Description of the medicine: Adrenaline (Adrenalinum)
ADRENALINE (Adrenalinum). L-1 (3,4-Dioxyphenyl) -2-methylaminoethanol.
Synonyms: Adnephrine, Adrenamine, Adrenine, Epinephrine, Epinephrine, Epirenan, Epirinamine, Eppy, Glaucon, Glauconin, Glaucosan, Hypernephrin, Levorenine, Nephridine, Paranephrine, Renostypticin, Styptirenal, Suprarenalin, Suprarenin, Tonogen etc.
Adrenaline is found in various organs and tissues, in significant quantities is formed in chromaffin tissue, especially in the adrenal medulla.
Adrenaline, used as a medicinal substance, is obtained from adrenal tissue of slaughter cattle or synthetically.
Produced in the form of adrenaline hydrochloride and adrenaline hydrotartrate.
Adrenaline hydrochloride (Adrenalini hydrochloridum).
Synonyms: Adrenalinum hydrochloricum, Epinephrini hydrochloridum, Epinephrine Hydrochloride.
White or slightly pinkish crystalline powder. It changes under the influence of light and oxygen. For medical use, it is available as a 0.1% solution (Solutio Adrenalini hoodrochloridi 0.1%).
The solution is prepared with the addition of 0.01 N NaOH. Solution of hydrochloric acid. It is preserved by chlorobutanol and sodium metabisulphite; PH 3, 0 - 3, 5.
The solution is colorless, transparent. Solutions can not be heated, they are prepared in aseptic conditions.
Adrenaline hydrotartrate (Adrenalini hydrotartras),
Synonyms: Adrenalinum hydrotartaricum, Erinephrini bitartras, Erinephrine bitartrate.
White or white with a grayish hue of crystalline powder. Easily changes under the influence of light and oxygen of air. Easily soluble in water, little in alcohol.
Aqueous solutions (pH 3, 0 - 4, 0) are more resistant than solutions of epinephrine hydrochloride. Sterilized at +100 C for 15 min.
By the action of adrenaline, hydrotartrate does not differ from epinephrine hydrochloride. In connection with the difference in the relative molecular weight (333, 3 for hydrotartrate and 219, 66 for hydrochloride), hydrotartrate is used in a larger dose.
The action of adrenaline upon administration to the body is related to the effect on a- and b-adrenoreceptors and largely coincides with the effects of stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers. 0n causes narrowing of the vessels of the organs of the abdominal cavity, skin and mucous membranes; To a lesser extent, narrow the vessels of skeletal muscle. The arterial pressure rises. However, the pressor effect of epinephrine in connection with the excitation of β-adrenoreceptors is less constant than the effect of norepinephrine. Changes in cardiac activity are complex: stimulating adrenergic receptors of the heart, adrenaline promotes a significant increase and increase in heart rate; At the same time, however, due to the reflex changes due to the increase in arterial pressure, excitation of the center of the vagus nerves, which exert a retarding effect on the heart, occurs; As a result, cardiac activity may be slowed down. Heart arrhythmias may occur, especially in conditions of hypoxia.
Adrenaline causes relaxation of the musculature of the bronchi and intestines, the dilatation of the pupils (due to the contraction of the radial muscles of the iris with adrenergic innervation). Under the influence of adrenaline, there is an increase in the glucose content in the blood and an increase in tissue metabolism.