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Purchase of used cars

Buying a car, even a used one, is a joyful event, but troublesome. Here it is necessary to keep the “eye open”. The seller will easily see through the novice in you and “modestly keep silent” about any shortcomings. A cat in a bag to buy, of course, not worth it. It is always better to come with a person who understands cars, but knowing yourself some elementary things is also not a sin. This text, of course, does not make you a pro, but can give a necessary idea of ​​the most important points.

As they say, there are two fools in the market: one is trying to sell, the other is to buy. Nowadays, not everyone can afford to buy a new car, so you have to buy a used car. How not to be mistaken, how not to buy a cat in a bag? Below are tips to help you choose a normal car.

To start, "Check" should start more by phone. Here is a sample list of general questions that you can ask the seller:

  1. How many owners had a car?
  2. What is the month and year of release? Then it can be checked for a number of signs: for example, by labeling glasses.
  3. Find out just as it was exploited. It should be borne in mind that the nature and conditions of operation of the machine is much more important than its age.
  4. What is the mileage of the car? During the inspection you can check the speedometer readings. You can multiply the annual mileage (usually 15-30 thousand km.) * Age and estimate the real mileage.
  5. What is the condition of the car? Just because the price is not underestimated and not too high. Ask about all the repairs that the machine went through and the parts that were replaced. This may hint at non-advertised problems.
  6. Was the car in an accident? An accident can make significant changes to the operation of components and mechanisms.

First impression

If the machine is not “dead” and you generally like it, then perform an external inspection. This is what you should pay attention to first. Inspect the body for rust. The most common places are rapids, wheel arches, trunk. Check the paint layer from different angles. Body panels should not differ from each other in color. Check the condition of the gaps between the body parts, they should all be the same. Otherwise, there was a serious body repair.

Documents

First we look at the date of registration and year of release. We check the year by identification number (VIN); in addition, for foreign cars, the year is indicated on the fastening elements of safety belts and glass. Then we check the body number under the hood and in the cabin (for example, under the front passenger seat) and engine number. Service book. If it is preserved, then it can be used to determine the regularity of car maintenance and the number of owners.

Look under the car

See if there are no small puddles on the asphalt, and are you dripping from? This may be oil or antifreeze, brake fluid, gasoline or water. In any case, strong leaks are unacceptable. Pay special attention to the level of antifreeze and oil. The change in the nature of these components (antifreeze with emulsion impurities, and oil bubbles) indicates their mixing. This usually happens when a punched gasket or a deformed cylinder head due to engine overheating. Pay attention to the wheels. They should stand smoothly, without tilting, and tire wear should be even.

On the steering wheel and wheels should not be noticeable backlash. Hang out the front wheels (you can even use the jack in turn), lock the steering wheel and try using both hands to move the wheel in two directions: taking the left and right sides of the wheel, and then the top and bottom. If there is a backlash, then in the first case - this is the steering, and in the second - the suspension elements (ball bearing, etc.). Look for leaks in the shock absorbers, are the rubber bumpers intact and the anthers in the shock absorbers. The performance of the shock absorber is checked simply - it is necessary to strongly press the top of the wing and release. The car should rise, fall (already much less) and once again rise. Everything! If there are more swings, the shock absorber does not work. More accurate information about the state of the shock absorbers will only be checked on a shaker, although you will be able to identify some defects a little later when you check the car on the go. Carefully inspect the brake hose mounting points and cylinders for leaks. Inspect the anthers guide calipers and cylinders.

The body must necessarily be clean, otherwise there is no point in inspecting it. Even under a thin scrapping of dirt, you can hide paint defects, dents, rust.

Sit down near the right headlight of the car and carefully inspect the right side of the car - whether there are dents, defects in geometry and color. Repeat this procedure at the left side, and then similarly inspect the hood and roof. All that causes suspicions, check the magnet. If it falls off - it means filler here. Using a magnet also inspect the rear pillars along their entire length. In the case of replacing the rear wings (sidewalls) there is always a putty. Carefully inspect the joints - this is a good indicator of the emergency past of the car. The normal joint has the same width along the entire length. Pay special attention to the gaps between:

  1. front wings and windshield frame,
  2. specified frame and hood,
  3. front bumper and front wings,
  4. hood and headlights, turn indicators and front wings,
  5. front fenders and doors,
  6. sidewalls and doors
  7. front and rear doors,
  8. trunk lid and its opening.

Open the hood

The engine must be clean. Any "improvements" and home-made electrical tape, etc., should alert you. Look at the inner wall of the hood. If it is covered with black bloom, then oil leaks are highly likely. Check all transmission belts on the pulleys for wear. A worn belt usually turns white, and cracks and reinforcement threads are visible in it.

Start the engine

Leave the hood open and turn the key in the ignition so that the devices come on (do not start). This should light up the battery light bulbs and oil pressure. Bad if this did not happen. Start the engine. Pay attention to how quickly the engine started. It should work quietly and evenly. Click on the accelerator and listen. No knocks and drops. Release the pedal. If the momentum did not fall immediately or they were too large even at idle, then problems with adjustment would be apparent. Pay attention to the color of the exhaust. The white color should disappear as soon as the engine warms up, if not - the cylinder head can be worn in the engine, and it will have to be repaired or replaced. Black color means that the engine requires adjustment, but if the smoke is bluish, it is bad - you cannot do without serious repair.

Check fluid levels

In addition to quantifying the level of oil, its quality should be assessed. It is abnormal if it is thickened and does not look like a thin film on the dipstick, but is collected in lumps. Do not forget to check the level of brake fluid.

