Where design Soviet cars
The history of the first car began in 1768 with the creation of steam-powered machines capable of transporting a person. In 1806, the first cars appeared, driven by internal combustion engines in English. combustible gas, which led to the appearance in 1885 of the gasoline or gasoline internal combustion engine commonly used today. Machines that run on electricity briefly appeared at the beginning of the 20th century, but almost completely disappeared from sight until the beginning of the 21st century, when interest in low-toxic and environmentally friendly transport again arose. In essence, the early history of the car can be divided into stages that differ in the prevailing method of self-propelled movement. Late stages were determined by trends in the size and style of appearance, as well as preferences in the intended use. And also in 1840, bicycles were invented.
Copying of foreign cars began with the very first Soviet passenger cars produced under license from Ford. Over time, the copying took place most often without the permission of Western automobile plants. The USSR Automobile Research Institute bought several advanced models “for study” from the capitalist oppressors of the working people at once, and after a few years the Soviet counterpart descended from the conveyors. The truth is often by that time the prototype was already outdated and removed from production, and the Soviet copy was produced not a single decade.
The first mass passenger car of the USSR was borrowed from the American automobile industry. GAZ A - a licensed copy of the American Ford-A. The USSR bought equipment and production documents from an American company in 1929, and two years later the Ford-A was discontinued. A year later, in 1932, the first GAZ-A cars were produced.
Despite the fact that the first cars of the plant were made according to the drawings of the American company Ford, they were originally somewhat different from the American prototypes. After 1936, the operation of the obsolete GAZ-A was prohibited in Moscow and Leningrad. Small car owners were instructed to hand over GAZ-A to the state and purchase a new GAZ-M1 with surcharge.
The Soviet experimental passenger car was an almost exact replica of the Buick-32-90 car, which by American standards belonged to the upper-middle class.
The Krasny Putilovets plant, which had previously manufactured a Fordson tractor, produced 6 copies of the L1 in 1933. A significant part of the vehicles could not reach Moscow without serious damage. As a result, "Red Putilovets" was reoriented to the production of tractors and tanks, and the refinement of P1 was transferred to the Moscow ZiS.
Since the body of the "Buick" no longer fit the fashion of the mid-thirties, ZiSe designed it again. American car studio Budd Company on the basis of Soviet sketches designed an elegant and externally modern body for those years. It cost the state half a million dollars and took 16 months.
GAZ-M1, in turn, was designed on samples of Ford Model B (Model 40A) of 1934, the documentation on which was transferred to GAZ by the American side under the terms of the contract.
In the course of adapting the model to domestic operating conditions, the car was largely redesigned by Soviet specialists. Emka for certain items surpassed Ford's later products.
The first Soviet serial subcompact car, which was based on the development of the British Ford Prefect.
In the USA, they made stamps and developed body drawings according to the models of a Soviet designer. In 1940, the plant began production of this model. KIM-10 was supposed to be the first truly "people's" Soviet car, but the Great Patriotic War prevented the implementation of the ambitious plan of the country's leadership to provide the majority of citizens with private cars.
The body design of the first Soviet post-war executive class car almost completely imitated the American Packards of the older pre-war series. Up to the last detail, the ZIS-110 was similar to the Packard 180 with the Touring Sedan bodywork of the last pre-war model of 1942.
Independent Soviet design, specially betrayed the appearance of the American Packard in accordance with the taste preferences of the top leadership of the country and, mainly, Stalin personally.
It is unlikely that the American company liked such creative development of its ideas in the design of the Soviet car, however, no complaints from its side followed in those years, especially since the production of large Packards was not resumed after the war.
The Soviet compact car was a complete analogue of the Opel Kadett K38 car, produced in 1937-1940 in Germany at the German branch Opel of the American concern General Motors, recreated after the war on the basis of the surviving copies, documentation and tooling.
Part of the equipment for the production of the car was removed from the Opel plant in Rüsselsheim (located in the American occupation zone) and installed in the USSR. Much of the lost documentation and equipment for production was recreated anew, and the work was carried out in Germany by order of the Soviet military administration by forces of mixed labor collectives consisting of seconded Soviet and civilian German specialists working in the design bureaus created after the war.
The next three generations of "Muscovites" will lag behind repeating the products of the company Opel.
A six-seven-seat passenger car of a large class with a “six-window long-wheelbase sedan” was developed on the basis of the Buick Super. Serially produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant (Plant named after Molotov) from 1950 to 1959 (some modifications - until 1960.)
The plant was strongly recommended to completely copy the Buick of the 1948 model, but on the basis of the proposed model, the engineers designed the car based on the machines and technologies already mastered in the production. ZIM was not a copy of any particular foreign car, either in terms of design or, especially, in the technical aspect - in the latter, the designers of the plant even managed to “say a new word” to some extent within the framework of the global automotive industry. In October 1950, the first industrial batch of GAZ-M-12 was assembled.
The middle class passenger car was technically created by domestic engineers and designers from scratch, but outwardly copied mainly American models of the early 1950s. In the course of development, foreign car designs were studied: Ford Mainline, Chevrolet 210, Plymouth Savoy, Standard Vanguard and Opel Kapitan.
