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About chip tuning

Chip tuning is an optimization of the engine control program to increase its power. The engines of most modern cars are equipped with electronic control units (ECU-Engine Control Unit), which have a memory chip chip. This means that the engine is controlled by the electronics using the software programmed into it. It generates control signals for fuel supply, ignition and turbocharging devices.

That is, the most important characteristics and indicators of the engine can be changed by modifying the engine control program. The original factory program of the engine is changed to tuned. However, it should be noted that the manufacturer’s warranty for the engine subjected to tuning does not apply. The main characteristics that can be improved are power, torque and “throttle response”.

Each engine has a microprocessor. Its program of work is directly a data processing program (software) and one-two-three-dimensional calibrations (data tables). Calibrations are different for different engine operating modes (start, economical, power, XX, transition) and switch depending on the mode. Almost in all tuning versions of the firmware, the cold start, stroke, maximum allowed engine speeds and vehicle speeds have been upgraded, the ignition timing setting has been changed, the injection time has been changed, the exhaust gas toxicity control systems have been changed or even shut off. The increase in engine power may be 5-10 percent, except for supercharged engines, where the power may increase by 20% or even more.

Advantages of chip tuning

-on the road with heavy traffic, there is more opportunity to accelerate when overtaking
-high-speed characteristics - easier to drive in the city
- Much faster and cheaper compared to boosting the engine
- easier to move at full load of the car

In favor of chip tuning, it is said that the tuned car dramatically increases the engine's elasticity and torque, that is, if you press the gas pedal abruptly, the engine will pick up at lower revs - you get more acceleration intensity. For engine tuning, mono-injector engines are not suitable, as well as some engines with KE-Jetronic injection system.

How chip tuning is made

First of all, it is necessary to diagnose all engine systems so that faults do not affect the final result. You also need to find out if it is possible for your engine to change the parameters of electronic control units. If everything is ok, go ahead. The ECU is removed from the vehicle and the software is read from it. We are interested in the parameter tables. We need to change their values ​​in such a way as to get larger values ​​than in the standard program. To modify the programs, you need to work with tables of ignition timing, injection duration and pressure boost limit. In general, a modern car control program has up to 100 tables, and only 10–20 of them can be changed to increase power and thrust. For cars of each brand and model, these tables are purely individual, and if you simply transfer them to another ECU, you will be completely disappointed - the engine will not start.

The cost of high-quality engine tuning ranges from 300 to 600 dollars.

chip tuning



Chip tuning for beginners

Introduction

The word "tuning" means "adjustment", "adjustment", "tuning".
However, this is not just an increase in power, it is an increase in overall performance to suit a particular user. It happens that, following the desire to make a certain tuning of their car, people go to the auto-tuning shop, being mistaken in their idea of ​​the need for a particular part. In this case, in order for the client to meet his needs, in order to choose the right part, he must first of all decide what exactly is necessary and for what specifically. To begin, we will give an explanation regarding the so-called "easy" tuning.
The overall increase in the operational qualities of a car, in its correct interpretation by the user, is the observance of the main condition of "safety", which includes, among other things, the balance of such concepts as "driving", "turning", "stopping". Often, for example, there are cases when, after increasing the power of the engine, there is a certain discomfort and uncertainty when braking. There is a feeling that the brake began to work worse, although before that there had been no complaints against him. Naturally, because of this, confidence on the road is lost. Due to the increase in motor power, the wheels begin to slip on the asphalt - “grind”. This means that the efficiency of transmission of motor power to the road is low, which is why such operational quality of the car deteriorates as stability when driving. The quality of acceleration has increased, and the corresponding inhibition leaves much to be desired. There are quite a few such examples when some one operational quality is subjected to tuning, and the overall balance in operation is absent, thereby causing continuous concern to the user. It is also necessary to balance not only the car as a whole, but also the individual qualities of driving, turning and braking. It happens that with increasing engine power increase power at high revs, and power at low and medium revs remains the same. At the same time, the user feels that the effect of the engine power increase procedure done is somehow lost. In addition to the above inconveniences, it happens even worse when installing any tuning part during operation leads to the breakdown of other innocent “native” parts. Obviously, it is necessary to think about maintaining balance in the implementation of tuning your car.

