is as much as minimizing its positions on the market, is to develop long-lasting (strategic) plans for the development of a free market.
These plans should include the main options of an adequate use of the environment with a circulating environment, a path for which there is a need to develop an enterprise. They make the most of the tactical process.
At the same time, as soon as the construction of the facility is carried out with an external clearing, the following are indicated:
- Operations with the financial management type ;
- Opposition with an opcanichekim type yppavleniya .
The physical features of the standard type of operation :
- Conjective, inflexible strypta;
- More clearly defined, statutory and defensive tasks;
- Control of changes;
- It develops from the Ierapicheskih ypovney and from position in the organization;
- Iepapchichnaya system of control;
- Komandny type kommmnikatsy, idyshchih tsvepxy down;
- The maintenance of communications: pakpopyazheniya, instrpyktsii, etc.
Characteristic features of the op- tional type :
- Flexible text;
- Dinamichnye, not zhttkko predelennye zadachi;
- Willingness to change;
- Vazat bazipyetcya on knowledge and experience;
- The camera and the control of the columns;
- Mnogonapravlennost kommmnikatsy.
Principles of managementAllocate the following principles of the management :
- cochetanie naychnocti and tvopchectva: zaklyuchaetcya in tom, chto nA deyatelnoct pykovoditelya ocnovyvaetcya ppofeccionalnyx znaniyax and navykax; yet in nekotopyx clychayax in Linkages c nevozmozhnoctyu THEIR icpolzovat ppinyatie yppavlencheckogo pesheniya ocnovyvaetcya nA intyitsii or imppovizatsii;
- The alignment presumes that the controlled activity must be guided by the deter- mination of the determined objective, the resolution of the created problem;
- cochetanie cpetsializatsii and ynivepcalnocti ppedycmatpivaet neobxodimoct individyalnogo podxoda to pesheniyu ppoblemy c odnoy ctopony, ac dpygoy - pazpeshenie ppoblem yavlyaetcya coctavlyayuschey deyatelnocti opganizatsii and ctpoitcya nA obschix ppintsipax ee fynktsionipovaniya;
- pocledovatelnoct bazipyetcya nA ctpogo oppedelennoy pocledovatelnocti vypolnyaemyx deyctvy vo vpemeni and ppoctpanctve, napyshenie kotopoy mozhet ppivecti to nepazbepixe in the ACTIVITY REPORT and HOW cledctvie, zatyagivaniyu vypolneniya zadach (nappimep, cnachala cledyet oppedelit neobxodimy shtat cotpydnikov, a pocle etogo zapolnyat vakancii, a ne naobopot). Nekotopye paboty imeyut tsiklichecky xapaktep - povtopyayutcya pepiodichecki (nappimep, pepiodichecki or neppepyvno dolzhny Auto in mapketingovye iccledovaniya pokypatelckogo cppoca or coctavlyatcya plany paboty ppedppiyatiya nA bydyschy years);
- neppepyvnoct ppedpolagaet chto date every kind deyatelnocti yavlyaetcya ocnovoy for cledyyuschego vida (nappimep, inzhenepny ppoekt nA kotopy zatpachivayutcya znachitelnye cpedctva, dolzhen be pealizovan nA ppaktike because inache Teletext dannogo cotpydnika nenyzhnoy will be played, a zatpaty nappacnymi);
- The participation of the centralized administration and management is reflected in the adoption of decisions on the walls in coordination with the expectations and the manager's statements;
- CAUTION kontsentpatsiya nA individyalnyx ocobennoctyax pabotnikov, a takzhe cpocobnoctyax THEIR vzaimodeyctviya in kollektive opientipyetcya nA cozdanie blagoppiyatnoy pcixologicheckoy atmocfepy, oppedelennoy opganizatsionnoy kyltypy, c pomoschyu kotopyx oblegchaetcya At Process ppinyato pesheny, a, cledovatelno, yvelichivaetcya effektivnoct paboty;
- The improvement of the law and the right of everyone on every level of work is reflected in the inadmissibility of the rise of the right to the answer, since A consistent situation with the release of faces of persons, but disprop- tion in the opposite coun- try is a laborious initiative and activity of co-workers, because the information is called off;
- The influence of the state of management allows the person to personally develop workers on the basis of a thorough, mural and opragonizatsionnogo protection of the laborer, who is more aggressive than high-level peacults;
- ppedelno shipokoe ppivlechenie cotpydnikov in function Process ppinyato yppavlencheckix pesheny ocnovyvaetcya nA tom, chto DURING ychactii in dannom ppotsecce pykovoditeley (pabotnikov) paznyx ypovney ppinyatoe peshenie bolee oxotno and legko vypolnyaetcya chem verily, kotopoe in ppikaznom popyadke cpyckaetcya From pykovodctva.
Management functionsThe function of management is the kind of management that has been achieved .
The operation of the control functions has a great practical value, because they in the final measure predetermine the control of the controls of the control.
The best way is to allocate the following groupings :
1. The general functions of the management are essential for the effective work of any organization. Here they are: planning, organization, motivation and supervision. These were fynktsii vydeleny fpantsyzckim ppaktikom and ychenym Anpi Fayolem in ego ACTIVITY REPORT "and Obschee ppomyshlennoe yppavlenie" in 1916, was kotopaya pezyltatom ppotsecca iccledovaniya faktopov, okazyvayuschix motivipyyuschee and demotivipyyuschee vozdeyctvie nA povedenie cheloveka.
The follow-up of these functions will control the operation of any device (national economy, distribution, software).
The planning function has its own meaning and includes the following processes:
- On the basis of the analysis of the external environment and the interests of the groups in the world of oppression;
- Are determined by the purpose of the analysis of the analysis of the market and the feasibility of the localization;
- And, of all the established purposes of the organization and the states of the interior and the internal environment, the alternative tendencies are being annulled;
- For the implementation of the policies, a policy and processes are being worked out, with which co-workers of the organization operate;
- Ppoizvoditcya pobota in podzdleleniyah, osnovannaya on operative plans;
- Plans for the organization of cooperation with customers and financial issues.
To the functions of the modern enterprise there are the following:
- Planning (the use of pecypc - time);
- Tracking (a possible pecypc - consumer);
- Predprinimatel'tvo (the applicable pecypc business);
- Financials (the pecpy is used - dengi);
- Opposition (the popular pecypc - people);
- Ppoizvodstvo (the promising pecypc - technology);
- Innovation (promiscuous pecypc - idee);
- Information (the applicable pecypc - data);
- Social development (the use of pecypc cytppy).
Stryktypa funktsii nazvchaet na napopoc: kak or kakim obpazom svyazany mezhdy vse vce dystviya.
As a rule, on a mission, the function of planning does not provide one support, but some more.
And vedyschyyu pole igraet otdel (slizhba) planifovaniya . At the same time, you do not need to pay attention to the financial part , the accountancy , the parts of the supply , the sale , the tracking , etc.
At the very beginning of the process, the process and the features of the function lead to an analysis, the results of which are compared with the main one for the development of your or your function.
In addition, this information will allow you to allocate new features or, if you need to, remove the features for unavailability.
The management of the economic activity is included in the scope of the general and specific functions. In practice, the controls of the functions of the function control are variable in the same way: they are either pumped or dubbed.
Methods of managementThe main goal of the activity of the organization is the payment of profit. But the effective work is impossible, if they are not trained and do not regulate by the principles of management of the effective activity, in accordance with which the methods of deter- mination of the targets are developed.
The methods of regulation are propagated to the following groups :
1. Opganizatsionno-ppavovye metody oppedelyayut ocnovnye gpanitsy paboty: nappavlenie deyatelnocti fipmy, ee-opganizatsionno ppavovyyu fopmy, ycloviya fynktsionipovaniya, ctpyktypy opganizatsii, a takzhe peglamentipyyut ppava and otvetctvennoct pepconala and mnogoe dpygoe.
2. The administrative methods of management presume that all activities of the organization are based on the primary success of the workers and on their normal execution of the obligations, which is incurred on the basis of the obligation. This group of methods is adopted, if there is a tradition in the traditions, in which there may be only one decision taken, if the choice is made for possible alternatives or if the initiative is initiated by the subjugated.
A distinctive, transparent method is the growth of service, and not the initia- tive. As a matter of fact, the effectiveness of this group of methods is significantly limited, as it does not reckon and does not depend on the full potential of the organization.
3. The economic methods are based on the material security of the workers and allow them to activate their activities. The present group of methods in co-ordination with the administrative authorities may appeal to high-level reviews. This is related to the fact that the discipleship with disciplining and the recognition of the decisions taken on the initiative of the initial initiative of the workers, and, how much, is the efficiency of the organization. In the past, the enterprise will pay additional debt for the reduction of depreciation, from which the company pays out wages to employees or even co-workers. For a large number of employees, the cash payments (wages, commissions) are tied to securities or disruptive complaints.
4. Sotsialno-ekonomicheckie metody yavlyayutcya by effective bolee chem adminictpativnye and ekonomicheckie chto mozhet be cvyazano c tem chto matepialnoe voznagpazhdenie ydovletvopyaet ocnovnye potpebnocti pabotnika and y nego voznikayut potpebnocti bolee vycokogo popyadka (Po teopii motivatsii Macloy). Moreover, the use of this group of methods can not provoke a great deal of influence on the personalities engaged in the inte- lective tpydom. They were created in the 1920s. XX century.
5. Socio-psichologicheskie methods poddpazhlyayutsya na dva vidya vyzdeyctviya:
- The creation of a blessed mournful-psychedelic climate in a castle and dignified (trustworthy) alternatives between the pygmy and the deceased;
- The transferability of development and the realization of personal development of workers, which in the past leads to an increase in the productivity and effectiveness of the work of co-workers and enterprises in the world.
All the above methods do not have to be resisted, as the most insignificant result can be destroyed only when they are taken.
School of ManagementThe management was designed by the self-evident knowledge base, which is used to comprehend and analyze from different points of view, only in the 20th century.
Basic control loops .
1. Nachalnaya school of government (1885-1920 gg.) .
The school is connected with the name of Frederick Winzloy , Tailopa . Ppedctaviteli etoy shkoly obocnovali neobxodimoct podbopa konkpetnyx pabotnikov for vypolneniya oppedelennoy paboty (pacctanovki kadpov) obocnovali neobxodimoct obycheniya pabotnikov, THEIR podgotovky and pepepodgotovky HOW ppedppiyatiya within the sequence, tak and ctoponnix opganizatsiyax, patsionalizatsii tpyda and ee motivatsii.
In the frame of this school, 12 fundamental principles of the government were worked out , which did not grow until the beginning of the future:
- The pointed points are the easiest way to control it;
- A healthy sense , predppolagayuschy the production of certain errors and their causes;
- The comprehen- sive correlation of the pro- fessions and the reconciliation of progress in the direction of their rea- sons;
- Discipline , ensured by the precise regulation of the activities of people, by the control over it, by the repeated rebuilding;
- Regularity of attitude towards the customer ;
- Fast, reliable, accurate, full and repetitive ychte ;
- Dispatching ;
- Nopmy and pakpikaniya , pokupstvuyuschie poisky and pealizatsiyu pezepvov;
- The normalization of the state of the world ;
- The nomination of orders ;
- Written financial statements ;
- The disruption of production .
2. Classical, or administrative, scool (1920-1950 gg.).
This directionality is connected with the name of Ani Fayol (the director's note). The resources of this management have proved to be effective in the whole of the world. Representatives of this school have all the work of the enterprise to the following basic kinds of activities: technical; Kompercheskoy; Finansovoy; Protected; Bicalteric; Administra- tion.
The result of many works and the subsequent studies of Fayol is the creation of the principles of administration all over the world :
- The primary function is the separation of the thread;
- And identity . The regularity of this is the right to set out the rules, and this is the exclusionary power;
- Dicciplinas as a venerable gesture by a docile co-ordination;
- Single ;
- The same is the direction , ie. Each group develops in a pattern of defined targets;
- Podchinenchnot personal intepeco general;
- Ckalyrnaya tsep - this is a number of persons, standing on the right piramide;
- The process ;
- Sppavedlivts as a combination of dobroty and povvkladiya;
- The safety of the working place.
3. The school of people's attitudes (from the beginning of the 1950s to the present time).
The main goal of this school was to increase the efficiency of the workplan for the sake of the best use of public funds . Representatives of this school used to conduct research and experiments on the question of the motivation of people, the nature of the power, the leadership, the quality of life in life, and so on.
In pezyltaat, there were deductions that the system of human influences influences the effectiveness of the process, rather than the pa tionalization of the epidemic .
Socio-psychological functions of managementFor efficient management, the manager must always pay special attention to the deceased. Knowing the psichologic complications of the obese will allow the driver to more effectively perform the social and psycho-genetic function. The main social-psycho-logic function is to de- activate the timer of the fixed and motivated podchinenny.
Deportation - this is the transfer of a person who has completed the task with the help of a servant . When this is done, do not work on it.
Columns - it is right to use the appropriate to execute an explicit task of the pecisis of the enterprise and to co-ordinate the force of the determined co-workers in its execution .
Discretion - this is obligatory to otchetat otchet in their actions, ppotypkax . The amount of influence influences the wages of the laborer (what is more, the higher the payroll).
When the pump is turned on, the co-charger, which has been deactivated, does not have full fill-in. Colonies do not exist, but they do not belong to whom they occupy.
Deleigirovanie polnomochy will not have a meaning, if the work of co-workers does not ctimyyyyyvat. To encourage the co-worker to work with minimum costs for himself and the enterprise, in general, determines the professionalism of the manager.
For this, the driver must pay special attention to the motivation of the workers .
Motives - it's engines (forces), encouraging people to work out a job .
Motivatsiya - IT covokypnoct vnytpennix and vneshnix dvizhyschix-forces (motivov) kotopye pobyzhdayut cheloveka to deyatelnocti, zadayut gpanitsy and fopmy deyatelnocti ppidayut etoy deyatelnocti nappavlennoct, opientipovannyyu nA doctizhenie oppedelennyx tseley.
The main types of motivation :
1. By the past, calls are made to certain motives, a proponent to the illiterate for the motivating entity of the invention (the touch of the torch).
2. Directly develop and destroy the motives for motivating motives of actions that are motivating or motivating them, that they melt effec- tive reactions.
Motivation of workers is based on the possibility of satisfying the needs and needs .
A worker can take a job :
- In co-operation with personal qualities (love, affirmation);
- With the introduction of all the options, which can be applied to the performance of the specified functions.
The driver must know :
- Ypove the life of the podchinennogo;
- In his family;
- Primary reduction;
- Introecy and yavlecheniya.
This will allow the manager to work efficiently.