Check shock absorbers and light fixtures

If, while rocking, a car makes more than one oscillatory motion, then the shock absorbers require replacement. Try to work all the lights - lights, turn signals, brake lights, interior lighting. Separately, you should check the operation of the heater and climate control.

Check backlash

It is necessary to pay special attention to the backlash of the steering wheel, clutch and brake pedals. The maximum allowable backlash of the steering wheel is 5 centimeters in each direction before the wheel starts to turn. Include first gear and try to get under way. Notice how far the pedal should be released from the fully squeezed state. If the setting occurs at the very end, the clutch may require serious repair or replacement. The brake pedal should not reach the floor a few centimeters. Click on it and hold it for about a minute. The tension should not weaken, otherwise there are leaks in the brake system.

Go!

Since the machine is unfamiliar, be extremely careful. Brakes. Check them immediately after starting. Observe whether the car throws to the side during heavy braking, if there are any unwanted sounds. If the car while driving slightly leads to the side, most likely the wheel alignment is not adjusted, or there are problems with tires. Suspension. Try to ride on small bumps and potholes and listen to how the suspension works. Strong knocks should alert you. In this case, you can offer the seller to check the car at a specialized stand. If the steering wheel begins to tremble at high speed or when turning sharply, the wheels may not be centered or unbalanced. Gearbox and clutch. Transmission must be switched easily and without extraneous sounds. Listen to the noise of the gearbox with the clutch squeezed and released: if you feel the difference - be ready for repair.

Engine running

  1. Start the engine. Before it warms up, open the cap of the expansion tank. If bubbles rise, the head gasket is punctured.
  2. Inspect the engine for leaks or antifreeze.
  3. Listen to the engine. There should be no "metal" sounds.
  4. Engine speed should not "float."
  5. When the engine is warm, ask the assistant to press the gas pedal abruptly and fully until the hand at the same time put your hand over the exhaust pipe. The presence of a large number of oily spots indicates, at a minimum, significant wear on the piston rings.

On a note

It is better to check the car in daylight - defects in coatings and tints are better visible. Wax coating in artificial light (for example, in the garage), will hide not only a scratch, but a more serious defect. If the ad was said about the “relevance of bargaining,” for a start, offer a price of 20-25% lower, so you will have stock and space for maneuver. The shortcomings you have discovered can be a good basis for bargaining. Talk to the mechanic beforehand, find out how much the repair costs. You can safely operate then with these figures in a conversation with the seller.


Buying a used car {GUIDE}

What to take with you:

  • - flashlight (the smaller, the better);
  • - small mirror;
  • - magnifying glass (magnifying glass) for identifying labels;
  • - a sheet of white paper to assess the condition of liquids, oils;
  • - a notebook (sheet of paper), a pen for recording the identified deficiencies;
  • - a napkin to assess the condition of liquids, oils;
  • - a flap of white fabric to assess exhaust gases;
  • - litter on the ground;
  • - rags;
  • - manometer to check the air pressure in the front wheels;
  • - cotton gloves;
  • - mount to check the ball bearings.

Verification procedure

Documents.

"PTS. Until 1998, it was issued by the traffic police (traffic police). Since 1998, PTS is issued at customs, foreign cars receive PTS of the TA, TV, TE, TK series. If in the PTS column issued by the traffic police," SERIES, license number of the CCD, "CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS" ("SPECIAL NOTES") is the series and number of the cargo customs declaration (CCD), then the car is cleared to the customs. If they present the PUBLICATE of the PTS, then the car is not clean. If you suspect that something was erased in the PTS, look at these records into the light. The detected white spots around the questionable records indicate that the document was being cleaned. For these purposes you can take a magnifying glass A detailed examination. compared the name of the owner.

Technical passport (if the car is not removed from the register). We look: registration sign; VIN; year of issue; engine number; chassis number; Colour; date of registration; Name of the owner and his place of residence; who issued the technical passport and when. Information TEX.PASPORTA check with TCP. The year of production is checked by the identification number (VIN) on the car, in addition to that of foreign cars, it is indicated on the fastening elements of the seat belts. Then we check the engine number, body number under the hood and in the cabin (for example, under the front passenger seat). We carefully examine them. Numbers and letters must be stamped in one font, the height and width of characters, as well as the thickness of the lines must be the same. Visible damage is not allowed, where the number is stamped (traces of sandpaper processing, welding, fresh paint). Service Book . If it is preserved, then it can be used to determine the regularity of car maintenance and the number of owners.

Check for theft.

You can for a fee, ask the inspector at the traffic police post. The option is via the INTERNET on the website www.gibdd.ru in the section " On the wanted list". But these are only cars that were stolen in Russia.

Keys (this is ideal).

They should be 3 sets. Master key with a red insert, the key itself for ignition, a key-pig (with a T-shaped handle) only used for opening doors, trunk.

Cales (ideally).

Check the pressure in the front wheels and equalize it differently (it is necessary to control wheel alignment, if one tries to cheat by pumping one wheel more than the other, so that the car moves in a straight line while driving the steering wheel).

Body.

The car must be clean, otherwise the inspection of the body loses its meaning. Inspection of the body on bitost. Sit down near the right headlight of the car and carefully inspect the right side of the car - whether there are dents, defects in geometry and color. Repeat this procedure at the left side, and then similarly inspect the hood and roof. From this angle, almost all the “fixed” places are visible. Carry out a similar inspection from the trunk. Anything that causes suspicion, carefully inspect. Carefully inspect the joints (between the hood and the wings, racks and doors, etc.) - this is a good indicator of the emergency past of the car. The normal joint has the same width along the entire length. Pay attention to the gaps between:

  • - front fenders and windshield frame;
  • - front bumper and front wings;
  • - The hood and headlights;
  • - direction indicators and front wings;
  • - front fenders and doors;
  • - sidewalls and doors;
  • - The boot lid and its opening.