Thus, the initial meaning of tuning, as a balance, is important in its interpretation as adjustment, adjustment, tuning.


tuning


1. ENGINE DEVICE.



ENGINE DEVICE


1) drawing in air, mixing it with fuel (drawing in, mixing) .

2) The air drawn in from the outside and the fuel (air-fuel mixture) is compressed under pressure (compression) .

3) The compressed mixture is ignited by a spark (ignition) , an explosion occurs.

4) Burning gas (exhaust gas) is removed (exhaust) .

And so goes the cyclical repetition.



chip tuning


It is believed that for the engine the most important are three points, namely: compression, air-fuel mixture, ignition. In this case, tuning (improving the efficiency of ignition of the fuel-air mixture) is the strengthening of these factors, bringing their state to the optimum. There are two main directions of strengthening these factors, distinguished by their nature. These are methods of positive directivity, strengthening the above processes, and methods of negative directivity, designed to reduce the losses with which these processes are accompanied. Tuning, designed to reduce losses, is to reduce the load on the engine itself (without any side effect), as a result of which its power increases. The procedure for such tuning is to get rid of objects or parts that are a burden, or to change their shape (form) in order to minimize their negative impact.





An example of tuning.

As the amount of compressed air and the force of its compression increase, the explosive 4il will also

As the amount of compressed air and the force of its compression increase, the explosive force will also increase, and, accordingly, the output power also increases. Obviously, the greater the amount of air a certain engine sucks in itself, the greater the force to compress this engine must have.



Tuning example


An example of tuning.

In the process of connecting the drawn-in air and the corresponding amount of fuel, a certain ratio of the components of the air-fuel mixture formed during compression, which will ensure its easiest ignition to increase the explosive power and, accordingly, the engine output power, is necessary. This process of setting the supply of fuel to be connected with air is called: fuel control.



Tuning example


An example of tuning.

Another important point is the time, or rather the time interval in which the compressed air-fuel mixture ignites. While ensuring the optimum ignition time of the air-fuel mixture, at which it will be thoroughly and fully ignited, the greatest strength of the explosion will also be ensured and, as a result, the greatest output power.



Tuning example




Tuning example


AIR INLET AND OUTLET SYSTEM.



AIR INLET AND OUTLET SYSTEM


1. INTAKE AIR SYSTEM.

In order to increase the efficiency of the air intake system, it is necessary, if possible, to eliminate all items that create resistance to airflow for the most unobstructed air intake into the engine. However, the tuning of the air intake system consists of replacing the air filter. HKS, for example, launches the Super Power Flow and Super Filter line. Conventional standard filters are designed for use in a wide range of conditions, so with long-term use they lose their properties. And if there are still parts whose purpose is to reduce the sound when air is drawn in, then the efficiency of drawing in will drop significantly. In a similar way, one can describe a marathon runner with a gas mask on his head.

Here, replacing a standard conventional filter in its standard location (filter box) with a Super Filter will undoubtedly affect the efficiency of air intake. However, the installation instead of the standard box of a qualitatively different Super Power Flow filter, which, due to its design, is able to draw in a much larger amount of air, corresponds to a higher level of tuning. The efficiency of a filter largely depends on the shape of the structure, since the air also passes through its walls. In comparison with a standard filter, to maintain the high efficiency of such a filter, it is necessary to withstand the cycle of its replacement, which, by the way, is shorter than that of a normal filter. But this is the key to successfully maintaining the filter function.



AIR INLET AND OUTLET SYSTEM


2. EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM

In principle, the precondition of tuning the exhaust gas system will be to increase the efficiency of its work. However, only the elimination of various kinds of resistance in this system, and an increase in the efficiency of its work are not the same thing. By removing the exhaust pipe of the muffler, you will eliminate the resistance of the exhaust, but the quality of the torque and the exhaust process itself will deteriorate qualitatively. Therefore, it is necessary to establish some moderate resistance. A good example is the exhaust manifold, the character of the car depends on the shape and type of the collecting part. In addition, the exhaust gases and the adverse noise impact on the environment are again influenced by this element. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully consider all possible consequences in the implementation of tuning the exhaust system. Anyway, the place of tuning the exhaust system is to replace the muffler.