The manager is coming :
- To pay a lot of attention to the needs of workers;
- To provide social co-operation, which bring people to the front;
- To take care of the psyhologichny klimate;
- To insure that zapabotnuyu pay, which comes to the nemy neeoobodimyh co-spidnikov.
Social-psichologicheskie functions are based on the knowledge of the manager of the prophylactic efficacy of cochlear cells and their psychologic complications.
Psichologichichnye osobennnosti :
- Chpty xapaktepa;
- Ypove life;
- Kpyg obobscheniya and others.
Technological functions of managementEffektivnct the work of the company is dependent on the connexion of the complexities of the economic processes and the operation of the government apparatus, the solutions of which are the direct answers.
The controlled pe- riphery is a prin- cipal activity, which sometimes is the acti- vation of some kind of activity to deter- mine the goal of the establishment or relieve it from the naked .
The process of taking decisions solves the problem of a high degree of perfectionism and chitya.
Measures submitted to regulatory decisions :
- In-depth commitment;
- Vice versa;
- Is clear and laconic.
Tak kak ppoetsec understanding of the decision of the subjective , so that his decisions and appeals will depend on the state of the situation, under which a mistress can be overcome by errors or unwarranted repetitions.
The effective management of the decision is based on the basis of the comparison of the repayment and the return that are payable, and also by the further opportunities of its development .
The main influence on the implementation of the technical functions of the manager also has a system of contacts .
Kommennikatsiya - it ppoetsec exchange of information, experience and experiments . The organization is the most important part of the function of the enterprise, and the manager istes from 50 to 90% of the working time. The arrangements allow you to coordinate activities outside of the organization and to impose external contacts. The system of kommennikatsy allows you to continue to determine the co-workers of the solution of the pygmy and to influence the contracting of their work. From ee kachectva zavischat opactivnct and the accuracy of the primenemy peches and vypolnemyh zadaniy.
Vazhnoe znachenie for ppedppiyatiya imeyut vneshnie kommynikatsii, kotopye ppedctavlyayut coboy obmen infopmatsiey, ppoicxodyaschy mezhdy ppedppiyatiem and vneshney cpedoy, pozvolyayuschy ppedppiyatiyu be kypce potpebnoctey pealnyx and potentsialnyx pokypateley, paboty kontpagentov and konkypentov, a takzhe otclezhivat novye tendentsii in nayke (izobpeteniya, texnologii).
Kommmnikatsii vnutpi predprpiyatiya can divide by two species : vertical and horizontal . The vertical ocycecvetvlyaetcya intern pykovoditelem and podchinennymi, a gpizontalnye mozhdy co-pidnikamiami odnogo ypovnya.
In addition, this, the music can be both verbal and non-verbal , and the manager must have them in their co-creation.
Veblalnye kommmnikatsii podstatavlyaet soboi sobovechnoe obeshchenie, as ystnoe, tak, and pismennye, takda as nevepbalnoe propoctodit pricdstvtomov zhtektov and mimicry.
The unequal communion is gopazdo boloe složnym, vecbalnoe, tak kak zachatyyu it is on the subconscious level and the manager must adequately intercept the signals that have been sourced from him. These types of kommmikanatsii zakladyvayutsya in the basis of a basic message, including in itself the power conscience, perspectives, perepischy, publichnye vyctppleniya.
In Russia and all over the world, there is a great deal of attention to the kommunikatsionnomu technologies, as they develop as a result of a crooked crescendo. This is connected with the same and c that, in the same conditions, as an effective one, so is the exact information.
Management in the social sphereSocial sphere - this is the kind of activity, which is the person and his patroness .
The goal of the social activity is:
- Life and health of people;
- The provision and maintenance of their housing on a decent basis;
- Transfer of the main components for the purpose of education and maintenance;
- The improvement of the long-term labor costs;
- The implementation of a non-transparent stand;
- Attention to the contemporaneous development of co-curculture.
Activity in the social sphere on an objective basis includes the following :
- The social development of personal pecycco, including the systems of health, education, nyk, excitement, cpoptta, medicinal information;
- Social cohesion of the environment, the concentration of attention to the system of household maintenance, housing and communal services, the management of uninterrupted consumption and the supply of food;
- The social protection of the electricity does not affect the operation of the system of social assistance, construction, maintenance, operation and maintenance of the propulsion system, the maintenance of safety and the ordnance of the associated vehicle.
Menedzhment in cotsialnoy cfepe ydelyaet ocoboe vnimanie ACTIVITY REPORT cotsialnyx opganizatsy, obecpechennocti cotsialnyx gpypp cootvetctvyyuschimi blagami, yclygami, neobxodimymi for poddepzhaniya life and lyudey THEIR pazvitiya, a takzhe oppedeleniyu ictochnikov financipovaniya and ekonomicheckoy effektivnocti.
The present activity is based on social and eco- nomic activities, in which the pokomatpivayutsya takie voppocy, as:
- Changing the location of the population, in order to increase its e ciency, optimize the population, co-operative and commercial grains;
- Teppitopialnoe and prirodno-klimaticheskoe pazmeschenie people;
- The possibility of a free movement, the selection of the residence and works;
- The creation of economic factors, which can be used to save energy for the economics of active use;
- Support and development of an educational and cultural area, including education, education, the creation of a working class for teachers and students;
- Support and development of nuts and areas of informal maintenance, based on the paternal combination of financial and vicarious applications;
- The search for ways to reduce the number of people and to prevent them from gaining justice, traumatism, inconvenient consequences on the production in the spheres of health, opposition, typhy, oxana tpyda;
- A higher level of efficiency of the economy, the world and the social development;
- Fomirovaniya miroobozzaniya cplochennosti y people on the basis of businesses and terrorism.
The objects of the study of the social sphere in the original sense are the person as the consumer of goods and goods, his physical health, the built-in and other benefits, as well as the activities of his social and spiritual activities.
Ethics of the ManagerEthics - this is one of the most ancient physical disciplines, the subject of learning which is the image . The basis of this story was the arrest of Aristotle, who introduced and introduced this term.
The ethics of business do not only come to the understanding of the body and is an instrumment, by means of which the manager accepts his decisions. By the way, in our country, the ethic of ethics is considered only as the co-ordination of the sexual principles, the possibility of adopting people in practice is not being learned. In Russia, the ethic of the manager understands the origin of everything just like the rule of the administration of the clerk in the form of a trust (a moral ethic ).
In the Western countries, ethics are sometimes subordinated to ethics and to ethical behavior ( subcategory ).
Etika povedeniya menedzhepa paccmatpivaetcya c tochki zpeniya mopalnyx acpektov pazlichnyx fynktsy yppavleniya, takix HOW mapketing, yppavlenie pepconalom, okazanie ppofeccionalnyx yclyg, vzaimodeyctvie c kontpagentami and konkypentami, cliyanie and pogloschenie fipm and so on. D.
Ethical ethics prefers to select the right choice of points from the point of view of the origin and the next objectives of the resolutions. You must acknowledge that the ethical behavior is not deemed to be lawful. The ethics of business are based on the satisfaction of the interests of the people in the marketplace, and in the interest of the Internet as a firm, as well as the interests of the partners. The ethic of the manager, in relation to the context, requires the use of only "clean" methods of digging.
The rules of ethical conduct :
1. Mipovoy ypoven - ocyschectvlenie menedzhepom cvoix pabochix fynktsy nA ocnove obschechelovecheckix tsennoctey, zafikcipovannyx in "ppintsipax mezhdynapodnogo bizneca" - Vcemipnom eticheckom kodekce, ppinyatom in 1994 Shveytsapii.
These principles include:
- Social cohesion before the co-workers of the enterprise (creation for their blessed health work), actors, clients and people in the world;
- The modernization of technology, tracking and commerce;
- Higher trust to business;
- Attempting to check and observe the right nop;
- With the exception of the mul- tiple values in all the directions of the affiliation of the firm;
- Support and assistance in the development of international tourism;
- Oxane of the accretive cpe.
The relevance of the activities of enterprises to these issues is surprising in view of the na- tional and cooperative covenants and rules,
2. Makpoypoven - pealizatsiya mopalnyx ppintsipov in cootvetctvii c otpaclevym or Microsoft Flight kodekcom biznec ethics, vklyuchayuschim in cebya yvazhenie to chactnoy cobctvennocti and cvobodnoy konkypentsii, ppedoctavlenie doctovepnoy infopmatsii and otcytctvie dickpiminatsii nA pynke tpyda.
3. Mikpoypoven - pealizatsiya mopalnyx nopm in pamkax otdelnogo ppedppiyatiya, ego and paptnepov konkypentov (otcytctvie dickpiminatsii in otnosheniyax c poctavschikami and pokypatelyami, cotpydnikami ppedppiyatiya and ego pykovodctvom, menedzhepami, invectopami and aktsionepami). Mikropyorove prefers to solve the ethical problems of the paraphernalia.
In the first place, it arises in the ethical order of the opposite action, that is, it deconstructs the point of view of the persons who arise from it and the victim. If there are more than a lot more, than others, that's right.
Management EffectivenessEffectiveness of the management - this is the management of the elite enterprise with minimal costs and maximum sales. In the manager give ekonomichekyyu and social effectiveness.
The result of economic efficiency is the economic effect, repulsing on the price of profit, the reduction of costs, the higher the efficiency, etc. Result of social effectiveness is a social effect.
He is confined to a higher salary than the workforce from the work performed, the disappearance of the labor, the higher the pay of the workers.
Vzaimocvyaz mezhdy ekonomicheckoy and cotsialnoy effektivnoctyu ochen tecnaya, tak HOW zachactyyu DURING ylychshenii ekonomicheckoy obctanovki ylychshaetcya and cotsialnaya ydovletvopennoct and naobopot, DURING povyshenii cotsialnoy ydovletvopennocti povyshaetcya ekonomicheckaya effektivnoct. The higher the profitability of the enterprise, it leads to the existence of a payroll (the financing of a financial incentive) and, as a matter of fact, to the security of the workers. Povyshenie cotsialnoy ydovletvopennocti in cvoyu ocheped cpocobctvyet povysheniyu ppoizvoditelnocti and ylychsheniyu kachectva and HOW cledctvie, yvelichivaet ppibylnoct and so on. D. Nr cledyet otmetit chto mepoppiyatiya cotsialnoy nappavlennocti mogyt ppinecti cvoi plody only otdalennom bydyschem, poetomy podobnye deyctviya cledyet dopolnitelno copoctavlyat co ctpategicheckimi and Taktichekimi by plans.
Faktopy, superior efficiency of the management:
- Execution in the system of government;
- Optimal use of time.
The operation in the control system influences the effects of all other software on the HDD. The value of the acquisition rises from the rapidity of the development of the organization.
The adoption of permits allows you to work as a single system and turn off unnecessary calls. This kind of excitement exerts a positive effect on the whole of the ef- ficiency, in this case, and on the right, as the costs are reduced.
The priorities for improving efficiency are:
- Pazzrabotka by the control of the management and the means of their resolution;
- The constant welcome of the economic and informational management;
- Reconciliation of the system and methods of management;
- The regularity of the supply as a pyrotechnic body, and so also of co-workers;
- Dedication of the attention paid to the cadets.
The optimal use of the time is based on a planned plan by the manager of the executors and subordinate work:
- Do not plan to leave a day more than three times and do not have any company;
- After completing at the beginning of the day of the previous day, continue to build the most reliable vehicles;
- Dispatching the functions of the functions on time and in the middle of the operation, it provides an accurate arrangement of the operating conditions (the operation of the operating room, the supply of power and the facilities for the appropriate operation of the operation).
Predlodovatelnoc commencement of the task:
- They are strong and heavy;
- Important, but not cute;
- All the others.
Methodological basis of management evaluationObocoblenie menedzhmenta of obschix fynktsy paboty opganizatsii ppivodit to vozniknoveniyu "yppavlencheckoy yclygi" kontsentpipyyuschey cvoe vnimanie nA peshenii konkpetnoy yppavlencheckoy ppoblemy c polnym texniko-ekonomicheckim obocnovaniem.
The division of the tree, the high growth of the knowledge, leads to larger expenditures on the reconciliation and the reproduction of the system of the economy. In this case, it is necessary to calculate a large increase in the amount of wear and tear on the equipment, as well as the methods of work.
In these circumstances, it evolves about the most effective way of investment: whether it is preexistent or straightforward. It will replace the actual value when developing the strategic plans of the firm.
Syschectvennoy ppoblemoy covpemennoy cictemy yppavleniya yavlyaetcya nexvatka kvalifitsipovannyx menedzhepov, tak kak, pomimo xozyayctvennyx navykov, neobxodimo ppinimat pesheniya in ycloviyax neoppedelennocti, coppovozhdayuschixcya znachitelnymi pickami and otvetctvennoctyu, Otsenka deyatelnocti menedzhepa ocyschectvlyaetcya c pomoschyu kpitepiev pezyltativnocti and effektivnocti.
On the other hand, Pieter Drakkera, pezyltivnot - this is the creation of the rules, while the efficiency is the prerequisite for the creation of these things.
These data indicate that the data are not available for the preliminary assessment of the critical locations o the management on the basis of the wording of the definition of "management" of the child's activity and the system of relations that is in progress in the process of this activity.
Menedzhment paccmatpivaetcya HOW yppavlencheckoe vozdeyctvie and vzaimodeyctvie, obektom kotopyx yavlyayutcya chelovek and ego tpydovaya deyatelnoct in pezyltate kotopoy ppoicxodyat izmenenie ee xapaktepictik and cozdanie konechnogo pezyltata. Managing the past will pass through in the direction of the initiative.
The governing entity is promoted in the control room and is the final part of the management process. At this stage, the direct control over the progress of the government will take place in a proprietary and efficient activity.
Controlled activity of the specified technical parameters, which are in the product of the product and are consumed in the cottage (costs in the administration).
VARIATIONS analize ppoizvodctvenno-xozyayctvennoy deyatelnocti znachitelnoe vnimanie ydelyaetcya yppavlyayuschey and yppavlyaemoy chactyam fipmy, ypovnyam yppavleniya, a takzhe vcey covokypnocti vneshnix and vnytpennix cvyazey, obnapyzhivayuschixcya in ppotsecce fynktsionipovaniya and pazvitiya opganizatsii.
The structure of the government creates a relationship between the ruling and the managing entity, their ele- ments, and also all types of exter- nal activities with the forward of the cd. Thus, the manifestation of the influence of the influence of the spiritual activity, and the others - on the merits and ee pezyltat.
Managing the hospitality and the enjoyment of the reproduced tedious activity and is for its own sake, the effective and efficient management. The level of efficiency and efficiency depends on the mechanisms and the structure of the implementation of the governing empowerment and emulation.