Inspect the attachment points of the door hinges to the racks. Chipped paint on the mounting bolts, scuffs on the slots of the screws indicates that the door was removed.
During external examination, make sure that there are no wrinkles along the edges of the roof above the average posts. Their presence is a consequence of a strong frontal impact.
Do not be lazy to inspect and the back of the car. In the rear of the car there should be no traces of welding and straightening of the rear spars, paint sprays on the inner wheel arches, suspension parts, stretch brackets and stretch brackets themselves.
Try to inspect all the power elements of the body (spars, if there is a subframe, front panel, lower amplifiers of the front mudguards) for lack of welding, cracks and traces of the recent "anti-corrosion" treatment.
Open the hood and carefully inspect the attachment points of the bumper (if visible) and the side members. If they have metal folds and chipped paint, traces, welding, anticorrosive - the car "pulled". Pay attention to the position of the locking pin of the hood, mount the hood amplifiers.
Inspect the front wing bolts. They must be applied factory paint.
Inspect the front panel and make sure there are factory contact welding points at the junction of the top of the front panel with the radiator frame.
Inspect the inside of the attachment headlights. There should be no traces of sawing installation holes, which are made with a serious body repair.
The trunk. Open the trunk lid and pay attention to the rear panel joints with the trunk floor and internal side reinforcements for repair joints.
Lift the mat and proceed to inspect the trunk. Wrinkled areas located on the sides of the spare wheel niche should not have traces of leveling.
Pay attention to the stickers and labels - this is usually a "masking" of defects.
Check all the doors - they should close easily with one effort and sound. Otherwise - the body geometry is broken.
The fact of repainting (tinting) a car can be established by the following features: there are traces of paint on rubber and plastic parts of the body; the color of the paint under the rubber seals (they must be slightly unscrewed) of glass, doors, trunk lid is different; different paint engine compartment and wings.
Corrosion - each model has its own "pain" points. But, as a rule, this process begins on the fenders, sills and under the rubber seals. Quality corrosion control assumes the presence of a lift or overpass. When inspecting the bottom feel free to "poke" it with a screwdriver - sometimes after this simple procedure, the need for further inspection is no longer necessary.
Glass Check the date of manufacture of all glass, if the car was not in an accident then the glass is all one year of manufacture. If any glass is different date of manufacture, then carefully examine this side of the body. If many glasses have a release date later than the car itself, then the car has been in a major accident with their subsequent installation.
Tires. If they are worn unevenly and around the edges, it means that the camber angle is not adjusted - it converges or it cannot be adjusted (see the status of the spare wheel).
Wheels wheels. If steel wheels pay attention to their bitness (the state of the rim edges). If the wheels are cast, then examine them for cracks.

Engine.

Open the hood and make sure that there is no characteristic smell of gasoline. Carefully inspect all engine parts for oil leaks. Oil stains and smudges should not be. Especially the presence of smudges in the lower part of the engine, from under the front and rear crankshaft oil seal, crankcase, oil sensor, oil filter, gearbox.
Look at the bolts and nuts for signs of loosening.
Inspect disconnectable engine parts (valve cover, cylinder block, etc.). They should not be a trace of sealant.
Remove the dipstick and check the oil level. Ask for what odometer reading it changed and what brand of oil was used. It should be free of foam, black impurities and bubbles, transparent to the color or brownish and not too thick.
Open the filler cap and inspect it. If there is a black coating on the inner walls, the engine is likely to overheat (another sign of an overheated engine is the presence of traces of rust in the area of ​​the radiator filler neck (if there is one) and the expansion tank.
Antifreeze in the expansion tank should be clean and transparent without oil stains and stains. Its level should be on the top mark on the tank wall.
Brake fluid in the master brake cylinder (level max).
Carefully inspect the cooling system for leaks. On a cold engine, it is most noticeable (traces of fluid) On the hot - on white plaque in the form of runoff tracks of fluid.
Pay attention to all rubber products of the engine. They should not be cracked, especially on high-voltage wires, cooling system pipes, drive belts, timing belt.
Check the oil level in the gearbox. Find out when it was last changed, what kind of oil was used. Look at the dipstick should be notched on the recommendations of the used oil (for automatic transmission). On the manual transmission unscrew the filler neck. The oil in the gearbox should be transparent, without impurities, to reach the top mark of the probe (the lower edge of the filler hole if there is no probe).
Check the fluid level in the power steering reservoir. GUR uses ATP oil, usually the color of red beet. Smell the oil. It should not smell much burned. The level should be on the MAX.

In the cabin.

There should be no damage (breaks) of the panels, upholstery, covers, cigarette burning of seat upholstery, and dirt is not a problem, because it is easily cleaned with modern detergents. Check the strength of the roof and door trim.
Check all seat adjustments (especially electric). Start with
Driving - it is experiencing maximum loads. The seat should not be "failed", should provide lateral support, and the back should not "hang out."
Inspect the steering wheel. At hand, he will naturally be smoother - not because you are buying a new car.
Light devices and the left stalk switch (it is more convenient to check with an assistant so as not to get out many times).
Janitors and right stalk switch (pay special attention to the work of all washers).
Power windows on all doors (especially electric).
Horn (bibikalka).
All additional options - heated seats and mirrors, electric mirrors, immobilizer, security alarm, rear (front) glass, climate control, etc.
Music. Work recorder (radio, tape recorder, CD). Work all the speakers. Antenna operation. Ask what code the radio otherwise when removing the battery terminals Mouzon will not work after returning the terminal back (there are magicians without a code. Ask the seller to remove the (negative) battery terminal and put it on again. If Mouzon is working, it means there is no code. You are lucky.
Oven, in all modes
Air conditioning, in all modes (at temperatures from -5 and below the condo will not turn on outside)
Fan, in all modes
Luke, in all modes.
Do not be lazy to look under the floor mats. Below them must be dry, otherwise something flows (seal or stove).
Examine the dashboard. Indicators, devices, etc.
Work handbrake check raising it. It should move 4-6 clicks. With the ignition on, the parking brake indicator should light up on the dashboard.
Check the presence of a jack, balloon key. Some models have a screw-in towing eye (screwed in front and back (need to be turned counter-clockwise)

Suspension, brakes, chassis.