Standard silencers, due to their torsion shape and cost, quickly become unusable due to the formation of excess bends and cracks (“holes”). Therefore, as a design designed to provide highly efficient noise reduction and torque at low speeds, such silencers look far from the best example. On the contrary, the formation of excess bends on sports mufflers is rare, and practically no cracks are formed, and, moreover, their design features make it possible to achieve high efficiency. The effect of such a silencer can be compared as a seasoning for food. The motor of a sports car begins to breathe easier, as for ordinary motorists, you can choose the appropriate behavior of their “swallows”, providing a certain torque. As for sound, there is also the possibility of selecting a silencer for a particular car so that the driver can feel all the nuances of her behavior. And although the conversation about the turbine goes below, here you can note the following. Because the turbine uses release energy, it creates resistance for it. Consequently, increased exhaust pressure is required. In comparing cars with and without a turbine, the importance of the design of a silencer with minimal resistance is obvious. By varying the various forms of the muffler for certain cars, it is possible to increase the discharge pressure, and thus achieve increased power.



EXHAUST GAS SYSTEM


SUPPLY SYSTEM





Turbocharger is ...

The energy of the exhaust gases emitted from the engine affects the turbine blades, which rotate like a mill. A similar mill is a compressor mounted on the same axis as the turbine. It also rotates, in full compliance with it, squeezing the air and forcibly pumping it into the engine, thereby representing a power-boosting device.

In this case, the volume (pressure) of the injected air is designated as discharge pressure, or boost (English boost ). Exhaust gases entering the turbine regulate the boost with its quantity. Adjustment of the amount of exhaust gases entering the turbine is carried out by the so-called shut-off valve, which is located between the turbine and the engine. With its help, some of the gases, before reaching the turbine, are thrown further into the exhaust. The operation of the valve itself depends on the pressure of the compressor. Ideally, increasing the boost, you can pump an arbitrarily large amount of air into the engine. In fact, the intensity of the engine and abnormal combustion in its cylinders - engine knocking, or detonation - are a problem limiting boost. In general, the installation of a certain boost in an ordinary car occurs on the basis of various conditions and purposes, during the operation of their motorists, also taking into account the strict restrictive norms on exhaust gases.



SUPPLY SYSTEM


* The cut-off valve can be in the form of an actuator and in the form of a so-called Westgate (eng. waste-gate ).



SUPPLY SYSTEM


Boost up is ...

In the process of forced air injection into the engine, the amount of which is further increased, the explosive force increases, thereby increasing the output power of the motor.

Ways to exercise.



Boost-up


The most common is the second method, carried out with the help of VVC (mechanical pressure-type pressure controller) or EVC (electric pressure-type charged controller). The boost-up is relatively easy to implement, however, the previously mentioned problems of engine knocking (detonation) and injection limitations are present here as well. Improper implementation of boost-up can lead to engine failure, so you need to understand well all the nuances of this procedure before its implementation.



Boost-up


Regarding the replacement of the turbine.

After the boost-up procedure, you can take the next step - replace the turbine.


Regarding turbine replacement
The power limit of a conventional turbine is reached fairly quickly, so it is not enough to get the pleasure of driving a single boost-up procedure. In this case, change the turbine. Take two identical engines, one of which is equipped with a small (in our case, standard) turbine, and on the other - a large one.

It is usually thought that with the same injected pressure in these two turbines, the horsepower output will also be the same. In reality, the power delivered by the large turbine will be



more. This is due to their different eff2ktivnost (efficiency). This difference is due to the difference in the size of the turbines. In fact, as we know from the physics course, with a decrease in the volume of a gas, its temperature rises, and with an increase, on the contrary decreases. with a decrease in the volume of gas, its temperature rises, and with an increase, on the contrary decreases. A striking example is a balloon carried in winter from a warm room to frost and back. Therefore, with the passage of a certain amount of air at its same pressure through a smaller section, its temperature rises, and the density, respectively, decreases. As a result, the amount of air entering the engine per unit of time will also be less. In a turbine with a higher efficiency, the inevitable temperature increase will occur more slowly.

