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Buying Used Cars

Buying a car, even a second-hand car, is a joyous event, but troublesome. Here you have to keep an "ear". The seller will easily grasp the beginner in you and "modestly keep silent" about some flaws. A cat in a bag to buy, of course, is not worth it. It is always better to come with a person who understands cars, but also to know some elementary things is also not a sin. This text, of course, does not make you a pro, but can give you the necessary idea of ​​the most important points.

As they say, in the market there are two fools: one tries to sell, another - to buy. In our time, not everyone can afford to buy a new car, so you have to buy a used car. How not to be mistaken, how not to buy a cat in a poke? Below are tips that will help you choose a normal car.

To begin with, "Verification" should be started by phone. Here is an approximate list of general plan questions that can be asked to the seller:

  1. How many owners did the car have?
  2. What month and year of release? Then it can be checked for a number of signs: for example, on the marking of glasses.
  3. Learn the same as it was exploited. It should be borne in mind that the nature and operating conditions of the machine is much more important than its age.
  4. What kind of car run? On inspection, you can check the speedometer reading. You can multiply the annual mileage (usually 15-30 thousand km.) * By age and estimate the actual mileage.
  5. What is the state of the car? Just because the price is not understated and not overestimated. Ask about all the repairs that the car went through and replaced parts. This may hint at non-publicized problems.
  6. Was the car in an accident? The accident can make significant changes in the operation of nodes and mechanisms.

First impression

If the car is not "killed" and in general you like, then make an external inspection. That's what you should pay attention to first. Inspect the body for rust. The most common places are rapids, wheel arches, trunk. Check the paint layer at different angles. The body panels should not differ in color. Check the condition of the gaps between the body elements, they must all be the same. Otherwise, there was a serious body repair.

Documentation

First we look at the date of registration and the year of issue. The year is checked by the identification number (VIN), in addition, the year of foreign cars is indicated on the fastening elements of seat belts, glasses. Then check the number of the body under the hood and in the cabin (for example, under the front passenger seat) and engine number. Service book. If it is preserved, then it can determine the regularity of the maintenance of the machine and the number of owners.

Look under the car

Look, is not there a little puddle on the asphalt, and does it drip from where? It can be oil or antifreeze, brake fluid, gasoline or water. In any case, strong leaks are unacceptable. Pay special attention to the level of antifreeze and oil. The change in the nature of these components (antifreeze with emulsion impurities and oil bubbles) indicates their mixing. This usually happens when the gasket or deformed cylinder head is broken due to engine overheating. Pay attention to the wheels. They should stand smoothly, without warp, the wear of tires should be uniform.

On the steering wheel and wheels there should be no noticeable backlash. Lift out the front wheels (you can even take turns using the jack), lock the steering wheel and try to move the wheel in two directions with two hands: taking the left and right sides of the wheel, and then the top and bottom. If there is a backlash, then in the first case - it's the steering, and in the second - the suspension elements (ball support, etc.). Look, there is no leak in the shock absorbers, whether the rubber bumpers and shock absorbers are shock absorbers. The efficiency of the shock absorber is checked simply - it is necessary to press strongly on top of the wing and release. The car should rise, descend (already much less) and once again rise. All! If there are more swings, the shock absorber does not work. More accurate information on the condition of the shock absorbers will be given only by a check on the shake table, although you will be able to detect some defects later when you check the machine "on the go." Carefully inspect the brake hose attachment points and the cylinders for leaks. Inspect the anthers of the guide calipers and cylinders.

The body must necessarily be clean otherwise there is no sense in making an inspection. Even under a thin layer of dirt can hide paint defects, dents, rust.

Take a seat near the right headlight of the car and carefully examine the right side of the car - whether there are any dents, defects in geometry and color. Repeat this procedure at the port side, and then similarly inspect the hood and roof. Check anything with a magnet. If it falls off, it means putty. With the help of a magnet, also inspect the rear pillars of the body along their entire length. In the case of replacing the rear wings (sidewalls), there is always a putty. Carefully inspect the joints - this is a good indicator of the car's emergency past. The normal joint has the same width along the entire length. Pay special attention to the gaps between:

  1. front wings and a windshield frame,
  2. the specified frame and hood,
  3. front bumper and front fenders,
  4. hood and headlights, direction indicators and front wings,
  5. front wings and doors,
  6. sidewalls and doors,
  7. front and rear doors,
  8. boot lid and its opening.