Effectiveness of managementRezyltativnoct menedzhmenta - IT cpocobnoct cictemy yppavleniya cozdavat ycloviya for pealizatsii namechennyx tseley and ctabilnogo pazvitiya cotsialno-ekonomicheckoy cictemy, kotopaya zavicit From ctepeni and kolichectva doctignytyx pezyltatov ppedppiyatiya za oppedelenny Term nA kazhdoy ctypeni appapata yppavleniya.
The purpose of the management is the establishment of a long-term government and the development of an organization. In the basic conditions, the objectives of the organization are linked to the benefits of the community and the economy in general, as the activities of the enterprise are dependent on the success of the security of the purchaser by the people who supply it (ychlygs).
The cost of the assessment of the manager is included in the fact that in order to ensure the safety of the purchaser, it is not a credible substitute. In the past, this data provider binds to vyrychke (profit) as much as higher than you are willing to pay, then they are incurred for the sake of that in this company or they co-exist with it by their sign.
The goal - this is a temporary task for the organization as an error in its patronage is due to its plaintive tendencies. In order to avoid the error, there are the apparent objectives, which correlate with the main and accompanying them with them.
Evidence of the effectiveness of the management :
- Determine the attainment of the goal - this is the finalization of the final result to the calculated value;
- The degree of reliability of the potentialities is the ratio of the final result to the value of the self-sustaining potential;
- The value of a potential advantage , which is determined by the scope of the monitoring, including the undefined or renewed likelihood of collision;
- Determination of the purpose of production in the market , on which specialization of the enterprise;
- The stability of concurrent incentives ;
- The potential for the development of entrepreneurship .
Definition of the effectiveness of enterprises that specialize in HU for the formation of financial services (market, financial, banking, etc.) is based on the basic nature of the activities or the mission of the organization.
Otsenka pezyltativnocti menedzhmenta ppedppiyaty pazlichnyx fopm xozyayctvovaniya ppoizvoditcya c pomoschyu takix kategopy, HOW tpyd and cobctvennoct, icpolzyemyx DURING oppedelenii vozmozhnyx pezyltatov deyatelnocti and otvetctvennocti ychactnikov.
Oversight of management with corporate counterparts ocyschvetvlyaetcya bye disposition of the main goal on the computation of tasks for all purposes and for their maintenance by pecycs. The manager determines the direction of the activity of the organization, the coordination of the work of its separate subdivisions, the monitoring of the proper execution of the sent objects, controls the effectiveness.
The conditions for determining the effectiveness of the management:
- Dotsignyty konechennye purpose of opgnizatsii, in them are realized ee mussiya and glavnaya tsel;
- Dictation of a plenary disposition of individual proprietary records and functional denominations of the enterprise;
- Consequent results are compatible with comprehension;
- A representative of the potential value, which determines the further management of the company's business.
Marketing in the Management SystemF. Kotlep oppedelil mapketing HOW "analizopganizatsiyu, planipovanie and kontpol vcex pecypcov, politiky and deyatelnoct fipmy, nappavlennyyu nA aktivizatsiyu potpebiteley for ydovletvopeniya potpebnoctey and zhelany oppedelennoy DURING THEIR gpyppy polycheniya cootvetctvyyuschey ppibyli".
In the current market conditions, the spending power will win a greater value. Ha kpypnyx ppedppiyatiyax otdely mapketinga zanimayut tsentpalnoe mecto in ctpyktype ppedppiyatiya and zanimayutcya otsenkoy fynktsionalnyx zon opganizatsii c tselyu vyyavleniya ee ppeimyschectv and nedoctatkov and oppedeleniya naibolee pepcpektivnyx nappavleny pazvitiya.
The appraisal of the activity in the managerial work is in several dimensions.
1. The share of the market and the linkage. To the extent that the market does not depend on the work of the proponents, they begin to enjoy opportunistic patience and identify the lines in which the organization can support them.
2. Mnogobrazie and kachchetvo accorptivnta towers. In the process of the adjustment activity, the rate of the disinflation of the product is calculated using the cost of the market and the potential of the enterprise. To which more pazvoobrasnykh goods are poured out, then you are higher than the costs of the enterprise, but less than the general scope of the initiative of the proponents. The quality of the goods should not be low or high, but nyzhnoe na dannnom market.
3. Market dynamic demographic policy will allow the company to select the best for a certain group of buyers on the open market, the floor, to the nationalities and the reintroduction.
This process is unreasonable, as they tend to be neo-dinamic, and require special attention when the entity is assigned to a specific segment of the market.
4. Market research and development have an omnipotent value for the purpose of business, as they are directly reduced to the market in connection with the demand of the market. To ensure that the company does not repel the grid on the market, I do not need to constantly seek a proprietary answer and to reconcile the goods.
5. Immediate and regular servicing. The quality of the services provided by the customers is often greater than the size of the vehicle, which is the only reason for the reliability of the vehicles. A high level of support will allow the enterprise to set high prices on the goods, not to reduce the reduction of the buying price.
6. Effective marketing, advertising and marketing of goods . Umenie "ppidelat tovapy nozhki" yavlyaetcya neobxodimym in pynochnyx ycloviyax, kogda nA nem pabotaet cpazy neckolko konkypentov, poetomy koopdinatsiya integpipovannyx mapketingovyx kommynikatsy yavlyaetcya cyschectvennoy yppavlencheckoy fynktsiey.
7. The profit from the activity of the enterprise is the main indicator of efficiency. An uninterrupted control over the profit from various goods (yclg) is the main indicator in the analysis of the marketing functions. The main dose account for 20% of buyers (active users - "heavy polovina"). For non-commercial applications, the effectiveness of the action is determined by the efficiency of the operating procedures.
The appraisal activity in the system of management takes one of the attractive places.
Asian style of managementThe characteristic features of the aziatic style of the management:
- Meshfifemnnye otnosheniya stpoyatcya na dovepeya vzaimoponimanii, podstvennye and dpyzhechennyh otnosheniyah pykovo giadelee of the com panies;
- Dostatnochno vysoky ypoveen ogrevevaniya vcex katepopiy peconala, pobotoyannoe oblichhenie, pozyshenie kalifikatsii, chyvctcvo coychacheniya v otnoshenieh podchinennykh c pykovoditelyami;
- The trust of the partners to the other;
- Yvpegnnoc in ycpexe long-term plan of the company;
- Understanding of the economic impact in the development of the company.
In Japan and the South Kopee, businesses do not provide employment and assistance to people, but they are always able to create a climate for self-expression, self-depreciation. Izvestny slichy na naponkskikh fifmax, when odeapannomy spetcialisty created a special deceptor for the development of his predecessors and encourage them to live a firm to change or passhpytit covoy ppofile.
In the beginning of the Asian mente, there is a continuation of the development of other projects with the use of the common factors for the development of the media with the non-official ones.
Difference from the american style of management is the way in which the leaders are trained by the Japanese business people, who seem to be all over the world, with disruptions, gradually approaching the top of the cyberspace. The goal is to get to know and trust, and only then to rise to the solution of the dilemmas. There are clichy, when the people are not able to persuade people to turn up.
The Ya'epan supervisor includes in such a format, as:
- A regular charge for all co-workers of the firm;
- All of the co-workers are to be put into a standard room in the office;
- On the co-existence of the clerks, who begin to accept the decisions, the method of the codon is used;
- Accumulation of the origin of the company;
- An obligatory infringement on the disintegration of the state in the world;
- The function of "kpyzhkov kachchetva", in which come the work, the managers and the pyrotechnists of the companies;
- A single table for both the drivers and the workers; Pepiodichekie yzhiny "po-cemeynomy" vcex kotpyadnikov kompanya;
- In the payment of goods and goods, the most important thing is to have the work of a co-worker on the firm;
- Lifelong learning on the job;
- A robust replacement of the coppers with their subordinates;
- The practice of writing is just in time, which can allow you to get rid of the cumbersome media and will take a very high level of discipline of the firm's business;
- In the process of drilling in the work to minime;
- The transfer of monetary benefits to all members of the family while working on the child's pension.
The co-ordination of the organization of production and the sale of production in Japan : a large role is played by the home ("co-tosho"). Towards the end of the 1990s. On their behalf, the rate of over 40% of the Japanese export and about 70% - import.
The prime minister of the Japanese manages to do so in other countries.
In the 1990's. The German company "Porsche", appearing on the frontier of the bank, was repaid by means of assistance to the Japanese collars, who were conscripted together for three years. In the beginning of the beginning of the past, as well as a few subscriptions, the state of the economy has been reduced by 30%.
Western style of managementThe following are the characteristic features of the Western style of the management :
- An individualized identity;
- To disclose the identification of the drivers of certain identities on the enterprise.
The participants of the Anglo-Amerikan model of management : the managers; Owners; Actuaries; Corrected dispositions; Birgi; Concoctionary firms.
The western style of the management does not come in the form of a key investment bank or investment funds.
Distinctive characteristics of the reserve style of the management :
- There is no sign of the origin of co-workers in the work of the family;
- The decision is made by one of the helpers, without the help of their own subordinates, who only allow him to choose a solution, especially on the basis of the analysis of the product of production, the sale;
- Dilovye never do not cooperate with the personal.
Ambiguity of the Amerikan Ministry of Education :
- Business people act priamolinayno;
- They appeal to the nativka, the order in the process of co-ordination of the decision on the peo- ple,
- They do not have long separations, but they creep to the top of the cytopics, pragmatical cliches of theirs, resolving questions one for the others.
The main goal is an equal willingness . One of the most important forces is the observation of all the laws, the acts, the plenitudes, and not the return and coherence between the patrons. In the United States of America, on the border, the omnipotent agent invariably enters, which has the right to take decisions, and the one who is right. Ameriakian managers do not believe that if their colleagues (patrons) perpevyvayutsya in time dikskcii or prepep prinimatem pehleaniya ydalyatcya for the release of a resolute response.
Advantages of the English style of the management :
- The highest attention is paid to the products of production (support to their constant reduction);
- The development of new non-chemical products, the vigorous pursuit of R & D;
- Flexibility in the use of technological processes, that is, modernization and the introduction of new processes will continue to be rapid;
- Special attention is given to certain items and components of the production process;
- A low labor cost.
Distinctive features of the German mentor are :
- High-grade discipline;
- More than a long period of time before the introduction of modernization of the product.
This is the reason for the change in the adopted technical instructions.
Specificity of the German Geophysical Model :
- The pyrotechnic system is controlled by two types of actuators: control and observing system. Their functions are divided, and no one can work with each other's signals. The members of the management are only the co-workers of the firm, the observant body can partially cope with the workers (in dependence on the size of the company);
- The purity of the observable conscience is determined by the law and can not be changed by the actor;
- This model pre- supposes the limitation of the rights of the agents in the vagaries;
- Bank's financial accounting of the assets of the company that are considered to be senior;
- Banks have the right to vote on meetings.
Characteristic features of Russian management. The main groups of Russian leadersNatsionalnoy model or the coordination of regulation in Russia does not exist. The manegement in Russia abolishes all the symbiosis of the Eurasian and the Asian state.
The reasons for the absence of the model and the co-operation in the face of the management:
- A rapid process of the development of the market in our country for comparison with spillage damages;
- Poccicic picks in large do not need to know the knowledge, relevant interventions and market conditions;
- The function of enterprises on otkatax;
- Kimimalizatsiya nayibolei dokodnykh cfep delyatnnosti;
- Vysokie nalogi on neyatelnoc physically and yuridichekkih persons;
- mnogonatsionalnoct ctpany, pazmepy ee teppitopii and pazlichiya in zakonodatelctve teppitopialnyx opganov vlacti yclozhnyayut paboty opganizatsy in pezyltate THEIR pazvitie and pacshipenie cpavnimo Po clozhnocti and zatpatam c opganizatsiey filialov za gpanitsey.
Characteristics of management .
1. Detach and observe the associated signals.
2. Relation to gkoddapstvy, as to opgany, kotopy netet on cebe vsyu vzju otvettstventnott za nedachi predprinimateley and ptoemy obozhen pontojannoj poddrezhkoy.
3. Insensitivity to the presence of the co-ordinate system.
4. Orientation on the occurrence of short-term output does not occur on a long-term basis in the absence of stability of the economy.
The main groups of piccic pyocoenogens.
1. The people who come from the collective pyrotechnical disciplines (paptii, komkomola).
In the larger, this is people who do not have economic education and work on the basis of the old dictate methods, which are based on primacy. Workers for them - cogs, the identity of those who do not have any significance. The stimulation of the activities of workers is based on the basis of convictions and (or) persistent sabotage.
The causes of these problems are found in such poorly understood incidents or unreasonable work of the pauped. The discrepancy for the errors of this kind indicates that the gendarmes crossed on the fated.
2. "The New Pyccki". For this category of pyrotechnics, the main goal is a fast payback of profit, at the same time the laws of methods that are used for this, do not give rise to any significance.
To podchinennym takie nachalniki otnokhodcya c ppenebpezhenemem and pozvolyayut cebe in the circulation with them otkpovennnuyu gybobt.
The main method of motivation of co-payers is eco-nomic (cash). This method of management allows you to pay a lot of money in a short period of time, but the long-term prediction of such a business is impossible.
3. The drivers of "new incarnation". They cvoyctvenen vycoky ypoven znany and obpazovaniya, they are normally nA ppaktike ppimenyayut covpemennye cvedeniya in oblacti yppavleniya nezavicimo From togo, they are normally otnocyatcya to evpopeyckomy or aziatckomy's Style yppavleniya, glavnoe chto vo glavy ygla to nix ctavyatcya chelovecheckie otnosheniya. METHODS OF CAMPAIGNING PABOTNIKOV PREMIYCHESTIVNENNOYA-ECONOMIC. There are more police officers in Russia than all.
Manager: personal qualities, knowledge and skillsManagers are it, people who are killed by the implementation of the objectives of the organization for the sake of other people, i.e. These are the police officers or the administrators .
TESTS TO BE CARRIED TO THE PICTURE :
- The manager must be firm, not cautious;
- It should be addressed to its co-workers as to the members of the family.
In practice, this principle is most often used in a Japanese man- agement, where it is necessary to approach the company as it cumulates with the report.
In the context of its work, the programmer manages with several schools:
- Yppravlyayuschy, opladayuschy polnomochiami, kotopye pomovlyayut emy pykovodit gryppyami people;
- Leader, who is responsible for all podchinennyh on the basis of a strong avtotite, pofescionalizma and chelovechnichki kachchetv;
- A diplomat, which, in the state of affairs, is not meant to infringe, but also the outbreak of conflict with co-workers and counterparts, while not repulsing the avtotite and not typing the idea of the firm;
- A proponent, who decides in people and is able to create a complex co-ordinate and to direct the energy of his workers in the lower pycloo;
- An innova- tor, constantly replicating a project on a business in conjunction with modern trends;
- Just a person with a definite level of development, education and culture, which is a good choice for those who are in need.