In the steering should not be noticeable backlash and knocks when the engine is running. When the engine is stopped during sharp turns of the steering wheel to the left - knocks to the right take place, it should be so. Rubber covers tips steering steering should be without gusts. Compress the rubber covers, make sure that the grease is not squeezed out of them. Turn the steering wheel at a small angle, watching the movement of the left, then right wheel. A slight turn of the steering wheel should turn the wheels. The steering mechanism should work without knocking with the engine running (sharply shake the steering wheel from side to side).
Wheels. Hang out the front wheels (you can even use a jack in turns), lock the steering wheel and try using both hands to move the wheel in two directions: taking the left and right sides of the wheel, and then the top and bottom. If there is a backlash, then in the first case it is a backlash in the steering, and in the second - suspension elements (ball bearing, etc.).
The second option is to check. Hang out the front wheel, place an emphasis under the lever (lower part of the ball joint) (thereby relieving the rack from the load), grab the wheel with your hands from above and below and swing it in a vertical plane. Moving the wheel suggests that you need to change the wheel bearing. Remove the stand from the stop, slip the mount under the wheel and, lifting the wheel up, observe the movement of the lower ball bearing finger. Moving the ball of the ball bearing indicates that the hinge should be changed.
Spin the wheel, it should rotate without noise and freely.
Hang out the rear wheels, unload the rear rack, putting the emphasis under the beam (lever, fist). Grasp the wheel at the top and bottom and swing it in a vertical plane. If the wheel moves, then it is necessary or to change the wheel bearing.
Spin the wheel, it should rotate without noise and freely.
Inspect the hinge covers of the suspension, and on the front-wheel drive, in addition, covers of the hinges of the semi-axes. Squeeze them with your fingers and evaluate if the covers are not torn, if there is lubricant in them, if the tightness is not broken (if you squeeze the grease out of the holes).
Inspect discs for dents and cracks.
Inspect the tires - if they are unevenly worn, then this may be evidence of a violation of the geometry of the suspension or body.
Look for leaks in the shock absorbers, are the rubber bumpers intact and the anthers in the shock absorbers.
The performance of the shock absorber is checked simply - it is necessary to strongly press the top of the wing and release. The car should rise, fall (already much less) and rise again. Everything! If there are more swings, the shock absorber does not work. More accurate information about the state of the shock absorbers will only be checked on a shaker, although you will be able to identify some defects a little later when you check the car "on the go."
Carefully inspect the brake hose mounting points and cylinders for leaks.
The thickness of the lining of the brake pads is not so important - you replace the pads. But if the pads of different thickness (for this you have to if you want to remove the wheels), then this indicates that the caliper guides are wedged or the cylinder does not work. The external brake pad of the disc brakes should be slightly thicker than the internal one, because when braking the internal brake wears a little more. In addition, the thickness of the brake discs must be at least acceptable. The number MIN thickness is stamped on the disk. Look for and measure the disk thickness with a mic. A well-marked rim on the edges of the disc is formed after 100,000 km. run

Turn on the ignition.

Check the performance of all indicators.
On modern cars, often on the panel there are indicators of various diagnostic systems, and sellers sometimes either do not know, or deliberately misinform the buyer about the appointment of various lights. But this may be a signal that a lambda probe is defective, a high-pressure fuel pump or some other expensive "thing". Therefore, before buying you need to read the "primer".
Turn on the ignition only, without starting the engine.
There are 5 lights on the dashboard: the image of the battery (red), the image of the brake (red), the image of the oil can (red), the image of a person with a cushion in front of the pictogram with the inscription ABS (who has this system in the configuration). Other bulbs may light up depending on the model. Again, the "primer" you need to read.
A set of red light bulbs on the dashboard and the emergency oil pressure light / oil lamp icon / must light up (when the engine is running, it usually lights up when the oil pressure drops below 0.3 kg / sq. Cm), the battery is not charging / battery icon /, handbrake light bulb / pictogram in the form of a circle in front and behind of which arcs are shown /.
Start the engine. All red lights should go out (except for the handbrake indicator if the handbrake is raised up; by the way, check it - release, tighten again and see how the light reacts to your actions). Wait 15-20 seconds, turn off the engine and immediately turn on the ignition (without starting the engine). If the engine is in normal condition, the emergency oil pressure light should not burn, as the oil system maintains a high oil pressure, and it is slowly reduced due to oil leakage through the crankshaft bearing clearances. The smaller these gaps, i.e. less engine wear, the later the emergency oil pressure light will come on again. With a good engine, the time to reduce oil pressure is up to 5 seconds. If the light bulb caught fire almost immediately, the engine is worn out.
Checking the presence of airbags on the indicator on the dashboard Airbag. On the dashboard, this indicator sometimes has the inscription "Airbag" or the image of a person with a pillow in front. The indicator may be orange. When the ignition is switched on, the indicator lights up and then goes out after a few seconds. If the “Airbag” indicator does not light up when the ignition is switched on, or it lights up, but does not go out, or goes out only when the starter and engine are turned on, there are no airbags or a malfunction in the system. This suggests that the car was in an accident or some sensors give information about their malfunction.