Open the hood

The engine must be clean. Any "improvements" and self-made insulating tapes and stuff, should alert you. Look at the inner wall of the bonnet. If it is covered with a black coating, then oil leaks are very likely. Check all transmission belts on the pulleys for wear. A worn belt usually turns white, cracks and threads of the reinforcement become visible in it.

Start the engine

Leave the hood open and turn the key in the ignition switch so that the devices turn on (do not start). At the same time, the battery and oil pressure lamps should light. Bad, if it did not happen. Start the engine. Pay attention to how quickly the engine started. He must work quietly and evenly. Click on the accelerator and listen. Are there any knocks and swings. Release the pedal. If the revolutions did not fall immediately or they are too big even at idle, then on the face of the problem with the adjustment. Pay attention to the color of the exhaust. The white color should disappear as soon as the engine warms up, if not - the cylinder head may be worn out in the engine, and it will have to be repaired or replaced. Black color means that the engine requires adjustment, but if the smoke is bluish, it's bad - you can not do without serious repairs.

Check fluid levels

In addition to quantifying the oil level, its quality should be assessed. It is abnormal if it is thickened and looks on the probe with a thin film, but is collected by lumps. Do not forget to also check the brake fluid level.

Check the dampers and lights

If, during rocking, the car does more than one oscillating motion, the shock absorbers require replacement. Try in work all the lights - headlights, turn signals, stop lamps, interior lighting. Separately check the operation of the heater and climate control.

Check the play

It is necessary to pay special attention to the play of the steering wheel, the clutch pedals and the brake. The maximum allowable backlash of the steering wheel is 5 centimeters to each side before the wheel turns. Turn on the first gear and try to move. Note, however, how far you need to release the pedal from the fully squeezed state. If gripping occurs at the very end, the clutch may require major repair or replacement. The brake pedal must not reach the floor a few centimeters. Click on it and hold it for about a minute. The tension should not be weakened, otherwise there are leaks in the brake system.

Go!

Since the machine is unfamiliar, be extremely careful. Brakes. Check them immediately after the traffic starts. Observe-do not throw the car to the sides with a sudden braking, do not hear any extraneous sounds. If the car moves slightly to the side when driving, it is most likely that the wheel alignment is not adjusted, or there are problems with the rubber. Suspension. Try to ride on small hummocks and potholes and listen to how the suspension works. Strong knocking should alert you. In this case, you can offer the seller to check the car on a specialized stand. If the steering wheel starts to tremble at high speed or with a steep turn, the wheels may not be centered or unbalanced. Gearbox and clutch. Transmissions must be switched easily and without any extraneous sounds. Listen to the noise of the gearbox with the clutch released and released: if you feel the difference - be ready to repair.

Running engine

  1. Start the engine. While it is not warm, open the expansion tank cap. If bubbles rise - the head gasket of the block is punched.
  2. Inspect the running engine for oil leaks or antifreeze.
  3. Listen to the engine. There should be no "metallic" sounds.
  4. Engine speed should not "float".
  5. On the warmed-up engine ask the assistant sharply and against the stop to press the gas pedal, and at this time put your hand to the exhaust pipe. The presence of a large number of oily stains indicates, at least, a significant wear of the piston rings.

On a note

The machine is better to check in daylight - so better noticeable defects in coating and tint. Wax coating with artificial light (for example, in the garage), will hide not only the scratch, but also a more serious defect. If the ad said about the "relevance of bargaining", then to begin with, bid 20-25% lower, so you will have a reserve and room for maneuver. A good basis for bargaining may be the shortcomings that you discovered. Talk to a mechanic beforehand, find out how much repairs are worth. You can safely operate with these figures in a conversation with the seller.