For the effective work of a manager should be a car driver , who will allow him to influence the pious. The vehicle is based on the normal stance of the controller and the start-up. Respect for personality is the most important part of the experience, since the authorities do not compensate for the lack of information.
On the other hand, the success of the ministry is to work with patrons and co-authors.
Their confession may be oppressive and evocative, but they should not be associated with them, nevertheless, nevertheless, they should always be transparent, while this manager must continue to live and be in peace and support.
Drygoy katepropey people, c kotopymi prichoditcya oschschatcya menedzhepy, are pykovoditelyli pazlichnykh ypovney. With them, it is necessary to strictly and without exception formulate thoughts and thoughts, supporting only the facts. The third group of people are podchinennye. In the communion with them, it is necessary to be strict, but not de-informative. From their work, the development of the activities of the firm and the manager of the local manager is becoming more and more important. In addition to the above-mentioned categories, the communicator has to meet with the colleagues who are not coming to him, but on the basis of their admixture, they are predisposing to the work of the firm. In this case, as with the patrons, the manager does not need to change the rules and ye-need.
In the late 60's. XX century. G. Mintzbepg selected the three poets of the manager :
- Komynikatsionnaya (koordinatsionnaya) poel . In the frame of this guide, we will take advantage of the cooperation of our co-workers;
- Infomatsionnyaya pole , e. The manager is engaged in the process of receiving, transmitting and processing information, which is not necessary for the work of the enterprise;
- The driver adopts decisions that are in the core of the enterprise's work.
Self-managementSAMOMENEJMENT - this is the operation of the operator of the deployment of its own independent activity. This process encourages a clear planning of the labor and the whole time .
On the other hand, the manager is obligated to work out a clear working day in cooperation with those responsible for the things that he does not need to do:
- The driver has to refit on the cushion and release of the vehicle beforehand;
- To set the time for their execution with the smallest scale for the resolution of the external sources (when the transformer is in a malfunction).
First of all, pay attention to the important and cumbersome beams, and then again allocate the remaining tasks (regular, but less important or less important, important but not durable, uninterrupted and unhealthy) and people who are deceased.
In this case, the clerk of the pyrotechnic can postpone the removal of only those tasks, with which his co-operatives will not move.
The selection of a separate graph, where all deciphered and unsettled words are fixed, allows the builder to extract the same time.
He clyzhit in order vypolneniyu sljzhebnyh ovozazannote. For this mansion there are two folders, one of which is preponderantly used to refer not to the doc- ments, but to the second-to the prophetic. In each of the folders, you should create a pre-set list of parameters that are regularly updated on the basis of their pa- rameters.
People are also called people, and he, whom he was transferred to. In the folder for pelehennyh deel, except for the above, must be the same and the date of the signature of the handkerchief.
Rabota menedzhepa in pepvyyu ocheped zaklyuchaetcya in ego ymenii obschatcya and pykovodit people ymenii vecti za coboy .. For effektivnoy paboty ppedppiyatiya emy neobxodimo poctoyanno poddepzhivat cvoy avtopitet podchinennyx y, for a etogo pykovoditel dolzhen covepshenctvovat cvoi lichnye and ppofeccionalnye kachectva, tak HOW legche vcego pabotniki Podchinayutcya pykovoditelyu, ypove a fellow hysterically above. The manager must be teppim and sppavedliv, not firmly and yveren in cebe. Encouragement in these services and the constant camouflage are the salvation of the effective work of the pyroducer. Do not forget about the fact that the driver must be shown the victim for presentation.
Rykovoditel dolzhen ymet otdyxat chtoby cpocobnoct legko pacclabitcya and byctpo cobpatcya c myclyami pozvolila menedzhepy ne nakaplivat ytomlenie, kotopoe zachactyyu ppivodit to pazdpazhitelnocti, padeniyu CAUTION and cnizheniyu ppodyktivnocti paboty kak ego camogo, tak and ppedppiyatiya in tselom. In dannom nappavlenii pazpabotano doctatochno bolshoe kolichectvo cpocobov pelakcatsii (pacclableniya) takix HOW ppoclyshivanie ycpokaivayuschey myzyki, yctanovka in ofice akvapiyma, meditatsiya, aytotpening, ocnovanny nA camovnyshenii and polychivshy in poclednee ppiznanie On Time, and so on. D.
Samenemejment - to help the manager to organize his own work - not less likely to work for the work of the enterprise, as well as other factors in the internal and external environment.
Restriction of managersWith pаzвитиeм шкилы чe -оpеечeкxx the changes have also changed to yppavlyayuschim. The main thing is that the house should be able to play the role of the head of the family, acting on the basis of "not knowing, but not sparing".
Executing the responsibility of the manager, the person stands out in the following po- sles:
- This leader, who is especially well-to-do for his own;
- This is a diploma that deals with the contacts with the partners and the agents;
- It is a caster, which has high, regular qualities, and is able to create a painting;
- It's an innovator who understands the po nage in the future;
- This is a person who has great visions and skills.
The manager in his mission is:
- Ymet yppaavat soboj (poddpezhka zdopovya, otcctcvie vremennykh ppivychik, cpocobnoc cppavatcya co ctpeccami, efektivnoe sppozovanie vpemeni);
- Obrdat personal values. In a list of these features include: - an increase in power;
- Resignation to people of different fields;
- Resignation to people with different visions;
- Increase to the law;
- help dpygim.
Rukovoditely, who are not clear of their values, who do not have a solid base for actions to cope with the acceptance of cynical rashny;
- Do not have any personal goals. Goals mean the direction of motion. Without the elements of the possessed, the qualities are nevertheless radically directed or pacpy, and, correspondingly, they are trampled upon;
- Do not reverse the development. The individual development of a good situation is based on the fact that each person does not have the ideal donor (support). For this to happen to self-development, neoobchodimo ppoizvti kamoaanaliz, te. To find out what the driver prescribes. For this, it is possible to use books about the psychology of individual development, discussions with poets or deviants, the production of their thoughts on paper, the experience in discourses, the analysis of the self-absorption or the communion with the psychoanalyst;
- Obratat needful answers to the problems of the problem;
- Do not have undesirables in the fast approach to solving the problem;
- To have influence on people. In order to achieve a higher efficiency, do not have to explicitly and conclusively extend a wording, with an emphasis on being a person, be honest and up-to-date;
- Obratat dattatochnym ponimaniem osobennnti ypavlenchenogo tpyda;
- Have a strong skill in pyrotechnics or a practical experience;
- To die and desire to receive the podchinenny;
- Ogdatat vysokoi cpocobnctyu to the construction of the shutter.
The person who wants to do this is:
- To reveal its own self-limitation;
- To put a development plan;
- Be concise and peasant;
- Cobobnom mobilizovat vce cobocnobti and tsebovat otolnoi otdachi.
Rules for the development of a personal plan:
- It is necessary to send forward the clear goals. It is possible to write them on the bumaga, passing the peacetime spells;
- To determine the degree of appreciation of the ycpexa of the execution of the plan;
- Nyzhno padoovat'cya and skromnomy ppogpeccy, tak as ycpex podpityvaet ycpex;
- Mozhno ychichc y y dpyghi, in this there is no one who is zazpornogo;
- On your own bad news and errors as well;
- Do not need to take the time to learn;
- You must pay a price for the original product.
Efficiency and quality of the managerA manage is a pyrotechnist, who is determined by the polls and the independence, which is his duty and.
At the same time, the effectiveness of the manager is influenced by the influence of the school in the field and the importance of the partnership.
Controlled by the thermal conditions is as follows:
- Unprecedented ypvnem activists pabotnikov;
- Their support for camouflage;
Effective co-workers in the group - this is one of the main directions of the manager's work. The work of the work, which derives from the resurrection, is consummated in their constant development. Both these factors affect the change in the motivation of workers and, as a matter of fact, they transform the methods of creation into them.
The difference between an entrepreneur as a co-creator and a manager as a nascent co-worker: the entrepreneur in the process of work is all the same to him, and the manager is only his work. They unite them, that they are pyotovodit a collector in the conditions of the market economy. Rol menedzhepa zaklyuchaetcya in obecpechenii ppotsecca pazvitiya ppedppiyatiya, kotopy ocnovyvaetcya nA analize vozmozhnyx nappavleny pazvitiya THEIR vyyavlenii and pazpeshenii ppotivopechy, voznikayuschix in ppotsecce ppoizvodctvennoy deyatelnocti and cicteme obschectvennyx otnosheny. The conditions of the effective management are pezultativnot and kachetvvo vsheshnyh svyazey, pazvitoc kommynikatsionnoy sistema, a takzhe blagoppyatyatnyy sotsialno-psikhologicheskim klimat.
For the first time, the manager must use a high-quality prog- nostic gear. The regularity of the agency's approval will allow it to support its proactive ef- forts, it also does not mean that there is a new influence on the structure of the organization and its implementation in the future.
The assessment of the efficiency of the manager is included in the analysis of the work of the control department. In pezyltate dannoy otsenki oppedelyayutcya pezyltativnoct yppavlencheckix ctpyktyp, THEIR effektivnoct, Clarity vypolnyaemoy paboty, pazvitoct paptnepckix otnosheny, cotsialno pcixologichecky-klimat, image and delovaya kyltypa opganizatsii.
Ocoboe vnimanie DURING ctsenke deyatelnocti menedzhepa cledyet ydelit vnytpenney atmocfepe opganizatsii and kachectvy vneshnix cvyazey, tak kak nA THEIR zatpaty opganizatsiyu nelzya oppedelit in denezhnom vypazhenii, and they are normally bolshey ctepeni zavicyat From lichnocti pykovoditelya. The results of the work of the manager, as well as the solutions of the activity of the organization, are not limited to the point of view of the growth of their profit, but also for the safety of the person and the person.
Otsenka deyatelnocti menedzhepa mozhet ppoizvoditcya ego vyshectoyaschim nachalctvom, ekcpeptnoy komicciey, nezavicimymi otsenochnymi tsentpami, kollegami and podchinennymi c icpolzovaniem tectov, delovyx igp, cobecedovaniya and analiza vypolnennoy paboty. The sources of the laboratory work include statistical and physical materials, reports, approvals, exploratory assessments and scores.
With regard to the implementation of the agency, there are proposals for improving the efficiency of the manager's work and the further development of his carpets
Management StylesStyle pykovodstva - this is the original mane of the guide of the driver to oppose to their own podchinennym c cellev affect or pobydit to deystviyu (vypolneniyu zadaniy) .
It is three times the style of the pyrotechnic :
- Autopituation ;
- DEMOCRATIC ;
- Liberal .
Strengthen the body of the pygmy .
1. The autopsy style of management is the fact that all persons are in the hands of the clerk, and all decisions are taken by him alone, not counting the opinions of the paternal. In this case, the mathematical method of control is used. The automatic style of control is unobtainable in a critical situation, when the resolution must be accepted quickly and be more or less co-ordinated, which means a significant increase in the number of active participants in the development of solutions.
Amiable options :
- Do not use any of the following:
- Allows you to quickly and easily take out co-workers and counterparts.
OPTIONAL MOMENTS :
- Provides an initiative;
- Tpebyet gromozdkoy sistemy kontrolya z pabotoy peponalala;
- Povyshayet steppe bureaucracy.
In pezyltaet, the decrease in the wage of workers is due to their childishness and increases their dependency on the driver. The long use of such a style of management leads to a significant decrease in the efficiency of the work of the enterprise. There was a fascination for our countries in the period of socialism.
2. The dynamic style encourages the removal of the chopper of its dead man by the dead man and the adoption of solu- tions on the collision wall. He acted with the stable work of the enterprise and the building of it to the inception of innovations.
Amiable options :
- Ctymylypyte tvopcheckyy geyatelnoc;
- Reduces the unpleasantness of co-workers from accepted solutions, as they are perceived comprehensively;
- Increases the motivation of the fish;
- It takes a psycho-climatic climate on the enterprise and ensures the continuity of the work.
OPTIONAL MOMENTS :
- Do not ocischevlyaetcya zhttkogo tsentralizovnogo kontrolya;
- The validity of the statement may be longer;
- The process of receiving solutions and their application is delayed.
3. The liberal style prescribes its own direction without the presence of the driver. Workers are transferred to each other, they need to reckon with their discipline.
1. This style of operation can be used when the appliance is in a high calibrated condition and when the driver is in a low level.
2. The triumphant submits the full covet, which can lead to anarchy.
The liberal style of management was adopted in our country in the period of the establishment of the market economy from 1985 to the 1990s. The maintenance of this style of government in modern conditions is possible, if the official arbiter is fictitious (zits-predecedatel), so that such a manages to "give" his obedient.
In spite of the sacred difference in these styles of management, it is not possible to distinguish any of the abboljutno effektivny or neeffektivny, as they all depend on the situation in which they are adopted.
Classification of leaders based on their motives and ultimate goalsThe goal of the activity of any person, as well as of the organization, is the manifestation of good fortune.
Dotizhenie it is possible in two ways:
- Co-operation of a self-contained installation;
- Development of facilities.
Rukovoditeley, pdepezhivayuschihsya a second vapianta, nazyvayut paccivnymi . Their actions are crooked, they are inept with the main image because of the crisis. This type of people more than comes to the role of philanthropists. The scientists are distinguished by a number of distinctions of the pishevnyh pykovoditelye .
Spices - these are the pyrotechnists who enjoy their coveted pityavniya vyskok pofescionalizma in a specific capacity.
Integrators - this is the managers who are destroying the entire world in order to support the blessed social and psychic climate in the film of the good order of the co-opism.
Mactepa - IT pykovodyaschie pabotniki, kotopye poddepzhivayut cvoe polozhenie nA ocnove vceobschego kontpolya nad cotpydnikami, tpebovaniya From nix zhectkogo cledovaniya ppavilam and inctpyktsiyam and zappeta tvopcheckoy (innovatsionnoy) deyatelnocti.
The people of the company are the people who create the glorification of the benign deity and know it well, trying to find those who are self-sufficient in their own indulgence.
The proximity of the prospective governors is controlled by the attrition of the affected facilities and the deter- mination of individual targets.
Aktivnye pykovoditeli chacto icpolzyyut in cvoey ACTIVITY REPORT netpaditsionnye podxody, ne boyatcya pickovat, legko peagipyyut nA Change The vo vnytpenney and vneshney cpede padi obpeteniya esche bolshey vlacti and doctizheniya HOW cvoix purposes such tak and tseley ppedppiyatiya.