We start the engine.

Listen to the work of the starter. There should be no rattle starter.
The engine should start immediately, regardless of whether it is cold or hot.
If the gasoline engine starts up poorly, then it is not adjusted. If the engine starts to twitch at the start of the first minutes, and then it works normally, then you probably need to clean the injectors.
Before it warms up, open the cap of the expansion tank. If bubbles rise, the head gasket is punctured.
With the engine running, carefully open the oil filler cap. Exhaust gases should not come out from there. If they do, the piston group and the crankcase ventilation system are faulty. After opening the lid, there should be no increase in engine noise. Cover the oil filler cap with a lid and observe its behavior. The lid should not be thrown off the neck, and as if attracted to it. This indirectly says that the engine is normal.
After 3-4 minutes of engine operation, feel the upper radiator hose (if the engine was cold before). It must be cold because the thermostat is still closed. When the sensor arrow is set in the middle of the sector on the temperature gauge, the thermostat will open and the nozzles (upper and lower) will become hot.
Inspect the engine for leaks or antifreeze.
Listen to the engine. There should be no "metal" knocks (except for the knockers of the hydraulic compensators on a very cold engine in the first minutes of its operation).
Engine speed should not "float."
If there is an automatic radiator fan, wait until it turns on and turns off after a while. This proves that the thermal control system is working.
Get behind the wheel and press the accelerator pedal (of course not to the floor). At the same time carefully listen to extraneous sounds. During a set of turns the engine should not vibrate, and at decrease in turns to work without interruptions.
Assess the efficiency of the stove, air conditioner (if allowed by the outside air temperature. Above +5).
Get out of the car and check the exhaust smoke. At idle from the exhaust pipe, smoke is almost invisible (except for winter), and when you press the accelerator pedal, the smoke should be a pale color. To bring to the exhaust pipe a piece of white cloth. After some time, remove the flap. It should not be black spots - the release of oil from the exhaust pipe. Oil emissions indicate a malfunction of the crank mechanism. If “peregazovka” (pressing and releasing the accelerator pedal) from the exhaust pipe goes gray smoke - it is defective valve seals caps, if at high engine speeds (press and hold the accelerator pedal) from the exhaust pipe goes blue smoke - it is defective piston rings. If black smoke is emitted from the exhaust pipe, the fuel supply system is faulty. Thick white smoke indicates the ingress of antifreeze (coolant) into the combustion chambers.
Check the exhaust system. To do this, at idle, simply plug the exhaust pipe with a rag (shoe sole) - the engine should stall.
If the car is on the overpass, check if the exhaust system cuts through the gases.
Check the engine temperature sensor.
Check the operation of the power steering pump. A serviceable pump operates with a slight buzzing (in the extreme positions of the steering wheel), without rattling, squeaking and increasing effort.

Transmission.

With the engine running:
Press the clutch pedal several times. No noise or cod should be.
Switch gears. They should be included without additional effort, clearly, easily, without crunch and rattle.
In move:
Equalize the pressure in the front wheels.
Find a suitable place for running tests.
Turn the steering wheel to the left to failure and move off. If the crunch is heard, the CV joint is defective. Just make the right side.
o Let's go straight.
Immediately check how the transfer switch - must be clear and easy. If a whining sound is heard when dropping gas - wear gears. Rattle when switching - wear synchronizers. A whining sound - wear differential or gear. Knock at load change - wear of the cardan shaft cross.
o Rate the clutch. It should work efficiently at low engine speeds. In addition, when the clutch is depressed, the release bearing should not be audible. A good grip should turn on at 1/3 of the pedal start. If it turns on almost at the top, then the clutch is already worn out.
o Try to drive in a straight, level area (for example, in the middle of the road), releasing the steering wheel. If the car leads to the side, then the geometry of the suspension (wheel alignment) or the body is broken. If the car does not lead, and the steering wheel stands with a slight turn, it means that the steering shaft is rotated relative to the rack for one tooth. This happens after hitting a high speed on the obstacles (curb, etc.).
o There should be no knocking and rattling on the suspension side. Their presence indicates the wear of rubber bushings stabilizers, suspension hinges or shock absorber bushings.
o Malfunction of shock absorbers leads to nodding during braking, sinking back during acceleration. The car hesitantly holds the road, strongly heels and leaves the path in a turn.
o Evaluate the steering wheel vibration. So you can "hear" bent wheels and other running gear defects.
Steering wheel vibration during braking indicates distortion of the brake discs.
o A crunch in the corners indicates wear of the cv joints.
o Sharply brake on dry pavement, exit and inspect traces of braking (on a car with ABS, you should not hear a metal screech). They should be symmetrical, and during braking the car should not be led away (if it leads away, the front or rear brake cylinders of the opposite side do not work) and pulsing actions are felt on the pedals as if the foot is on a rotating gear. During emergency braking, an ordinary car is not controlled, that is, when you turn the steering wheel, it does not change the direction of its movement. Cars equipped with ABS anti-lock braking systems should not squeal with rubber during emergency braking and should be controlled by turning the steering wheel. When the brake is gently pressed on the pedals, no jolts should be felt (on machines without ABS), and in the cabin there should be no noise of brake pads, rattles and impacts.
o Put the machine under the slope and evaluate the effectiveness of the "parking brake".
o For automatic transmission: turn the selector knob to the "D" position and release the parking brake. The car should start. Try to move on the rise of the front and reverse. The movement should start easily, immediately after pressing the gas pedal. If it is required to spin the engine up to 1500 r / min and more for starting up a lift, then the machine is worn out and soon the car will not go on the rise at all.
The car also should not roll down the slope forward when the selector knob is in the "R". Stop on a level place, turn on the “D” position, hold the left foot on the brake, and with the right, slam the gas pedal abruptly. If the engine immediately stalls, then it can be argued that the machine is in good condition. If the engine does not immediately stall, in no case wait for it to do it - immediately release the gas and turn on the "N" or "P", as during such a check all the parts of the automatic mechanism that are worn out in the used car are worn out .
Work the gas pedal. There should be no "failures".
Check the effectiveness of the parking brake. Stay. Bring the "parking brake" lever into position. Gently start. If the car remains standing and the engine stops, the parking system is in good condition.