Buying a used car {GUIDE}

What to take with you:

  • - a flashlight (the smaller, the better);
  • - a small mirror;
  • - a magnifying glass (magnifying glass) for identification of inscriptions;
  • - a sheet of white paper to assess the state of liquids, oils;
  • - a notepad (a sheet of paper), a pen for recording the identified shortcomings;
  • - a napkin for assessing the condition of liquids, oils;
  • - a flap of white cloth for evaluating exhaust gases;
  • - litter on the ground;
  • - rags;
  • - a manometer for checking the air pressure in the front wheels;
  • - gloves cotton;
  • - Mounting to check the ball bearings.

Checking order

Documentation.

Prior to 1998, it was issued to the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate (GIA), and since 1998, vehicles are being issued at customs, foreign cars receive PTs of the TA, TV, TE, TK series. "If in the PTN column issued by the State Traffic Safety Inspectorate," SERIES, "CUSTOMS LIMITATIONS" ("SPECIAL NOTES") is the series and number of the cargo customs declaration (GTD), then the car is cleared honestly.If the DUPLICATE of the PTA is presented, the car is not clean .If there is a suspicion that something was being erased in the TCP, to the light.The detected white spots around questionable records indicate that the document was cleaned.For these purposes, you can make a magnifying glass A detailed examination. compared the name of the owner.

Technical passport (if the car has not been disregarded). We look: registration sign; VIN; year of issue; engine number; Chassis number; Colour; date of registration; Owner's name and place of residence; who issued a technical passport and when. Information TECH. PASSPORT check with the PTS. The year of issue is checked by the identification number (VIN) on the car, in addition it is indicated on the fastening elements of the seat belts. Then check the engine number, body number under the hood and in the cabin (for example, under the front passenger seat). We examine them carefully. Figures and letters should be stamped in one font, the height and width of the signs, as well as the thickness of the lines should be the same. Visible damage is not allowed, where the number is stamped (traces of sandpaper processing, welding, fresh paint). Service book . If it is preserved, then it can determine the regularity of the maintenance of the machine and the number of owners.

Check for the theft.

You can find out for an additional fee from the inspector at the post of traffic police. Option via the INTERNET on the site www.gibdd.ru in the section "Announced in search". But these are only cars that were hijacked in Russia.

Keys (this is ideal).

There should be 3 sets. Master key with a red insert, the key for ignition, a key-blank (with a T-handle) only used to open doors, trunk.

Kalesa (this is ideal).

Check the pressure in the front wheels and if differently equalize it (it is necessary to control the camber-toe, if one tries to cheat by pumping one wheel more than another so that the car travels in a straight line when the rudder is released).

Body.

The car must be clean, otherwise the inspection of the body loses its meaning. Body inspection for bitterness. Take a seat near the right headlight of the car and carefully examine the right side of the car - whether there are any dents, defects in geometry and color. Repeat this procedure at the port side, and then similarly inspect the hood and roof. From this point of view, almost all the "closed" places are visible. Conduct a similar inspection and from the trunk. All that causes suspicion, carefully examine. Carefully inspect the joints (between the hood and the wings, racks and doors, etc.) - this is a good indicator of the car's emergency past. The normal joint has the same width along the entire length. Pay attention to the gaps between:

  • - front wings and windshield frame;
  • - front bumper and front wings;
  • - the hood and front lights;
  • - direction indicators and front wings;
  • - front wings and doors;
  • - sidewalls and doors;
  • - the trunk lid and its opening.