GAZ-21 serially produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant from 1956 to 1970. The factory model index is initially GAZ-M-21, later (since 1965) GAZ-21.
By the time the serial production began, by world standards, the design of the Volga had already become at least ordinary, and it didn’t stand out against the background of serial cars of those years. Already by 1960, the "Volga" was a car with hopelessly outdated design.
The appearance of a small car repeated model Opel Olympia Rekord - the successor to the Opel Kadett K38. The participation of specialists from GAZ, where the development of the Volga GAZ-21 was in full swing, had a strong influence on the car being designed. "Moskvich" took over from her many elements of his design.
The serial production of "Moskvich-402" was curtailed in May 1958.
Executive car of a large class, created under the clear influence of the latest models of the American company Packard, which in those years were just studied in NAMI (Packard Caribbean Convertible and Packard Patrician Sedan, both 1956 model year).
The “Seagull” was created with an explicit orientation to the trends of the American style, like all the products of GAZ of those years, but it was not an absolute “stylistic copy” or modernization of Packard. The car was produced in small series at the Gorky Automobile Plant from 1959 to 1981. In total, 3,189 vehicles of this model were manufactured.
The “seagulls” were used as personal vehicles of the highest nomenclature (mainly ministers, first secretaries of the regional committees), which was issued as an integral part of the established “package” of privileges.
Both sedans and cabriolets "The Seagull" were used in parades, served at meetings of foreign leaders, prominent figures and heroes, used as escort vehicles. Also, “Seagulls” came to “Intourist”, where, in turn, anyone could order them for use as wedding limousines.
Copying American design at various Soviet factories led to the appearance of the ZIL-111 car based on the same designs as the Chaika. As a result, outwardly similar cars were produced simultaneously in the country. ZIL-111 is often mistaken for the more common "Seagull".
A top-class passenger car stylistically consisted of a compilation of various elements of middle-class and top-class American cars of the first half of the 1950s — mostly reminiscent of Cadillac, Packard and Buick. The basis of the external design of the ZIL-111, like the "Seagulls", lay down the design of models of the American firm Packard of 1955-56. But compared to the Packard models, the ZIL was larger in all dimensions, it looked much stricter and "square", with straightened lines, had a more complex and detailed decor.
From 1959 to 1967 only 112 copies of this car were collected.
The main prototype of the minicar was the Fiat 600.
The car was designed MZMA ("Moskvich") in conjunction with the Automobile Institute NAMI. The first samples received the designation "Moskvich-444", and already differed significantly from the Italian prototype. Later, the designation was changed to "Moskvich-560". Meanwhile, the conveyor itself MZMA by that time was fully loaded, and the plant did not have reserves for development in the production of minicars. Therefore, for the release of the car, it was decided to reconstruct the plant "Kommunar" in the city of Zaporozhye (USSR), previously engaged in the production of combine harvesters and other agricultural equipment.
A passenger car of extra small class shows a considerable similarity of design with the German compact car NSU Prinz IV (Germany, 1961).
The middle class passenger car became a hybrid of the North American Ford Falcon and Plymouth Valiant.
Serially produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant from 1969 to 1992. The exterior and design of the car were fairly standard for this direction, technical specifications were also about average. Most of the "Volga" was not intended for sale for personal use and operated in taxis and other government organizations.
VAZ-2101 "Zhiguli" - rear-wheel drive passenger car with a sedan-type body is an analogue of the Fiat 124 model, which received in 1967 the title "Car of the Year".
By agreement of the Soviet Vneshtorg and Fiat, the Italians created the Volga Automobile Plant in Togliatti with a full production cycle. Technological equipment of the plant and training of specialists were assigned to the concern.
VAZ-2101 was subjected to major changes. In total, over 800 changes were made to the design of the Fiat 124, after which it received the name Fiat 124R. The “Russification” of the Fiat 124 turned out to be extremely useful for the FIAT company itself, which has accumulated unique information about the reliability of its machines under extreme operating conditions.
Rear wheel drive passenger car with a sedan type body. It was developed jointly with the Italian company Fiat based on the Fiat 124 and Fiat 125 models.
Later, on the basis of the VAZ-2103, the “Project 21031” was developed and subsequently renamed the VAZ-2106.
The model VAZ-2105 was developed by a serious modernization of previously produced models in the framework of the "second" generation of rear wheel drive VAZ cars as a replacement for the first-born VAZ-2101. The design was based on the Fiat 128 Berlina model.
In the screensaver of the 15th episode of the season of the Simpsons series, in which the Simpsons play real actors in real scenery, Homer goes home to Lada Nova (the export name of the "five").
The replacement Moskvich-412 was only able to be designed in the 1980s, and it was already a completely different car, the Moskvich-2141, a front-wheel-drive hatchback created on the basis of the French Simka and the already outdated UZAM engine. The export name is Aleko, from the Lenin Komsomol Automobile Plant.
As the best example for speeding up the design of a new car, Minavtoprom saw the recently emerging Franco-American model Simca 1308 produced by Chrysler Europe. Designers were ordered to copy the car down to "iron". " However, in the process of developing the body "Moskvich" was designed again, with the result that the exterior of the car was significantly different from the French sample and, although with some stretch, it corresponded to the level of the mid-eighties.