After the inspection of the car, the deficiencies identified by you, proceed to talk with the owner.

If you yourself do not want to check the car, you can trust the service station. But not every car service you will thoroughly diagnose the entire vehicle. Of course you will need to stand in line. But it is necessary to agree on this with the owner, as well as agree on who will pay for the diagnosis.

After the purchase, you can do a more thorough diagnosis of the car for yourself in order to outline a plan for finishing it up.

Successful purchase!

Buying a used car {GUIDE 2}

So, you have already decided for yourself what brand of car you want to buy. You are not confused by the price of gasoline, the cost of a parking lot or a garage, the terrible condition of our roads, and you have enough money to fulfill your dream. At the same time, you have not forgotten that after buying a car, you need to invest another 150-200 dollars for preventive maintenance. So how to buy a car? And where?

1. Before you go to buy a car, prepare and take with you a small magnet wrapped in a rag, a small mirror, chalk, rags to wipe your hands and lay under your knees a double-sided screwdriver (cross and flat), wire 1-2 mm in diameter and 80 cm long, wire 3-4 mm in diameter and about 40 cm long (this can be a welding electrode without coating) and a 10x12 open-end wrench. Wrap the magnet in a rag so that it is just attached to the door of the household refrigerator, just did not fall off. The “device” prepared in this way will allow you to determine the thickness of the car’s coating, i.e. plastered or not; whether there was an accident or not.

2. You are faced with the task of determining whether the car was completely repainted, in parts or not. If repainted, it means that he was either in an accident, or his body rusted strongly. That and the other reduces the life of the car and, consequently, its price. The car must be clean, because with a dirty surface of the body is difficult to notice defects in paint. Compare the surface of the roof, hood, trunk, doors and wings. Any stickers, stripes, inscriptions are often applied in order to hide the defects of the body. When inspecting the machine, slightly unscrew the rubber seals on the windows, trunk lid, doors and determine if there is a difference in the texture and shade of paint outside and under the seal. There should be no traces of paint on any rubber and plastic parts of the body (glass sealing, moldings, etc.). Open the hood and compare the paint in the engine compartment and on the wings. While the hood is open, carefully inspect the spars. If there was a blow and they were pulled out, there are still traces: knocked-out paint and "folds" on the metal surface. Every Japanese model has two or three places where it starts to rust. Most often this happens under the rubber seals of glass, doors and trunk.

3. Check how all doors close. They should close the same way, with the same sound and from the same effort. If this is not the case, then the body is most likely driven. Remember that a car with a normal body all the slots in length must be the same width.

4. Pay attention to the wheels. The main thing is that the tires should be worn evenly, and there should be no marks of impact on the disks. If the disk is cast, then after a strike a crack may form in it, since almost all such disks are very fragile.

5. Now about the engine. As soon as the hood is opened, immediately smell the air above the engine - there should be absolutely no smell of gasoline. Engine compartment and everything you see there should be clean. The car was prepared for sale, blowing the engine from dust is inexpensive. If this is not done, then behind this is the desire to hide something. For example, an engine with a leak of oil is hard to wash off at a time, since traces of old dirt, that is, oil leaks, always remain near the caps of bolts, washers, and plastic latches. This is where the dust comes in handy. Inspect all parts and assemblies of the engine in search of oil leaks. This may be a slightly noticeable spot (the engine is “sweating”), but remember: there should not be any oil leaks on a fully serviceable engine. If there is at least a small leak, this indicates either an increased pressure in the engine crankcase due to wear of the cylinder-piston group, or that the engine was overheated at one time, and the rubber seals or glands "faded", i.e. lost their elastic properties. Remember that the "slightly" oil on the surface of the engine can only be in domestic cars, and even then not very new. Japanese cars "slightly" is not provided! Minor oil drips in the upper part of the engine from under the valve cover, distributor, valve actuator servomotor, etc. less dangerous than drips in the lower part of the engine, i.e. from under the glands loboviny, rear gland, from under the pan, oil sensor, filter. Oil flows in the lower part of the engine have the properties to unexpectedly turn into oil leaks.

6. Try to see at least one nut or bolt with flattened edges, or a “freelance” bolt (Russian). This will tell you that the engine was "climbed", and moreover it was opened with rozhkovymi keys. Since you are not familiar with the craftsman who has taken these actions, then you should count on the fact that he could not “screw” something. Therefore, this engine - "the cat in the bag." Inspect the crankcase connector to the block, the valve cover connector to the block head and the camshaft block to the block head, i.e. all connectors. If you see any gasket, rubber or cardboard, traces of white or black sealant, traces of paint or varnish - know that this is done in our country, and then this is again “a cat in a bag.” The Japanese use only gray-silver sealant, which is almost not visible.

7. Remove the engine oil level dipstick. The oil should be at the top level, transparent to light and without the slightest impurities of small black blotches like coal powder. If the engine is diesel, the oil will be black. It's not scary, but a drop of this oil on the light should be a little transparent. If this is not the case, the oil must be changed.