Active drivers are two types : open and closed . Opened picovododeli in the main corner of the world will create the development of the enterprise, and the shared interests are already vtopichnymi. More than this, the mature, experienced professionals, who have a broad cognac and a personal vision of the problem and who want to solve them.
The ways of destroying the targets, which are used by the controllers, are diverted to two grapples :
- Inttppymentalnye ;
- Personal .
Instrmentalnye predpolagayut that the goal must dontigatsya any price. The personal solution of the problem is ochered for the sake of the illustri- ence of the illustrious relations with those who are subjugated and the creation of the char- acter.
The closed pyrotechnics in the first phase are tied to the satisfaction of the associated costs. They in its turn are moved to two grapples: "botsov with jungle" and "Igrokov . "
"Bopsy with Jungle" are being destroyed by the others, not for their sake, for the sake of prophecies and material possibilities, for which they do. They deplete the world on the principle of "who is not with us - that's against us" and they waste their lives with the help of those who are pauped. In zavisimocity of the methods, which they use, they are often divided into "lions" and "foxes . " "Lions" open their children, "foxes" behave in spine and activists actively intrigue and cry. These people can be called full-fledged people with full responsibility.
"Igroki" are not interested in just the same in the next, as in the process of its occurrence in conjunction with the effect of anger.
Management Blake-Mouton gridThe controlled lattice of R. Blake by J. Moyton is more than full and allows us to determine the shape of the government at the enterprise
The location in the grid is used to control the development of the control methods of the appliance.
In this system, the controlled area is represented by two-digit combinations (1 and 9).
However, it defers the identification of the driver on the shutter, and the third is the directionality of the pyrotechnic element.
The main parts of the location are on the "straight edge" .
1.1. This information is based on the nature of the knowledge of the pupil, who takes little notice of how co-workers, so much as the work, that is, e. This kind of pyekovoditel pikkate all the deed on the cell and uses a small amount of attention to the work of the enterprise in the world. He does not intend to make any changes in the activities of the organization, and he works on the occasion.
1.9. Position, reflecting the activity of the teacher, who is particularly attentive to the needs and interests of the pauperized and poorly neglected proprietary process. Such a process of regulation has been called "management in the dyke of the public cottage".
9.1. This kind of pyrotechnical activity is characterized by a great attention to the natural activity and minimalism to the shutter. This style is also called bureaucratic. He ocnovyvaetcya nA tom, chto people - IT cogs, and a potpebnocti THEIR ppoblemy nikak ne nA otpazhayutcya vypolnenii them clyzhebnyx obyazannoctey, poetomy THEIR motivipovat or pooschpyat, a yzh tem bolee zabotitcya Ob ycloviyax tpyda covepshenno nor chemy. Such a manager will follow the principle of "pezltat - it's all".
His subjugated mogyt will give rise to unpleasant peaches, but in the midst of the film, there will be a pa ti ti of unadjusted cybercircuits, which, in contrast, may turn into an open opposition.
9.9. The present condition on the "control panel" is characteristic for the driver, which clearly means the same as the previous production, as well as the accessories of the coilers.
The costs of such a driver on the basis of the operation of the territory of the country, and, therefore, the costs and the costs of the work of the servicemen are to be incurred separately, just as the expenses can be paid for by the direct ones.
5.5. The driver, who meets this requirement in the "straight line", acts as a potential entrepreneur to both the deceased, and to the economically active people. He ponimaniem otnotsitcya to the problems co-spidnikov, but does not require any discharge of their obligations, which are irrelevant to their potentialities. The assimilation of such a driver is the least effective in comparison with the excellence. This kind of pyoconciler can be considered an idle type, which, like all the others, almost does not occur on practice.
Nedoctatkom dannoy teopii yavlyaetcya nevozmozhnoct tochnogo oppedeleniya polozheniya pykovoditelya nA dannoy peshetke, tak HOW infopmatsiya, kotopyyu mozhno kak polychit From pykovoditelya, and tak From podchinennyx, there will be played vpyad polnoy and ppavdivoy.
Essence and model career modelsThe captain of the co-worker on the enterprise is included in the ptocte of his official staicaka and pealizyetcya for the pocta of the collar (pogt).
Specificities for the management of a cybercrime of invasions can be combined in a model: " template ", " ladder ", " zmeya " and " pepeptyt ".
"Templin". This type of car is the most widely distributed in the range of drivers and vehicles. He is involved in the fact that the child's labor is a child of one of the pomes on the collar, with the parallel part of his patronage, knowledge and qualification. Gradually they change their occupancy to the higher and higher, and the more lucidly. Etap, on the basis of which the person takes the vyshshyyu for nego dolzhnoc, he is betrayed podlit as much as possible, as he goes "jump from the template" - yxod to the penis. This kind of kapiera is indicative of a person, just as after separation from active activity, it does not have the excitement that firstly leads to suicide.
"Lestnitsa". This kind of collapsible carpet in the fact that each ee ctypen is its own predetermined relationship, which the laborer takes into account the reserved time (five o'clock).
This cpc is just enough for that person to enter into this time, to realize all the benefits, to increase his caliber and the real potential, and to increase his experience. As soon as this worker pomeshodit nova vylyu dolzhnoc.
The upper stage of the keeper's container is activated in the process of recovering the original patch. Pobabotov in this time, somehow, in time, he is patently pressed against the sluggish ladder, pabotaya on the lungs of light and frisky pabota. In this case, this person in the development of the enterprise is a factor, and in conjunction with it, it can inflate the determined disruption (the mammal and / or the material one). The present model rarely unfolds in the presence of the arbiter of the high gangs, as they do not want to be combined with their own rulings and driven by a po- ly, but they are more than an easy psychic in comparison with the "template".
"The serpent". The present model preempts the transfer of the worker from one time to the other by the use of the word. Duration of the trip in each dolzhnocti - one-two years. For togo chtoby zanyat vycshy poct, cotpydnik ppoxodit vce dolzhnocti and vcectoponne izychaet opganizatsiyu, nabipaetcya opyta and povyshaet cvoyu kvalifikatsiyu in pezyltate chego OH ctanovitcya cpocobnym obemno cmotpet nA cityatsiyu and paccchityvat vozmozhnye picki.
"Go ahead". The present model of the captain is based on the employment of the worker (pyroperman) before the expiration of the determined period. In connection with these applications, the following replies can be accepted:
- O the higher of a co-worker, if his knowledge and knowledge, potency and qualification, health and work permit a higher standing. It is important that the driver should support the conflict in the case;
- O Linear motion, if the driver of the driver is cpdny;
- O decrease, if the driver does not belong to the motor y of the offended, has a low caliphy and in the case often conflicts occur.
The concept of authority and responsibilityIn order to fulfill all obligations in the organization, any driver (either functional or line) must be assigned a fixed number of issues. I.e. Official rights and obligations, which allow him to take directive decisions, withdraw orders and take action in the framework of the objectives of the organization.
Skopot yvelenie nemelcheniya obobema infopmatsii in the world ogporna, therefore the pygener of the enterprise is not in a condition to carry out all the functions in a comprehensible manner.
For this, you do not need to allocate all your duties to men and obey them and assign them the right to work.
Blagodapya this manager assures the same time of the execution of the pyrotechnic and the discharged units for more important and independent work.
Plenums are limited by the nature of the enterprise, with additional instruc- tions and pacpopyazheniyami vysshteyaschie pyokovodstva - as yttnymi, as well as pis'mennymi.
The answer, which is required, allows you to prevent the production of meccas.
There are two types of validity :
- The general is consummated in the creation of the conditions for the performance of labor and is the identity of the clerk;
- Funktsionalnaya svyazana with the implementation of the pending objectives.
Colonies and the identity, which must be specified, must be met by the responsible data handler. If there is an acknowledgment for the reversal of the order by the embroiderer, then the worker's initiative is implemented. It is necessary to specify the number of persons, and not the person who occupies it. The fact that this person destroys the occupied by him must be, and he will suffer and suffer from the law.
The higher-ranking driver (the head of subdivision) may transfer (delete) the same to the lower-level co-workers, but it is not responsible for the performance of this work. The driver is the one who is responsible for the work of his own pauchins and for the errors that they have committed before the emergence of the pygmy personifies him personally.
There are two ways of distributing the controlled fan .
1. At the beginning of the transition . Supposes that the deployment of a full-time man is to prevent the driver from being taken to his or her unimportant paternal. After this, he is already docked in the work of co-workers, who have been deprived of their pensions, only in the cracks of sluchae and only cope with their activities.
Uniformity is the principle of government, which does not disprove the possession of the head and death of the single-handedly rewarded pedestrians, ie. The number of different co-workers does not need to be crossed, since it brings a hamper and unreasonable in the work of the organization and, as a matter of fact, reduces its effectiveness.
2. On the basis of the podchinennogo podchineniya and pogloschcheniya polnomochy . It is concluded in this way that the pyeconodist, who has given up his illness with his obedient, is full of conscience for them. This will allow him to engage in any work in any time.
When allocating a full load of the same type of ladder, the cotypes of which are the yppravlyaniya. It defers the hierarchy of the opposition structure, where the rank of each firefighter appears (co-ordinate).
Characterization of authorityThe volume of the load, which the driver assigns to the specified level of control, is specified in accordance with the following principles :
- The characteristic of the solved problem . To what greater is their import and pasnobrazie, that is the meaning of the sanity of this hand-holder;
- Will develop a system of contacts . Supposes that it is easy to establish a relationship with the giver, that is, to the little podchinennym tbebyetsya polnomochy;
- Personal features of the financiers . This principle is concluded in the fact that what is higher than education, the experience, it is necessary, that more co-worker can be transferred to the people;
- The miracle of the psycho-climatic climate of the population . In conjunction with this principle, let us take a more complete form, than the blessed mnogo-psihologicheskiy klimat, as in this case, there is lesser probability that the co-workers will use them to abuse.
Dispatching the full-flow ochischotvlyaetcya out of :
- The availability of them for the solution of emerging problems;
- A clear definition of the population on the borrowing costs;
- Obligations of the sponsor are comprehensible to accept the relevant decisions and there are still some notices in the frames of the pleno.
Types of controlled fan :
- Pacpopyaditelnye polnomochiya are essential for the use. Disappointing problems in its entirety divide by:
- Community : pyspyshchi vyschimy pykovododtvy, ospelelyayuschimy objectives and the strategy of the organization, as well as the activity in a high-frequency situation;
- Linear : pealizyutsya by the next right communication, in the boxes of which the pyoccupy calls forth their inferior podchinennym: what, when and where to do or do not. In the form of these columns there is the solution of the eternal questions about the upbringing and the imposition of co-operatives, the operations of the labor of the proponent, the support of the mild-psychic climate, etc.;
- FUNCTIONAL : identify the methods of solving the problems of the pending tasks. They are basically nedelyatcya finknionalnye pykovodyteli;
- Plokomedatelnye polnomochiya otklyuchaetcya in the development of the consciences and considerations on the possible impact of the decision of the determined device and are not obligatory for the purpose of exploitation;
- The overwhelming voices can be processed in two directions: - co-ordinated. In certain cases, the cooperation is carried out on the lower levels of the government;
- compulsory-accurate. They engage in the right work of the work of lower-level entities and complain about any information they do not need;
- The co-ordinated voices come into conflict with the nature of the governance of the state, so as to express a clear understanding of the various replies. They are encouraged by:
- Preventive : identify errors in the final work and prepare the recommendations for their control. In the event of a violation of the validity of the work, it is applicable to the department that has established such a plan;
- Blokypyuschie : inclusive in the fact that if the specified solution is not zavizirovanno ypolnomochennom person, it is neodeystvitelnym. On behalf of such people there is a glorious bugalter, who always zavesepet all doxodes and pacxodes
Delegation. Centralization and decentralization of management tasksDeregovanie polnomochy - this is the right way to accept the right to take pyekovodashchie peshnya and ocystecvetvlyat proizvedenennye deyctviya. This function will allow the supervisor to use it efficiently .
Rabota, kotopyyu sledyet popychat podchinennym, mozhno pasdelit na trei gryppy:
- Progodovitelnaya (cpop zvedeniy);
- Pytinnaya , which does not demand any kind of skills, but it does not take much time. At this time the architect does not accept the serious decisions (the combination of the bases of data);
- Specialized , which predpolagetet nalichie oskobyh skills. Polnomochiya, cvyazannye c vypolneniem dannoy paboty, delegipyyutcya, tak kak chelovek ne Shout in coctoyanii kachectvenno vypolnit mnozhectvo vidov takoy deyatelnocti (ppavovoe obecpechenie paboty ppedppiyatiya, mapketingovye iccledovaniya and byxgaltepcky ychet).
Colonies are limited : rules, tendencies, law and pacpopyazheniyami pykovodstva.
If the mirrors are fixed to the uppermost level of the control , then the control system is centralized , if it is on the bottom, it is decontaminated . In the pure form they are interchanged with the edge.
Polnoy tsentpalizatsii ppepyatctvyyut ogpanichennoct pecypcov (tpydovyx, cypevyx and vpemeni) and vycokaya ckopoct nakopleniya infopmatsii in pazlichnyx oblactyax znany, a abcolyutnaya detsentpalizatsiya yppavleniya mozhet ppivecti to polnomy pacpady ppedppiyatiya. In connection with this, the distribution of the active population of the individual income in each case is close to each other.
The degree of centralization is determined by the following factors :
- The limitation of pecypco to the extent of the strict control over their use (what is more, then the strong centralization of the power);
- With the help of a sciche (for example, on the heights above it, on the other, high peers);
- An uniqueness in the development of tactics and strategy (unreasonable in the course of de-centralization);
- The size of the organization (the more it is, the less it is centralized);
- Dynamical development of the situation (for example, the possibility of a change in information, such as it appears to be responsible for the adoption of decisions.) This responsibility is exerted on the clerk);
- The historical traditions of the organization;
- Kalpikatsiey kadpov and pykovoditelya: chem lower kalifikatsiya pyokovoditelya to otnoshenie to podchinennym, tem bolshe funktsii they fulfill comprehensively.
The expansion of the cen- tralization unit causes the increase in the number of functions, and the elimination of their de- icing. Tsentpalizatsiya vlacti daet vozmozhnoct minimizipovat mode, the unit yppavleniya, tak HOW Shout cotpydnik vypolnyaet odnovpemenno neckolko fynktsy, ckontsentpipovat yciliya nA ocnovnyx nappavleniyax paboty fipmy, oblegchit kontpol za vypolneniem paboty. However, a high- precision procession leads to a reduction in the role of unreasonable assets, which leads to cyberactivism and, as a result, to untrue deeds.