Inspect the fastening points of the door hinges to the posts. The discolored paint on the bolts fastened, scuffed at the slotted screws indicates that the door was removed.
With an external inspection, make sure there are no folds along the edges of the roof above the middle posts. Their presence is the consequences of a strong frontal attack.
Do not be lazy to inspect and the back of the car. In the rear of the car there should be no traces of welding and straightening of the rear side rails, paint spray on the inner arches of the wheels, suspension parts, the brackets of the stretch marks and the extensions themselves.
Try to examine all the power elements of the body (spars, if there is one and a stretcher, the front panel of the body, the lower amplifiers of the front mudguards) to see if there are any welds, cracks and traces of the recent "anti-corrosion" treatment.
Open the hood and carefully inspect the bumper mountings (if visible) and the spars. If they have metal folds and chipped paint, traces, welding, anticorrosion - the car "pulled". Pay attention to the position of the bonnet locking pin, the mounting of the hood amplifiers.
Inspect the front wing mounting bolts. They should be applied factory paint.
Inspect the front panel and make sure there are factory-welded contact points at the junction of the top of the front panel with the radiator frame.
Inspect the inside of the place where the lights are fastened. There should be no traces of sawing the installation holes, which are made during a serious body repair.
The trunk. Open the trunk lid and note the connection points of the rear panel with the trunk floor and the internal sidewall reinforcements for repair joints.
Raise the mat and proceed to inspect the trunk. Fouling areas located on the sides of the spare wheel niche should not have traces of straightening work.
Pay attention to the labels and inscriptions - this is usually a "masking" of defects.
Check all doors - they should close easily with one effort and sound. Otherwise - the body geometry is broken.
The fact of repainting (tint) of the car can be established on the following grounds: there are traces of paint on the rubber and plastic parts of the body; the color of the paint under rubber seals (they need to be slightly turned away) of the windows, doors, trunk lid differs; differs paint hood space and wings.
Corrosion - each model has its own "painful" points. But, as a rule, this process begins on fenders, thresholds and under rubber seals. Quality control of corrosion requires the presence of a lift or trestle. When inspecting the bottom, do not hesitate to "poke" it with a screwdriver - sometimes after this simple procedure the need for further inspection disappears.
Glass. Check the production date of all the glasses, if the car was not in the accident, then the glasses are all one year of manufacture. If a glass is different in manufacturing date, then carefully inspect this side of the body. If many glasses have a release date later than the car itself, the car has been in a major accident with their subsequent installation.
Tires. If they are worn unevenly and at the edges, then the angle of the camber is not adjusted - convergence or it can not be adjusted (see the state of the reserve).
Wheels. If the steel wheels pay attention to their bitterness (the state of the rim flanges). If the discs are cast, then inspect them for cracks.

Engine.

Open the hood and make sure that there is no characteristic smell of gasoline. Carefully inspect all engine parts in search of oil leaks. Oil stains and stains should not be. Especially the presence of stains in the bottom of the engine, from under the front and rear crankshaft oil seal, oil pan, oil sensor, oil filter, gearbox.
Take a closer look at the bolts and nuts on the traces of unscrewing.
Inspect disconnected engine parts (valve cover, cylinder block, etc.). They should not contain traces of sealant.
Remove dipstick and check oil level. Ask at what odometer readings it changed and which brand oil was used. It should be free of foam, impurities of black color and bubbles, transparent to color or brownish and not too thick.
Open the lid of the oil filler neck and inspect it. If there is a black plume on the inner walls, the engine is likely to overheat (another sign of the overheated engine is the presence of rust marks in the area of ​​the radiator filler neck (if there is one) and the expansion tank.
The antifreeze in the surge tank must be clean and transparent without oil stains and stains. Its level should be on the top mark on the tank wall.
Brake fluid in the main brake cylinder (level to max).
Inspect the cooling system for leaks. On the cold engine, it is most noticeable (traces of liquid) On hot - on a white coating in the form of tracks of fluid flow.
Pay attention to all rubber products of the engine. They should not be cracked, especially on high voltage wires, cooling system connections, drive belts, timing belt.
Check the oil level in the gearbox. Find out when it last changed, what kind of oil was used. To look on the dipstick there should be a notch about the recommendation of the used oil (for automatic transmission). At the manual gearbox, unscrew the filler neck. The oil in the gearbox must be transparent, without impurities, to reach the upper mark of the probe (the bottom edge of the filler hole if there is no feeler gauge).
Check the fluid level in the power steering reservoir. In GUR, ATP oil is usually used in the color of red beets. Sniff the oil. It should not smell strongly burning. The level should be at MAX.

In the cabin.