8. Open the oil filler cap and inspect it. There should be no black pasty coating inside (scratch the inside of the cover with a screwdriver or thick wire). The presence of plaque indicates violations of the engine lubrication: either the oil of the wrong brand was poured, or it did not change for a long time, or, which happens most often, the engine overheated. Inspect the inside of the filler neck and the details of the valve mechanism with a flashlight, if visible. In a fully serviceable engine, everything you see inside should be golden brown.

9. Pay attention to traces, even a little noticeable, rust in the area of ​​the radiator filler neck. The presence of this rust suggests that at one time the engine was overheated. The presence of rust in the expansion tank says the same thing. Open the radiator cap and inspect it. All rubber cover seals should not be cracked. If you inspect a hot engine, then the radiator cap must be turned off very carefully, since the system is under pressure and you can burn your hands! TOSOL flooded into the radiator can be of any color, as there are many varieties of it. It should not be cloudy and opaque. If TOSOL is muddy and dirty color, then it must be replaced. On the surface of the TOSOL should not be oil stains and streaks. Their presence indicates a recent engine repair in Russia or engine malfunction.

10. Check the oil level in the power steering reservoir and gearbox. If you buy a car with an automatic transmission, it has a power steering pump. In both tanks must be the same oil "Dextron-II" (ATF). It should have one color (red-violet), be transparent and without impurities, but, most importantly, it should smell the same. In automatic transmissions, the oil wears out faster than in the power steering system, and it gets a burning smell. This smell (the oil in this case is cloudy) in the automatic transmission indicates a fault in the box: it burned discs for some reason, and the life of this unit is very limited. If the oil levels are at the required elevations - lower for the cold engine, upper for the hot engine - then insert the dipstick into place (on many automatic transmissions, the level is measured when the engine is idling) and continue inspection.

11. Inspect all rubber products on the engine. They should not be cracks. Pay special attention to high voltage wires, connections and belts for the generator drive, pump, etc. Pay attention to the condition of the inner surfaces of the belts. Cracks in them suggest that these belts are old and unreliable. For inspection, use a flashlight and a mirror. If a lot of longitudinal scratches are visible on high-voltage wires, then, most likely, they were cleaned with emery cloth to hide or the year of manufacture (it is often applied on the wires), or the old age of wires, which is characterized by the appearance of multiple transverse microcracks. Such wires are unreliable.

12. Spread a newspaper on the ground under the engine. Ask to start the engine. No rattle starter is allowed. The engine must start immediately and abruptly ("explosion"), regardless of whether it is hot or cold. If the gasoline engine does not start for more than two seconds when the starter rotates, then it is faulty and unadjusted.

13. If you didn’t understand something when starting, ask to stop the engine and start it again. With the engine running, carefully open the oil filler cap. Make sure that inside you strive to jump out the oil droplets and there is an oil mist inside. If exhaust gas is released when the lid is open at approximately 1000 rpm, then there is an overpressure in the crankcase and the piston group needs repair. You can check for excessive pressure in the crankcase in another way. At idle the engine should remove the oil filler cap and gently put it on the oil inlet opening. If at idle the lid bounces, the engine will soon require repair, but for now it will have increased oil consumption.

14. After starting the engine should immediately, in 2-3 seconds, he should raise the speed to 1500 rpm (engine warming up speed). After that, while the engine warms up and reduces the rpm to idle - 650-800 rpm, no shaking and flinching are unacceptable. Once the engine has started, open the radiator cap and see that air bubbles do not come out. If they appear, the engine should be diagnosed at the workshop. After 1-2 minutes of engine operation, when the temperature gauge sterling enters the engine operating temperature sector on the scale, feel the upper radiator hose. It must be cold because the thermostat is still closed. When the arrow of the temperature gauge is set in the middle of the sector, the thermostat will open and the nozzles (upper and lower) will become hot. If the engine heats up for a long time, and the radiator is warm all the time, the thermostat is faulty or there is none at all, as is the case when the car is brought from Singapore.

15. Warm up the engine. If the car has a radiator cooling fan that can be turned off using a temperature sensor, wait until it turns on and turns off again after a while. In doing so, you will verify that the thermal control system is working. In serviceable cars, the temperature gauge needle is in the middle of the working sector on the temperature gauge scale. Now sharply and fully press the gas pedal and immediately throw (release) it. Do this again when idle is set again. No knocks should be. When you press the gas pedal, the engine should start and abruptly, without interruption, to gain momentum. When reducing the speed of any startle engine is not allowed. Now, very gently press the gas pedal and, when the engine spins up to about 3000 rpm, suddenly release it. No interruptions and startle of the engine are allowed. When idle turns are established (the number of idle turns is indicated on the label on the hood below, for example, for a 750 rpm manual box and 800 rpm for an automatic box), try turning on the engine heater and headlights simultaneously by turning on the brake "D" and sharply turn the steering wheel all the way to the right, then to the left. The engine should not stall.

16. Check exhaust fumes. At idle, smoke from the tailpipe is almost invisible. When you press the gas pedal, the smoke becomes visible, but it should be a fawn-gray color. Black smoke indicates a malfunction of the fuel system; blue - the flow of oil into the combustion chamber of the cylinder; thick white smoke - the entry of antifreeze or water into the combustion chambers. In frosty or wet weather, the color of the smoke is not a sufficiently correct sign of engine failure.