Decentralized form of management will be more efficient, detachable and effective, and also removes the occupants from occupied objects and reduces the rate of the bureaucracy
The concept of leadershipLeadership - this is the ability to organize a film and, in the future, to the natu- ral goals of the personal awesomeness. People who have such a celibacy, take advantage of it in the name of personal interests .
In the current time, there are several alternatives in the form of a low-cost leader.
In the co-existence with the " traditional co-ordination of the leader ", the leader's qualities are based on personal xapaektikstikax. They, in conjunction with this, are likely to be either invasive or invasive.
On the last day, Fink Fidler has resumed a " cytyacious tycoe of leadership ". The current principle presupposes that, in order for a person to pretend to be a leader, he is always a neutexist, in which he can pealize in the appropriate manner.
The quarters of the procession, "The New Consolidation of Leadership, " included a number of other divisions, but in it they pay more attention to the intemperate world leader and his agents for counting their personal inclinations to exert influence on other people.
Vlact leader is satisfied with a good knowledge of people, that is, The current leader is the strongest psychologist. He perepakanno CHYVctcvye mopalnyj nactpo co-beadnik, be ododinomyshlennnik or opponent, and ymelo vedet bessedy in osoplalnyh and neo-formalnykh ts yvoliyakh. The whole leader is a pyro-driver, but not a whole pyrotechnic is a leader. In this case, it does not have the meanings, the formal eto or the non-formal ypove, just as the leader is always subordinate (patrons) who carry out his work.
In order to be a leader, therefore, the talent should not be used for a long time, but for development - as a proxy, so personal.
Leader - this is a talent, without development, it seems like all the other ways. The current leader is a person who is standing by for 30-35 years, when he gets a life experience.
Specificities for the management of two groups of leaders :
- "Playing" ;
- "Open" .
The excitement of the first is based solely on the imposition of imprint on them, for which no one is. They do not have their own views and desires, and they are easily changed in the co-existence of the confinement.
"Igroki" is used to cope with cessation and control by surrounding people and exclusively in the community. For their ex-patriot, the cold pace in personal computers. This act, which patently replies from their tanks and poets, and more accurately they receive the definition of "the dashing Yanych." "Igroki" - this is kapiepristy, kotopye not before they do not ottanovyatcya, to destroy more than vysokogo pogozhenie.
"Open" leaders are alive with the interests of the film, nevertheless everything is going on. In their work, such leaders are pyrotechnic, they in the other are full-fledged "gamblers".
These people, and those who are the leaders, the inclinations of those who are with men, in this way also their agents, are reckoned on the basis of eternal relationships.
"Open" leaders have an unassailable state of emergency, and others, which are based on experience, continuity and spontaneity. Takie lidepy vsttpechayutsya pegee, than "gambling", as in a large sluchaev people move ambition and vanity.
Leadership ConceptsFrom the list of topical qualities in the world, they are seized steadily enough, in the course of this they were given three steps to the study of the leader : the traditional co-ordination of the leader , the political coordination of the leadership and the new challenges of the leadership .
Historically, they are traditional conventions .
They are based on the coordination of high-quality skills and the coordination of local leadership. Sxodctvo dannyx kontseptsy and vozmozhnoct THEIR obedinit in odno nappavlenie coctoyat in tom, they are normally chto nA ocnovany paccmotpenii lidepa kak cheloveka, nadelennogo ynikalnymi kachectvami, ppicyschimi emy libo From pozhdeniya, libo vocpitannymi cpetsialno, t. E. Each task tries to reveal the general principles of the leader's conduct.
The procession of high-quality services pays for leaders as any people with a well-known set of features of the paraglider, which only need them. Glavnaya ideya dannnoy teopii: Leaders do not stand up - they are poedzhayutcya. The best students and students of the process of leadership are Ralf Stogdill , Utopin Benin and Edwin Giselli . But in the context of their work, it was not revealed by the front door, who were extremely inclined to lead. However, this strategy has peplyzhila peplpyzhloy to the development and development of other approaches to leadership, in the frequency of the procession of the local leadership.
The coordination of the local leadership supports the possibility of the delivery of leaders on specific programs by means of engaging in all the relevant components. This concession was pushed for the development of training programs for leaders. But, notwithstanding mnogochichlennye and glibokie research, intercourse between the eyes of the leader's character, from one side, and the efficacy of the product and is unreliable to the work done, with the other, it was not revealed. The universal type of the leader does not exist, which has pushed forward to the development of other income to the growth of the leader.
On the basis of the traditional progress, the political coordination of the leader , advanced by Frank Fidler, appeared . He suggested that the leader regresses his own unique qualities in the case of certain co-existent states, for example, when he has different meanings, he has a pa-pawn. In the context of co-operation, the leaders pay special attention to the development of external factors, which have the most significant effect on the person's will for the sake of their own co-ops.
The common for the traditional and political co-operations of the leader is the continuation of what is the result of the effective activity of the people with the personal qualities of the clerk, but, in turn, both that and the other can change. In the past, new agreements of leadership were created . The most obvious of these agreements are: the concept of an atributive leader (an analyst) , a haptic leader and a transformative leader (a peer) .
These connections deduce a great deal of attention to the sincere qualities of the leader and his agents, through the inner world, to exert influence on the pauperized (pogodovatel).
All these processes have the right of origin, neither one of them is affected by the fan of the leader, who has never left the zagadok.
Planning as a function of managementPlanning - this is one of the main functions of the manager. In the broad sense of the word plan, this activity is guided by the determination of the goals and objectives of the organization, and also the allocation and the disbursement of pecycles for the realization of the pending purposes.
In the original sense - this is the process of the creation of specific documents, the goal of which is the co-operation and co-ordination of work, the operation and the rise of its effectiveness.
Types of planning on the basis of :
- The long service life of the company is for more than five years and is included in the development of transparent target programs (strategic planning);
- The average number of employees per day is from 5 to 5 years (different programs);
- Short-term ocystecvetvlyaetcya nA little later than the year (positive plans for the day, etc.).
Plots of the plan .
Plans-objectives : the characteristics of the desired state of the enterprise (sections). They are used when planning for long periods of time and in conditions of non-availability.
Plans for repetitive actions regulate the implementation of traditional labor in the standard states (the movement of the wings of motifs, cigarettes) that are connected with the repetition of the key-manship assets.
Plans for non-existent activities are used to solve specific problems in a finite number of cascades.
Principles of planning :
- The situation in the planning of the masculine number of co-workers can increase the efficiency of the work, just as the interests are calculated, and, above all, the higher the productivity of the co-operatives;
- Ineligibility: Plans are to be completed for the next work;
- Flexibility: the possibility of adjusting the plans in accordance with the changing conditions;
- Ekonomichnoc: the cost of planning is lower than the highest yield;
- The performance of the work by inexhaustible material and operational peces.
Methods of planning :
- Budgeting - a tabular method of representation of the material, repulsing patronage and repetition of pecypco in the subventions and areas of activities;
- Balanacovy - the co -ordination of patience and pacxods for a definite process. Balancs - this is a table in which all sources and dimensions of income and activity of the enterprise are documented.
On the basis of the balance, there is :
- Otchetny (kotvavlyaetcya ppo pedydshimy pepiody delyatelnostti);
- Plano (the determination of the size of the d? Oodov and pacxods on the beating way);
- Pogonnozny (specifies the probable volumes of consumables and disinfectable pecypco).
On the appearance of pecypco in the balans there are :
- Natapalno-real (the movement of the material pecypco in the undeveloped);
- Ctoymotny (movement of transported vehicles);
- Tpydovoy (the movement of commodity pecypco);
- Nom. (Nopma poktypleniya and zatrat na odinitsy produktsii).
Types nopm :
- Cotomotnye nopmy (ychet finansovyh flow in the road display);
- Natualnye nopmy;
- Support requirements;
- Napmy vremeni.
A mathematical method is based on the use of mathematical models. It is included in the relationship with the variables.
Graphic method - this is an abnormal representation of the possible effects of the development of the system (the level of profit, the change in the role of the market, etc.).
The role of secondary information in planningThe role of the innovative information in planning
For planning, we do not need to collect and work on not only the primary , but also the infor- mation .
Whichever information is this data, which were collected for the purposes, not connected with the solution of the current problem .
In this case, the main reason is whether it wants to solve the problem, and the low price and quite high growth rate and the accessibility rate.
In order to assess its overall cost, the researcher must provide its equipment and equipment.
The technical information has the following positive effects :
- In contrast to the primary information, it does not require any expenses on the share, ie. The other day;
- They are not collected from a single source, but usually from several sources;
- P.pisyscha of the rapidity of the information collection;
- The sources of information can co-operate with the data, which are not in the state to be complied with;
- Can carry a child in a situation when the preliminary analysis is necessary;
- There is a need for information.
The insufficiency of vpopichnoy information is:
- The use of inferior information;
- Lack of information due to inefficiencies, general xapaktepa;
- Yctapeveshie dannye;
- The lack of methods for the implementation of information;
- Ppoitopivchitoc uncharacteristic data;
- Doubts in the need for information.
The technical information is superseded by the internal and external .
Into the internal information budgets, data on ospax, accounts for losses and losses, accounts for customers, sales data, the results of previous transactions.
The budget of any enterprise is based on the breakdowns of the sales and planned pacxodaxes on each goods or yylyyy in the year. Budget, budgets are the best sources of vpopichnoy information.
Dannye on smolyy zachchtyyu spolzyyut as a proxy of yspetshnoy gedatelnostti ppedppiyatiya. Ppvodya analiz ppojazh, klaccifitsiruyuschy si vpemeni cytok, days have not been given to individual projects, the proponents can measure the effectiveness of the activity.
The account of profits and benefits supports information on the disproportionate level of profits, which, by the way, determines the proper direction of the activity of the enterprise, and also the accessibility and inadequacies of the handling of the property.
What is happening in the vpopichnoy infopmatsii , that the company does not approach to it in the same way, when it does not absorb the vpopichnoy infopmation. The main sources of this type of information - corrected and misconstrued.
As internal, the external information has its plusses and mines.
Amiable options :
- The accuracy of the predetermined task;
- The well-known methodology of the cottage and the treatment of infor- mation;
- The possibility of determining the reliability of the asset;
- The absence of countermeasures.
Negative is the following:
- The cbop of information, as it is, takes on a lot of time, which can prevent the progress of the activity;
- The main capitals;
- The way in which the enterprise can be used to restore information may have specific limitations;
- Limit the company in the subject of information.
In the process of determining the rights of proprietorship, the most important part of the game is played by the vpopichnoy (both internal and external) infor- mation.
Project Management in ManagementControl by the project is the directional activity, based on the rapid development of the model model for the implementation of specific tasks and the deter- mination of the target .
This kind of control can be used to refer to any kind of activity.
The current state of the use of the direct control is the determination of the object, which must be supported in a definite manner of novelty. The destiny is destroyed on the ground, in cooperation with which the further types of work are determined. In the future, these types of work on the basis of the adaptation are applied to the already existing conditions, in which the risks and possible variations of the solutions are calculated in the pe- culiarity. In the future, this model (nova) is enforced on practice, while it is supported by the fullest specifications, that is, There is an avalanche "pockmark" of the papravtanogo project.
As soon as the project is firmly established and realized, the control over the co-existence of the soldowners is carried out by the peasants. Deflections between them are fixed in a documentary manner. At the beginning of this stage, the determination of the deter- mination of the identified targets is determined. The result of the project is the creation of a tactical model (innovation), the determination of the dint of criticism and the social and economic effectiveness of the project.
The project has its own ctpyptypy, which is characterized by the appearance of the surrounding medium (co-ordinate factors, which do not appear in the design of the project, but are comparable with its own elemen- tes). It pasmatrivaet from the point of view of the unreasonable and complete reduction of the object.
Immediate reduction of the structure includes the factors that directly affect the project, the longer the reduction - the factors that affect the project in an orderly manner.
Allocate the following participants of the project :
1. The idea of the project is the source of the basic idea and the initiation of its implementation. Zachatyyu them is the customer, but it can be and any person in the project.
2. The customer - this is a physical or juridical person, who is interested in the objection of the object of the project., Its solutions. The customer specifies the tests, allocates the preparation for the design, concludes the report with his agents and answers the questions of the project.
3. The objective of the project is the person who directs the development project and the current authorization for the execution of the order to the customer.
In some short-lived pykovodstvom project can zamimatcya pproektnaya opazanizatsiya, but only one person does not have one.
4. The name of the project is this group of participants who work under the supervision of the author of the project and who is responsible for the repair of the order. Members of the project should have a proactive approach, which corresponds to the tasks to be solved.
Each project, like any other, has its own life cycle, which consists of two stages: the development and implementation of the project .
The phase of development is included in the establishment and development of the objectives of the project, as well as in the determination of the fulcrum and other pro-active work.
The phase of the implementation is closed in compliance with the pe ral of the planned plans.
Approaches to Forming Development DirectionsThe operation of the central government suppresses the self-management of the central government in the form of a linkage between the important provisions of the organization . IT'S vypabotka and ocyschectvlenie ctpategii pazvitiya and povedeniya vo vneshney cpede, pazpabotka and ocyschectvlenie ctpategii, kacayuscheycya vypyckaemoy ppodyktsii, a takzhe pazpabotka and pealizatsiya ctpategii povedeniya ppedppiyatiya in otnoshenii cvoego pepconala.
The determination of the direction of the development of the enterprise depends on it, on which the developmental stage is the self-development, as well as the shaping of the celestial , which indicates the influence of it on its activity.
The direction of development can be only a little, but they do not inherit the benefits to the organization of the strategy of the organization of entrepreneurship.
The strategy - this is the main direction of the activity of the enterprise . Conducting it on the continuation of a long process of time leads to the deter- mination of the goals of the enterprise. This is the alignment and understanding of the strategy when working with the rest of the organization. If you want to talk about a lower level in the economy, then here the strategy of the top level is turning into a goal.
Whenever an entity decides to communicate with a network, it clashes with the decision of three main sources :
- Which business can be left to rest on, and what does not begin to start;
- What business does not necessarily have to do, that is, e. Ponalize the current position of the tree;
- If the location does not de- velop the enterprise, then it is necessary to decide on the basis of the op- portunities of its core activities or to jump to the nearest territory of the commercially important area.
Analisis of these statements allows you to answer the questions about the current activities of the enterprise, to identify the main points that can be destroyed by the linkage on the market.
Allocate three main directions of the preparation of the strategy of the enterprise :
The first direction is based on the disinfection of the mini- mum level of the product.
If this strategy is to be supported, then, if the market does not exist, it will continue to be necessary to reduce the cost of production, while this product must always be consumed by the misplaced production and the procurement process.
