Description of the medicine: Nalorphine hydrochloridum
NALORFIN (Nalorphini hydrochhloridum).
Synonyms: Antorfin, Anarcon, Lethidron, Nalorphine hydrochloride, Nalline, Norfin and others.
White or white with a slightly yellowish tinge crystalline powder (in the air and light darkens). Easily soluble in water, hard - in alcohol.
According to its chemical structure, nalorphine is close to morphine and differs only in the presence of an allyl residue instead of the methyl piperidine ring at the nitrogen atom. This relatively small modification of morphine structure resulted in a compound that proved to be not only an agonist, but also an antagonist for opiate receptors.
Nalorfin by virtue of the agonistic effect has an analgesic effect, but to a much lesser extent than morphine. As an antagonist, it weakens the inhibition of breathing, lowering blood pressure. Cardiac arrhythmias and other changes in the body's activity that can be caused by morphine and its analogs are removed by nalorphine. Nalorfin also reduces the analgesic effect of morphine and other narcotic analgesics and their effect on the tone of smooth muscles.
Initially, before the appearance of a "pure" morphine-naloxone antagonist, nalorphine was used as an antidote for severe respiratory depression and other body function disorders caused by acute poisoning in case of an overdose of morphine, promedol, fentanyl, or other narcotic analgesics or with increased sensitivity to them.
At present, nalorphine is practically not used for this purpose; It was replaced by naloxone.
The moderate analgesic effect inherent in nalorphine can not be used for practical purposes, since it can cause mental agitation, anxiety, and hallucinations.
In the case of the use of naloxone as an antidote for opiates, it is administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. More effective intravenous introduction. Adults appoint 0.005-0.01 g (1 - 2 ml of a 0.5% solution). If the effect is insufficient, the injections are repeated at intervals of 10 to 15 minutes. The total dose should not exceed 0.04 g (8 ml of 0.5% solution).
The newborn is injected into the umbilical vein 0.0001 - 0.00025 g (0.2-0.5 ml 0.05% solution), if necessary, repeat injections at intervals of 1 - 2 minutes; The total dose should not be more than 0.0008 g (0.8 mg).
The administration of nalorphine is usually not accompanied by side effects. Large doses can cause nausea, miosis, drowsiness, headache, mental agitation.
In drug addicts (morphinists), the use of nalorphine can cause a characteristic attack of abstinence phenomena.
For the treatment of chronic morphine, nalorphine is not used.
With respiratory depression and circulatory disorders caused by barbiturates, cyclopropane, ethyl ether, nalorphine has no antagonistic effect. In these cases, the use of bemegrid (see).
Product: 0,5% solution in ampoules of 1 ml (for adults) and 0.05% solution in 0.5 ml ampoules (for newborns).
Storage: List A.