17. Get into the car and turn off the ignition with the engine off. At the same time, a set of red light bulbs on the dashboard and the emergency oil pressure light should be on (usually it lights up when the oil pressure drops below 0.3 kg / sq.cm), the battery no charge light and the glow lamp turn on light (for a diesel car) engine). The latter should go out after 1-6 seconds, depending on the temperature of the engine, and after another 3 seconds there will be a slight click of the relay under the hood. This stepped down the tension on the glow of the candles. Now start the engine. All red lights should immediately go out, except for the open door’s alarm if the door is open, and the parking brake warning light. Wait 10-15 seconds, turn off the engine and turn on the ignition again. Now, if the engine is good, the emergency oil pressure light should not burn, as the oil system maintains a high oil pressure, and it slowly decreases due to oil leakage through the crankshaft bearing clearances. The smaller these gaps, i.e. less engine wear, the later the emergency oil pressure light will come on again. With a good engine, the time to reduce oil pressure is up to 5 seconds. If the light bulb caught fire almost immediately, the engine is already worn out.

18. Start the engine. Now, if you have an automatic transmission ("automatic"), press the brake and alternately switch on the various modes of the automatic "R", "N", "D", "L2", "L1" with different positions of the O / D button. There should be no noise and vibrations. Turn on all transfers in turn. Each time the gearshift lever is in neutral, release the clutch pedal for a second or two. There should be no change in the noise background in the cabin. Transmissions should be switched on smoothly, without jamming, with a light thickness, they should also be turned off. Now try to move. Again there should be no noise or knocks. If you have a "mechanic", pay attention to the clutch pedal. It should have a free running from 2 to 25 mm, depending on the model of the car. If a cable is used in the clutch drive, pay attention to where in the pedal position the car is moving. If he gets under way when the pedal is at the very top, then almost certainly the clutch will soon require repair — replacing the friction folds.

19. When checking a front wheel drive car, on a wide road, you need to drive up to a steep climb, stop in front of it, turn the wheels abruptly until it stops and start moving sharply. Then, if the turn was left, do the same at the right turn. If the drive is in normal condition, no clicks will be heard. Otherwise, if you hear 1-2 clicks when starting off, you need to replace the drives.

20. Stop on the rise and check how the parking brake works. The effectiveness of the parking brake can be checked if it is turned on and starts moving smoothly. If the machine remains in place and the engine stalls, the parking brake system is operational. If the engine does not stall, then the replacement clutch cover must be replaced. If you have a gun, turn it on to position “D” and release the parking brake. The car must stand still. Slightly push the pedal, it should move. Turn around and start reversing. The movement should start easily, immediately after pressing the gas pedal. If for starting off in reverse or forward travel, it is required to spin the engine up to 1500 rpm and more, then the machine is worn out and skoro the machine will not rise at all. The car also should not roll down when going forward when the handle of the "R" machine gun is in position.

21. Stop on a level place, turn on the “D” position, with one foot press on the brake, and with the other, slam the gas pedal abruptly. If the engine immediately stalls, it can be argued that the machine is in very good condition. If the engine does not immediately stall, in no case, wait for it to do it for a time, immediately release the gas and turn on "N" or "P", as with this check all the worn-out parts of the mechanism of the machine are worn out in a used car.

22. Check the brakes: brake suddenly on dry asphalt, exit and inspect traces of braking. They should be symmetrical, and during braking the car should not be taken away. During emergency braking, an ordinary car is not controlled, that is, when you turn the steering wheel, it does not change the direction of its movement. Cars equipped with ABS anti-lock braking systems should not squeal with rubber during emergency braking and should be controlled by turning the steering wheel. When the brake is gently pressed, there should not be any jolts on the pedals, and in the cabin there should be no noise of brake shoes, rattles and impacts.

23. Ask to show you all the pens in the car and tell about their purpose. Try the action of all buttons, knobs, and levers several times. Turn them on first abruptly and confidently and turn off the same way. Then try to do the same, but slowly and uncertainly. The result should be the same - a clear inclusion of all systems and mechanisms.

24. Turn on and tune the radio to chatsota, on which there is no transmitting station. Start the engine. Stop the engine. There should be no change in the noise of the speakers.

25. When driving at a working car, not a single red or yellow light bulb should be lit. Peer closely at the instrument panel, whether there is in it any scoreboard, the light of which has not yet caught fire. Maybe the emergency light bulb was turned off, and some system is faulty, and this is not visible. However, there may be two light bulbs that you cannot turn on. One informs about the need to change the timing belt (toothed), which lights up every 90,000 km; the second - lights up every 40,000 km and informs about the need to replace the oxygen sensor.

26. Using your weight, swing each of the four corners of the car with both hands. The machine should not do the second pitch if the shock absorbers are normal. There should be no knocks.

27. Look under the car. Pay attention to traces of oil on the gearbox, rear axle and on the bottom of the body in front of the units. When the oil flows from the glands, it, falling on the driveshaft (drive), scattered them around the circumference. Inspect if there are leaks in the shock absorbers, whether the rubber bumpers are intact are the anthers of the shock absorbers. Inspect the condition of all rubber covers (anthers), especially pay attention to the anthers of wheel drives and steering. They should not be cracked from old age, and they must be intact. The rupture of the anther drives is easily noticed by the traces of grease, which in this case is sprayed around the circumference. External anthers are destroyed much more often than internal ones. Measure the distance between the edge of the wing and the tread of the wheel, at least by eye. Look at other cars. So you can conclude whether the springs and springs have sunk or not. Usually, when the springs come through, the rubber bumpers are destroyed. In fact, it is best to install the car on the viewing pit and inspect it from below. Immediately all the blows that the car has experienced, all the leaks of oil and brake fluid, i.e. all car condition.

28. Shake the steering wheel. No knocks should be. If the wheel has holes, then try to look at the brake disc. Он должен быть абсолютно гладким и блестящим, на нем не должно быть задиров и радиальной волнистости. Если диск не гладкий, то, скорее всего, он изрядно износился о тормозную колодку в то время, когда в ней не было тормозной накладки, которую вовремя не поменяли.