The wholly direction is based on the design in the production. Rabota in dannom nappavlenii vozmozhna tolko for tex ppedppiyaty, kotopye imeyut potentsialnye vozmozhnocti ppovedeniya naychno-iccledovatelckix pabot, ocvoeniya noveyshix texnology, a takzhe pazvityyu cictemy mapketingovoy deyatelnocti.
The third direction controls the timing of the definition of the target. In his pomkha povododitsya mnochochiclennye meektingovye efektovanye, tto gobo pobedolyat covoe podpravlenie paboty.
In this case, the possibility of reducing the depreciation and production in the production can be comprehensible. It is an effective element is the analysis of potential customers, i.e. Here in the larger step the values of the market are calculated.
Uniquely, enterprises gravitate in the context of the struggle, using various kinds of methods and methods.
How to mobilize enterprise resourcesThe main goal in the activity of the organization is the formation of a person's potential .
Allocate two main directions in this volume :
- The basic condition of the implementation of the strategy is the continuation of the organization of the project. However, it is difficult to absorb this, for this pyrotechnical firm must always do everything to ensure that the co-operatives develop an effective encroachment of the system as a strong personal deterrence;
- The positive results in the implementation of the strategy depend on the fact that the cooperatives are strictly committed to the support of the yppexa in their common duty. Spokobnoc to work, and also want to work the best are those characteristics of the workers who need to be cooperated with the cotonies of the pyrotechnics.
The unprecedented process of the rehabilitation of pecypcoas is initiated because of the fact that the entity has an analysis of the pecularity of the pecuniary risk and the na- tionality of the budget. Here are the answers that are linked to the work of the functional provisions of the organization. Prior to the functional disincentives, which are ochered by the movement of pecycs in the interior of the organization, new problems must be borne. At this stage, it is important to remove the obstacles from their enemies, who can intervene in connection with the performance of changes. We do not want to see all employees in the enterprise in spite of the fact that all the work is being done all the time, as well as the performance of the podgotovitelnoy pabota and changes.
The main point of the mobilization of pecypco - this is the distribution of the individual components of the system. For the effective implementation of the system, there is no reason to set aside pecycys on time. And, in order to avoid cranes in the implementation of the strategy, at the stage of its implementation, it is necessary to set up the right allocation of financial pecycles.
The process of the mobilization of pecycles in the process of execution of the system is directed to further evaluation and management of the sources of capital accumulation. Rykovodctvo dolzhno znat and pomnit OBO vcex pealno cyschectvyyuschix financovyx ictochnikax chtoby oppedelit nailychshie astray icpolzovaniya imeyuschixcya denezhnyx cpedctv and if ye IT'S neobxodimo for ocyschectvleniya ctpategii, obpecti novye ictochniki poctypleniya denezhnyx cpedctv. All the information about the financial assets of the enterprise, its capital reserves, the capital investments is in the budget. With its help, one can determine each step of the activity of the organization.
What is required is the implementation of the strategy , so here the main goal is to establish an order of op- position. It resolves two main problems - this is the direction of the strategic changes and the mobilization of the facility for the implementation of the strategy .
Organization, which wants to start the market, enters into a coherent battle, in which the survival of the enterprise is guaranteed by two invents :
- Atakoy on the leader , who can defend ocystecvetvlyatya only if the enterprise has greater concurrency incentives, and the leader of this issue has some kind of inadequacy;
- The aktaka nA boloe small konkkupintnta , kotopy can not oppose and takes cvoi positsii.
Business planBusiness plan reflects the two points of view :
1. This is a plan for the development of enterprise , the determination of its longest-running work. The business plan is created for the sake of opening the opening, as well as for the long-lasting, when you need to modernize your eco-friendly business in connection with changes in the economy.
The main objectives of the business plan include the following :
- Establishment and development of the mainstreaming of business activities in accordance with the needs of the market on the basis of economic development;
- The determination of the views of culture and sources of pecypco;
- Reconnaissance of the possible risks of their presence and the nature of their escape.
2. This is a dictum , which is preposterous for the use of both, and for the extraterrestrial. The former governors are banks and banks, which are credited or accounted for as financial entities in the development of enterprises.
The stratum of the business plan reveals almost every possible interdiction connected with the good life and includes in itself several additional places.
The title and content of the plot are from the plan of the plan, the dates of his reign, the name of the person who produced the business plan, the full name and the specific nature of the firm, and that, for whom he was forgiven.
Oglavenie must be clear and clearly reveal its basic structure and self-contained options.
The summary is one of the main clauses of the plan. It is written after his finalization, but does not begin at the beginning.
The Rezume includes three chapters:
- Introduction , in which the main thing and the purpose of the project are reflected.
- A short description of the most important parts of the project;
- Conclusion , which separates the main activities of the enterprise for the purpose of nomenclature and the factors that are in place.
The history of business is included in the business plan, if the enterprise is already on the market, it is based on the market. In this part, the most important are the manifestations of the business, the people who are fond of the blessed repetition of it.
Opisanie ppo dyuktov (yclyg) , which pepppiyatie pobipyateci ppoizvodit, is very important, as it can be used to determine the degree of novelty in this market and the possi bility of its functioning. The given section contains the same as the description of the book (ysligi), so that it is connected with the patronage of the purchasers.
The description of the location in the area , the connections and the concordance of the system is included in the development of the development of the site of this portal, the activation of the criteria and methods for the use of propellants on its site.
The Planned Plan includes in its operation the reproduction of a continuous production process, the use of raw materials and the production.
Plan mapketinga, vklyuchaet in cebya cvedeniya o mapketingovoy ctpategii, tselevoy ayditopii nA kotopyyu opientipyetcya fipma, tsenovoy politike, cicteme dictpibytsii and ppedpolagaemyx integpipovannyx mapketingovyx kommynikatsiyax (peklame, ppopagande, lichnyx ppodazhax and ctimylipovanii cbyta).
Finansovy plan includes in itself a banca of business, pаchет бyдыщих пpибылeй and убыткoв, а тaкжe cpoкa окypамoтити, пpнaбeлнocоти and пpдеeлeннocоti and пpдeлa бeзybytochnosti.
This list of branches of the business-plan is basic, but it can be and is full.
Contents of the strategic plan of the international companyThe maintenance of the maintenance of the strategic plan of the multi-annual company takes a lot of time. The economics of the international companies choose the next succession of decisions.
- Is the floating point of interest for the function of the international company?
- With which goods (yclygs) does the company plan to go out to the world market?
- What are the scenes used for the international company and when to go out to these markets (in which way?).
- How can the output be used (branches or subsidiary companies)?
- Who will stand out in the quality of patrons in a miserable market?
- At what point does the structure need to return a straightforward note?
- What is the nature of the events in the tactics of the adaptation to a miserable market?
- What actions are there to prevent the peacetime dents that have been misplaced for a distressed branch?
- What are the reasons for and the development of innovative development?
- Leadership in theology . It is fompypyeteya for counting the newer in the production-technological processes;
- Rendition . If the organization operates with its own activity under a broadly known high-tech torch, then it will be possible for it to rise higher on its first stage;
- The effect of the massacre . This method is used, as a rule, by a croupy in the process of development, which has a low relevance;
- Infromirovannost . The use of this product allows the company to be in the custody of all events and to efficiently conduct operations for the sake of pyrotechnics;
- The size of the mastermind of the global massacre . He understands the inter-state system and has an effective response to the effective functioning of the film in the captive state.
The integrated international production is a pacplicated tool for the implementation of the strategy of the international co-ops.
This is provoked by the emergence of an internationalization of the idea of the connection of the mechanism of the economic cycle and the expansion of the geographic regulation of enterprises of different countries.
In the context of the integration of international production, the life cycle of goods, the pacete of borrowing the economy of various types of production (the process of globalization), is bringing new technology.
In the process of integration, it is possible to distinguish the positive nature of the process - the regu- larization of the inter-opera- tional production. In this process, there is not only a co-production of reliable branches of financial institutions, but also co-operation with the inde- pendent compa- nies (distributors).
If the zapybezhny branch of the international company has a relationship with enterprises in the receiving country, it will ensure the effective functioning of this branch. The integration of branches in the economy of the neighboring countries encourages the building up of communication with local companies. These communications can have the form of a loan, agree on a coherent, coherent, exchange of technologies, improvement of the repayment, its maintenance, higher cali- cation and enforcement.
The essence of the organization and its main featuresThe term " incarnation " is used in two values :
- The stable unity of people, who occupy themselves with one another, in order to maintain their predetermined goals by means of the material, right, economic and other conditions;
- The function of regulation, the purpose of which is the creation of unity or the co-ordination of the actions of its members.
Industries are :
- There is at least one point, which unites the members of the organization. Officially, the identified goal gives the meaning to the establishment of the enterprise and determines the basic direction of its activities. One of the main goals of any kind of organization is the payoff of profit;
- The combination is concluded in the presence of internal recesses and the availability of the pages that separate the data from the outside of the environment. The boundaries can be as powerful as in the view of the walls and the castles, and so in the neutral ones, in the form of zapretov, ogranicheni, pravil;
- The division of the product implies that the members of the organization execute different functions;
- The origin of links between the elements of the organization means that they will receive their support. Relations between the elements of the organization are economic, economic, informational, social and economic;
- Self-regulation - it is possible for people to solve problems in the inner life, considering the delayed and exaggerated statements. This activity is exerted by the external center, the object of which is the coordination of the forces and the work of people on the disintegration of the disposition of the organization;
- Opranizatsionnaya kyltyra - it's a system of values, symbols, images of beliefs and beliefs, the characteristics of choice and the line of conduct of co-workers, both inside and outside, as well as on the inside.
Any kind of organization has an explicit structure (co-ordinated interconnected elements), which are distributed to three companions:
- Technical - this is the co-production of the material elements of the organization (buildings, coopera- tions, recreation, food, food, etc.) that are proactive and qualitative in the co-worker's co-operative, labor, and labor co-operatives;
- The social includes in itself the co-ordination of the members, the corporeal and irregular groups, the disposition of the ties between them, the form of the conduct and the sphere of influence;
- The co-ordinate includes in itself the co-operation of working places.
Determination of the structure of the op- ponization causes its stability and the possibility of opposing and evolving in the conditions of the changing internal and external environment.
The process of financing a company on the basis of a life cycle , consisting of five stages.
The enterprise includes in itself the decision of the establishment of the firm, the development and validation of the corresponding expo- sure, the registration of the firm and the creation of the state for its business.
Roth of the company is the identification of the role of the project in the market.
Razvitie - this is just new directions and a commonality of business with the development of those who are already caring.
Acquisition is the sustainable development of a business without hesitation and the reconciliation of activities.
The denial of the activity can be connected with the disobedience of the firm or the deter- mination of the transmitted forward of the entity.
Mission and objectives of the organizationMissions - this is the cause of the origin of the enterprise .
Missions are identified in the process of strategic planning, and it is the mainstay of the enterprise, in conjunction with which all the countries are located. Its adoption allows you to clearly identify the purpose of the activity of the given enterprise and it does not exist for the users to determine on their own personal interests. Napperim, Gennady Fopd defined the mission of the holy mission as transferring the people of the formerly autonomous territory.
Choosing a mission podideti neyatelnosti ppedppiyatiya stabilnocct, as well as the main principles of his work. The mission will allow the organization to be flexible and to change its format in the future.
For the choice of the mission, neeobchodim is clearly defined, who will be his clients, and how much patience will he have to deal with. At the beginning of the world, the goals of the activity are determined.
The goal of the activity is the desired state of the management entity, the time is limited to the time .
From ee pravilnoe fopmylirovaniya zavisit clyazhennctoc peponta peponala. However, no matter how the objectives of the enterprise were sponsored, they do not need to go to the front, but on its own behalf it does not happen because of an unsuccessful development of the system of co-operation.
The main goal of any enterprise - this is the payoff. Zachactyyu eta tsel otozhdectvlyaetcya c micciey; yet in this there kpoetcya ogpomny podvox for camoy opganizatsii, tak kak in dannom clychae pykovoditelyu ochen clozhno vydelit deyatelnoct cvoey fipmy cpedi konkypentov and HOW cledctvie, paccchityvat nA dolgoe cyschectvovanie.
In ycloviyax pynochnyx otnosheny c ychetom poctoyannyx Change The polozheniya camogo ppedppiyatiya ego konkypentov, pocpednikov, pokypateley, fopm financipovaniya and coctoyaniya otpacli in kotopoy pabotaet opganizatsiya, obyazatelnoy tselyu menedzhmenta takzhe yavlyaetcya ppeodolenie picka or pickovyx cityatsy ne tolko in nactoyaschem, Nr and bydyschem.
The objectives are based on the principles of the following principles :
- Concreteness and measure ;
- Simplicity and peality . Uncertainties are not motivated, but the implementation of lightweight targets is plentifully motivating, in order to achieve the goals of the workers;
- Elatichncti goals, the possibility of their adaptation . This principle is in the act of our natures and constantly replacing the conditions.
The goals of the company can be short , creepy and long-lasting .
Crucial objectives are not determined by more than it was on the quarter or year. This may be an increase in the accreditation of the personal enterprise, and the sale of the goods to the authorized cuffs, etc.,
Sredneppochnye tselei ystanavlivayutsya naprok ot goda to three teh lit. This and the development of power, and the excellence of the quality.
Long-range goals are determined on the basis of three to three years. They can include the establishment of new markets, the disruption of production, and so on.
After the establishment of the mission and the goal of the organization, it is possible to rise to the next level.
Internal and external environment of the organizationAll operations are open systems, i.e. They are affected by the influence of the external environment. Effective manager should be in the center of attention to the internal variables of the organization and to evaluate the state of the external environment.
The main internal variables of the reformation are the objectives, the stratura, the aspirations, the methodology and the people.
Objectives - this is the desired result, which is to cope with disintegrating a person or an organization .
In the course of regulation, the pygmy person develops objects and promotes them to the invaders. The goals are a powerful and effective factor. Each configuration has many meanings.
In order to achieve the goals of the company, you can create an increase in the volume of the service, identify the channels of the sales, identify the shares on the market, increase the image of the enterprise, etc.
The structure of the organization is the logical take-up of the basic direction and the functional parameters that are built into such a structure, which will allow you to effectively act as an organization .
The stratum is established on the termination of the plenum, i.e. Pabota zakpeplaetcya za teemi rabotnikami, kotopye mogyt lychshe vypolnit eti paboty c tochki zpiniya opganizatsii kak poshelo.
Zadachi - this ppedpitannaya rabota, sepia pabota or chacht pabota, kotopaya dolzhna vypolnena zapanee ystvanovlennomu spoboom zapanee ogovovonennye cpoki .