INTERCULER IS THIS ...

Intercooler An intercooler is a cooling device or, alternatively, a heat exchanger. It "takes" heat from the compressed air passing through it, thereby, increasing its density.

The next step in tuning the engine after boosting and replacing the turbine is to replace the standard intercooler with a larger one with improved heat exchange characteristics. Obviously, its efficiency is greater than the efficiency of a conventional intercooler. A good intercooler is such a device that is able to combine the fulfillment of two usually contradictory conditions - minimal pressure loss of the passing air flow when it is increased and at the same time to cool it.

EXPLOSION is ...

INJECTION Injection is the fuel emitted into the engine for mixing with the air mass entering it, which is adjustable in accordance with its quantity.

In theory, for complete combustion of the fuel, an optimum ratio of air and fuel masses is 15: 1, that is, 15 grams of air needs 1 gram of fuel. However, in reality, due to a combination of factors such as the formation of a vapor of an air-fuel mixture and the cooling of the supplied fuel, depending on its brand, the air-fuel mixture formed is actually thicker than optimal. Adjusting the ratio of the components of the fuel-air mixture is carried out by measuring A / F ( 1 ). In a conventional computer, the adjustment takes place using the available oxygen sensors. The computer is responsible for the formation of a certain quality fuel-air mixture, creating a proportion of its components that is suitable for this standard engine and its normal working conditions. Receiving a signal from the so-called device Air-flow ( 2 ) (English Air-Flow ), the computer determines the amount of fuel emitted by the injectors ( 3 ), which corresponds to the quality of the fuel-air mixture established by the manufacturer (usually it is thicker than theoretically optimal). A conventional computer is programmed for the normal operating conditions of this engine as standard, therefore, when making changes to certain parameters of a particular vehicle, it is also necessary to change the amount of fuel injected.

In fact, the implementation of fuel supply control has so far been carried out mainly by devices such as measuring A / F or analyzing devices ( analyzers ( 4 )) that process data from several standard sensors. More progressive in this regard are the device type F-con (developed by HKS), which is able to regulate (reduce or increase) the supply of fuel, receiving signals from the injectors. In addition, depending on the changing signal from the air flow, the computer is able to change the ratio of the components of the air-fuel mixture, even if it receives incorrect data on the amount of incoming air. Thus, the F-con includes the AFR and FCD functions.

1) A / F - (eng. Air / Fuel ) device with a screen that allows you to visually monitor the ratio of the components of the air-fuel mixture.

2) Air flow meter ( L- jetro ) - a device that reads the amount of air entering the engine. There may be several types - hot-wire, with a flap and a vortex type.

3) Injectors are devices, like a faucet, that emit a certain amount of fuel, depending on the period of air supply. This time is transformed into an electrical signal, which is called the signal from the injectors.

4) A device that monitors and stores the data stream from various sensors (A / F, engine speed, boost-up, etc.).

IGNITION SYSTEM

In the ignition system a significant factor is a strong spark and reliable ignition. Normal, the most simple tuning involves replacing the spark plugs ( 1 ). In addition, the ignition time is also important, which, like the fuel, is under computer control. Ignition time may vary depending on various conditions, in accordance with the rhythm of ignition of the compressed air-fuel mixture. Generally speaking, if the ignition is carried out with some advance, the output power increases, but at the same time the probability of knocking in the engine (detonation) increases. Conversely, if the ignition is delayed, the probability of knocking decreases, but at the same time the output power decreases.

1) Candles are always present indication of the degree of heating in the numerical display (potassium number). As a rule, candles with a smaller potassium number are of the type of low-heat, and with a large potassium number, respectively, of the high-heat. Low-temperature candles have a better ability to ignite at their own low temperature, while under the same condition, high-temperature candles can cause knocking (detonation) in the engine. In turn, at its own high temperature of heating, highly heated candles have the best igniting ability, in contrast to low-heating candles, which can cause ignition. After the boost-up procedure, the increased force of the explosion decently raises the temperature in the combustion chamber, which is fraught with knocking in the engine, and in the worst case, its breakdown. Therefore, in this situation it is necessary to use high-heated candles.



IGNITION SYSTEM


COMPRESSION REGULATION

As the air-fuel mixture is compressed in the engine, the force of the explosion in the cylinders increases, and, accordingly, the power delivered by the engine. At the same time, the probability of knocking also increases. Therefore, especially in cars equipped with a turbocharged engine, initially set a low compression ratio. This can be done, for example, by replacing the gasket in the engine head.



COMPRESSION REGULATION


STEP 1 (CAR EXAMPLE WITH A TURBINE)

REPLACING RELEASE AND AIR FILTER

Recently, the statement that after replacing the air filter the fuel becomes less saturated has become widespread, as a result of which the engine performance is much improved. In fact, if you even pay attention to the candles, while leaving the usual other details (such as a computer), the degree of improvement is not so great. After replacing the air filter, the amount of air drawn in will obviously increase, “diluting” the fuel. At the same time, tuned to a relatively more “thick” fuel ordinary computer, due to the properties of a filter, will provide to a certain extent a good quality of the air-fuel mixture. However, in this case, strictly speaking, there remains an impressive potential for regulating the air-fuel mixture to an optimum state. Having reached it, you can achieve one of the main goals of tuning - a clear and instantaneous response (response) of the engine to the slightest changes in the actions of the driver. One example of such regulation is the use of devices like AFR or F-con instead of a regular computer.



REPLACING RELEASE AND AIR FILTER


STEP 2 (CAR EXAMPLE WITH A TURBINE)



STEP 2 (CAR EXAMPLE WITH A TURBINE)


Boost up is done using EVC and VVC. But in order to increase the engine power adequately with increasing boost pressure, it is necessary to adjust the fuel supply control. A normal computer in case of exceeding the regular pressure of the air-fuel mixture will decide that this is not normal and will reduce the fuel supply (fuel cut-off will occur) to ensure the safety of the engine. To cancel this procedure, use the device type FCD. With its help, the signal coming from the air flow is reduced , thereby removing information about the pressure increase of the air-fuel mixture from the signal sent to the computer. Thus, the fuel cut-off is prevented. However, since in reality the pressure is increased and the amount of air drawn in increases, it is necessary, respectively, to increase the fuel supply.

In addition, some car models are equipped with fuel pumps and injectors that do not have the capacity (reserve) to increase their performance. Then there is a need to replace such units with more productive ones. Determination of the volume (quantity) is carried out by special fuel pressure sensors or, so-called, IP monitors ( injection pulse monitor - a monitor that shows how many percent the fuel tap is open). When replacing the intercooler, it is also necessary to regulate the fuel supply in a similar way.

STEP 3. REPLACING THE TURBINE



STEP 3. REPLACING THE TURBINE


In the absence of a visible increase in power (in the sports turbine), it is possible to perform a boost-up procedure. However, it must be borne in mind that in this case all the engine parts will carry increased loads, for which the standard components are clearly not designed. There are kits of turbo-whales ( full turbine kit ), the details of which have enhanced properties in order to carry the applied loads. They are just designed for the corresponding mode of high power.

AFTERWARD



AFTERWARD


Continuing the idea outlined above, let's say that with an increase in engine power, the remaining standard elements of the chassis and braking system during further operation leave some dissatisfaction. In addition, there is a need to strengthen the transmission system. In a word, in order to feel comfortable and confident at the wheel of your “swallow”, the tuning should be carried out in a balanced and harmonious way.



AFTERWARD


Actually tuning your car is a real pleasure. However, being mistaken about the expected result and understanding of the principles of good quality, it is possible not only to cause trouble to others, but also to endanger the lives of people. Therefore, let us continue, conducting similar activities, be guided by common sense, and enjoy the results!