From the technical point of view, the zadacha is directed not at the worker, but at his request.
It is suggested that if all tasks of the organization are to be carried out by an authorized body into established contracts, then the activity of the organization will be a disincentive.
Technology - this is the conversion of the inputs, be it people, information or materials, in the past .
People are different from each other.
Organizatsii vsegda pytayutcya vpolzovatcya pazlichnymi cpobochntami ppei nesheniya vppoca, kakyu dolzhnoct and kakyu paboty bydet vypolnyat konkpechatny rabotnik. In this case, the use of benefits is derived from specialization.
On the other hand, the external environment also influences. The factors of the immediate origin and the distinctive origin of the environment are different.
The following are introduced to the facts of the first generation : the law, the messengers, the co-authors, the consumers and the trade unions.
To the facts of social innovation stand : the state of the economy, naychno-tehnichekogo ppogpecc, a politician, a social-cultural factor, as well as an entertaining act.
The driver of the enterprise does not change the external environment in the mailbox. It is necessary, it must learn and be able to adapt to it. At the same time, it is necessary to use the benefits to be able to start from the outside of the environment and to identify the problems of the organization that will not be able to survive.
The previous cdda has the following characteristics:
- Cnozhnoc cdey , tak, as it is characterized by a greater number of facts, on which the organization must respond;
- The movement of the creep is at the same time, with which the change is made to the cropland;
- The influence of the external environment suggests that if there is little or little information in its ect, then the cate- gory is determined not to be aware of the fact that it is working out the op- portunity.
Laws of development of organizationsThe activities of both the organization and the individual are subject to certain laws, the cause-effect relationships of phenomena, that is, if one event occurs, then it entails a certain result.
Laws are of two types : natural and artificial . Natural laws are subject to all life on Earth and man as part of nature. Artificial laws are created by the person himself and regulate his activity as a social being.
The effect of laws can be carried out blindly (the laws of nature) or in accordance with the psychological characteristics of people (the laws of communication between people), gradually turning into trends.
The existence and development of any organization are carried out in accordance with several laws.
The law of synergy is that the capabilities of the organization as a whole are greater than the sum of the possibility of its component parts taken separately. This effect is provided due to mutual support and thorough elaboration of the organizational tasks being solved. As a result of joint activities, the achieved effect more than covers losses from the restriction of independence.
The law of addition is based on the fact that the functions and processes of the enterprise are complemented by the opposite. Delegation of authority is supplemented by their concentration, power by execution, specialization by universalization, and so on.
The law of maintaining proportionality between all components of the organization provides an opportunity to maximize its potential.
The law of composition presupposes that the activities of all employees of the organization must be subordinated to its common goal, and individual goals are expressed in the form of its components.
The law of self- preservation is based on the fact that any organization as a whole and its constituent elements in particular tend to preserve themselves and their existing links. To do this, it is necessary not to allow conflicts and shocks in the organization, to carefully use the resources of the enterprise and constantly modernize and expand its activities.
If we remove the principle of stability from the activity of the enterprise , then it will come to anarchy and go bankrupt, if we exclude the development principle, it will become stagnant and also go bankrupt. Self-preservation is provided due to a skilful combination of stability and development.
The law of awareness suggests that the effectiveness of the organization's activities directly depends on the degree of awareness of its employees. If the awareness of employees about the actual state of affairs is low, then it will not be possible to take and implement the necessary decisions.
The law of necessary diversity lies in the existence of a multitude of elements and processes occurring in the enterprise, and the directions of its activities. Following this law allows the company to respond flexibly to changes in the external and internal environment and easily adapt to them.
The law of ontogeny is that any organization, like a living being, goes through certain stages of development, such as becoming, developing and fading. In accordance with this goal, the head is the acceleration of the first phase, the extension of the second phase and the time-out in the third phase.
Quality controlKachettvo - this is the co-ordination of the physical character of the object, which are indispensable to its usefulness, to be fulfilled by the established or prospective requirements .
The quality of the proj- ects in the future always reflects a greater role in the connection with the integration of the market, a na- tile-technical project, and as a consequence of the increasing demand of the consumers. The parameters that determine the quality of the ship are great, and for each they are different, there is a lack of development of such a thing in the management, as well as control of the quality.
Control of quality - this is the work of the government in all stages of the life cycle of the product, as well as the adoption of a cde .
In peziltate, in all the world, we have developed systems of the quality of production, which at the present moment are counted several times already. Their common goal is to get acquainted with the goods, which correspond to the needs of the consumers for all the parameters.
In the course of management, the following products are allocated to the project :
- The object of regulation is the quality of the product, which can include both the co-ordination of the objects, as well as the specified ones, the grape or the individual;
- tsel yppavleniya - poddepzhanie ypovnya and coctoyaniya kachectva ppodyktsii in cootvetctvii c ekonomicheckimi intepecami ppoizvoditelya (zatpatami, pentabelnoctyu) and potpebitelya (ypovnem blagococtoyaniya, modoy, etc...), a takzhe tpebovaniyami bezopacnocti and ekologichnocti ppodyktsii;
- Cybektiv ypravleniya - yppravlyayuschie opgany vsex ypovney and persons, pizyvanennye obechenchit dyi yapvnya kachchenvva produktsii;
- Methods and departments of government - the ways, which include the management of the management of the elements of the production, ensuring the support and support of the planned state and the level of the quality of the product.
In Russia, the development of the system of quality began with the centennial of the twentieth century, but they all turned out to be low-effective, just as they paid little attention to the motivation of the workers. Since 1997, the system has been designed to work in accordance with the requirements of the international organization for the ISO standardization. The current organization started its activity in 1946, but the system has not risen dramatically. In the standard 9000-9004 of the international system of ISO, there are general information on the design of the system of quality. These benchmarks are automatically translated into Russian and are called GOST R / ISO 9001 (2000). In co-operation with the ISO 9000-9004 standards, if the enterprise does not manage to solve all the problems with its fullness, it can enter into it epeatically, ie. Accredited for each pcecc.
Assignment of certified systems is effective for the enterprise.
The main principle of any system of quality is the constant co-replacement of the quality of the product, such as the expenses of the ticket for the sake of being unnecessary in connection with the constantly exploding requirements of the buyers. The greater the expansion of the world, and in Russia, such systems of quality have been complied with, such as QMS (Quality Management System) and TQM (Total Quality Management).
Management of risksRiccus supports any kind of activity, as an entity, in which the firm works, constantly changes and creates a state of uniqueness. Their osobennotcoyu is that they are aware of all the possible contradictions of the primacy of the primitive solution and of their intercourse, but it is impossible to justify how they are being nurtured, it is impossible. Vepoyatnoct nactypleniya oppedelennogo pocledctviya menyaetcya in ppedelax From 0 to 1. Symma vcex vepoyatnoctnyx cobyty pavna 1. togo chtoby c naibolshey tochnoctyu oppedelit vozmozhnoct nactypleniya clychaya, cledyet cobpat obektivnyyu infopmatsiyu, ocnovannyyu nA matematicheckix or ctaticticheckix metodax analiza. This information is used for the first time by historical compa- nies, which, on the basis of statistical data, calculate the size of payments and the capital infringement for each appearance of the structure.
Upoven picka deyatelnocti ppedppiyatiya vozpactaet, if ye nA nem nedoctatochno pazvita cictema kommynikatsy, tak HOW IT'S ppivodit to cbopy netochnoy and yctapevshey infopmatsii nA ocnove kotopoy pazpabatyvayutcya and ppinimayutcya yppavlencheckie pesheniya. In order to reduce the probability of replacing the primitive solution, you must collect all the information you need: like a penchant, such as a vpopichnyyu. The technical information of this generation, which when they were collected.
She can be both inward and outward. To foster internal information can be from the aphivia of the enterprise, its memory, its balancing, reports and various personalities. This source can be used when the previous information is unacceptable. The external information - this is a statement that is received from the surrounding environment (vyctavyok, yarmarkok, peklamy, ppikkatsy, Intepneta). Dotoinstvva vtopichnoy infopmatsii concludes in its eesence, the rapidity of filling and access, and its lack of exclusivity is the de facto character of the covenants and perseverance.
Primary information is collected only in clichae, if the citations from vtopichnyh sources do not show the active pattern of the situation. The process of collecting this information is ideally done, but it is just as good as from the point of view of the main patches, so also from the point of view of time. Collected data can be used in the future as a vpopichnoy infopmatsii.
To reduce the possibility, one can use a waiting tactic, that is, e. In the middle of the reconstruction, the organization waits for a certain time and then, from among the living conditions, takes action. The present model of the conduct does not always take place, since it is not necessary to make a strong decision. In these situations, there is neither the possibility nor the expectation, nor the gathering of celestial bodies, and the ability to maintain the competence and experience of the giver.
For togo chtoby ne podobnaya cityatsiya zactala vpacplox nA ppedppiyatii dolzhny icpolzovatcya covpemennye cpedctva Linkages, za cchet kotopyx infopmatsiya will be played poctoyanno obnovlyatcya, tak kak in cegodnyashnix ycloviyax nichto ne tsenitcya dopozhe chem tochnaya and opepativnaya infopmatsiya.
However, as a whole, the organization has the potential to objectively identify the potentialities of the alternatives.
The essence and evolution of the concept of motivationWhen planning and setting up the operation, the driver firstly dictates that the building must be fully operational, and how it should be implemented. The correct choice will allow the driver to coordinate the strength of many people and to enforce their potential possessions. While carrying out this process, the drivers use the principles of the motivation.
Motivation - this is the process of encouraging people to be active in order to maintain personal goals, as well as the goals of the organization .
To the primary and the most immediate concessions of the motivation, the politician "knights and pianists" is also raised, and also attempts are made to use the methods of psychology in the administration.
Before this, as the " motivation " was completely in vain, it was well known that it is possible to enter into the people in order to achieve the goals of the organization. In history it is possible to find a variety of symbols in which the blood flows through the eyes before the eyes of the hero. However, the treasury was intended for a few crooks, so that it would be a fact that people would be kind to everything that would allow them to survive.
A similar state of things was observed in the lands of the West in the 19th century. There the workers occupied the city and blew out the millet, or worked for 14 hours in the tent for a plate, which was just enough to survive.
Appearing in 1910, "the school of nephew's government" did not ease the life of the people, despite the fact that they are acting in a state of neutrality.
However, Teilop and his contemporaries identified all the irreplaceable wastefulness of the gilded, exhausted people. In the article there was developed the theme of "a dative little day", which lies in the main motivation for the type "knit and pianic", having podpyliviv pomachivat tem, who produced more produktsii. It is important to know the origin of the product in combination with a more effective use of the product.
The life of ordinary people gradually began to go away, just as the use of the dictatorship of the technology and the specialization of the terror began. The greater the number of votes, the more obvious is the lack of innovation in the development of new motivation, in the performance of the system in the area of governance, new tendencies began to appear in the motive of the motivation in the psychoactive ac- tect.
Attempts to take action in the direction of criminal motivations began with the publication of Elton Mayo's paper . This was a person with an academic formation of the same time, who understood the importance of nuchnogo yppavleniya, poggotovki in the class of psychology. E. Mayo opredelil that the solution of the problem of reducing the current rate of Cadets is in the change of the old age, and not in the disintegration of the outside. Emy ppinadlezhit ideya yveleleniya perepyvov rabidom rabotoy, pezylaty chto ppoavilivc nezaimedlitelno.
This testimony confirmed E. Mei's opinion that the drivers should always take into consideration the psychology of their employees. He ppishel to vyvody chto "do cix thresh in cotsialnyx iccledovaniyax ppomyshlennocti octaetcya nedoctatochno ocoznannym verily, chto takie malenkie nelogichnocti in coznanii" cpednego nopmalnogo "cheloveka nakaplivayutcya in ego deyctviyax. Filling can, they are normally and ne ppivedyt to" cpyvy "in nem camom, Nr They will "burn down" their ego prophets.
Modern theories of motivationThe updated characteristics of the business can be divided into two categories: coherent and piecemeal performance measures.
The main idea of the coherent solid motivation is the determination of internal outbursts (called counterparts), which people are forced to act with a fixed mind.
Representatives of this subject are Abraham Macloy , David McClelland , Federic Gertsberg .
Pzeczyalnye tepeyi motivations bazypyutcya in pervyuyu opepepe by it, as vedtyt sebya people with ychetom ikh vpppiyatiya and poznaniya.
The main economic needs are the following : anticipation expectancy , stability trend , model of the Pottera-Loylepa motivation .
These driving strategies are comprehensible, and not exclusive, the development of technical motivation is an evolu- tionary character, and these problems are applied when solving the problems of people's abandonment to effective alternatives.
To understand the meaning of a supportive or piecemeal motivation, you should not understand the meaning of the concepts: benefits and dis- eases .
Compassion - this is a person who does not need someone else. Until then, there is not one more time for the identification of the specified requirements .
Potembrnocchi can be classified as primitive and vpopichnye .
Primary psychotypes - this physiological advantage. They, as a rule, are vpozhennym (potrebnoc in food, water, potebnct to breathe, sleep, etc.).
Vopichnye potebnncti on the same sex are psyhologichichkimi, nappimep potrebnoct in ycpexe, yvanezhenii, vlatchi, pepinbnot pomodlazhat komy-libo or chemy-libo.
In the context of the motivation, understanding " disagreement " has a broader meaning than what is good for money or goodwill. Disappearing is all that a person thinks is valuable for himself. But as the concepts of the principles of people are different, that is, the neodinaco and the level of disap- pearance and its unequal centrality. Intrinsically, the infringement will come to pass because of the work that is necessary to get out of the high perfomance, the significance of the execution of work, self-depreciation. Dpyzhba and communion, arising out in the process of the mutual activity of the people of the world, are also pacified as inward disagreement. The simplest way of obtaining this type of contaminant is to create a coherent and efficient work order and a proper assignment of the task.
What happens is the outward decay , this is the type of disap- pearance that is different from the concepts of "gainfulness" or "assimilation," e. This is the disadvan- tage that is given out by the self-opposition, and does not arise from either the struggle or the resolution of the activity. Ppimepom vneshnego voznagpazhdeniya yavlyayutcya zapabotnaya plata, vyplata pocoby and lgot, bonycov, ppodvizhenie Po clyzhbe, cimvoly clyzhebnogo ctatyca and ppectizha (nalichie lichnogo kabineta) poxvala and ppiznanie, a takzhe dopolnitelnye vyplaty (dopolnitelny otpyck, oplata ctpaxovki, clyzhebny avtomobil).
What to use in the larger process - internal or external disruption in the purposes of the action - must determine the peer pressure of the workers.