There should be no damage (breaks) of panels, upholstery, covers, burning seat covers with cigarettes, and dirt is not a problem, because it is easily cleaned with modern detergents. Check the strength of the roof and door trim.
Check all seat adjustments (especially electrical). Start with
driving - it is experiencing maximum loads. The seat should not be "failed", should provide lateral support, and the backrest should not "hang out."
Examine the steering wheel. Under his hands, it will naturally be more smooth - not a new machine because you buy.
Lighting devices and the left-hand paddle switch (it's more convenient to check with an assistant so that you do not climb repeatedly).
Wipers and right-hand stalk switch (pay special attention to the operation of all washers).
Glass lifts on all doors (especially electric).
Claxons (bibical).
All additional options - heated seats and mirrors, electric mirror adjustment, immobilizer, burglar alarm, heated rear (front) glass, climate control, etc.
Music. Work radio tape recorder (radio, tape recorder, CD). The work of all the speakers. The work of the antenna. Ask what code the radio has, otherwise the Mouzon will not work after removing the battery MUZON after the return of the terminal back. (There are wizards and no code. Ask the seller to remove the battery (negative) battery and put it back on again.
Stove, in all modes
Air conditioning, in all modes (at temperatures from -5 and below, the Conde will not turn on the street)
Fan, in all modes
Luke, in all modes.
Do not be lazy to look under the rugs of the cabin. Under them should be dry, otherwise something flows (seal or stove).
Examine the dashboard. Indicators, instruments, etc.
Check the work of the handbrake by raising it. It should move to 4-6 clicks. With the ignition on, the handbrake indicator should light up on the dashboard.
Check for the presence of a jack and a spanner. Some models have a screw-in towing eyebolt (in front and behind it is screwed (you have to turn it counter-clockwise)

Suspension, brakes, chassis.

In the steering there should be no noticeable backlash and knocking when the engine is running. When the engine is stopped, when the steering wheel turns sharply left and right, knocking takes place, as it should be. Rubber sleeves for the tips of the steering rods should be without gusts. To grasp rubber covers, to be convinced, that from them the grease is not squeezed out. Turn the steering wheel by a small angle, watching the movement of the left, then the right wheel. A small turn of the steering wheel should lead to the rotation of the wheels. The steering mechanism should work without knocking with the engine running (sharply shake the steering wheel from side to side).
Wheels. Hang the front wheels (you can even take turns using the jack), lock the steering wheel and try to move the wheel in two directions with effort, taking two wheels along the left and right sides of the wheel, and then the top and bottom. If there is a backlash, then in the first case - it's backlash in the steering, and in the second - the suspension elements (ball support, etc.).
The second option is verification. Hang out the front wheel, place the support under the lever (the lower part of the ball joint) with the stop (thus freeing the stand from the load), grip the wheel with your hands from above and below and shake in the vertical plane. Moving the wheel says that you need to change the bearing of the hub. Remove the stand from the stop, slip the mount under the wheel and, lifting the wheel up, observe the movement of the finger of the lower ball bearing. Moving the finger of the ball joint indicates that the hinge must be changed.
Turn the wheel, it should rotate without noise and freely.
Hang the rear wheels, unload the rear rack, placing the stop under the beam (lever, fist). Grasp the wheel at the top and bottom and shake it in a vertical plane. If the wheel is moving, you must either change the bearing of the hub.
Turn the wheel, it should rotate without noise and freely.
Examine the hinges of the hinges of the suspension, and on the front-drive, in addition, the hinges of the joints of the semi-axles. Shake them with your fingers and assess whether the covers are torn, if they have a lubricant, whether the leakage is not broken (when compressing from the holes, the lubricant will be squeezed out).
Inspect the discs for dents and cracks.
Inspect tires - if they are unevenly worn, then this may be evidence of a violation of the geometry of the suspension or body.
Look, there is no leak in the shock absorbers, whether the rubber bumpers and shock absorbers are shock absorbers.
The efficiency of the shock absorber is checked simply - it is necessary to press strongly on top of the wing and release. The car should rise, descend (already much less) and once again rise. All! If there are more swings, the shock absorber does not work. More accurate information on the condition of shock absorbers will be given only by checking on the shake table, although you can identify some defects later when you check the machine "on the go."
Carefully inspect the brake hose attachment points and the cylinders for leaks.
The thickness of the lining of the brake pads is not so important - you replace the pads. But if the overlays are different thickness (for this you have to if you want to remove the wheels), then this indicates that the guide rails are wedged or the cylinder is not working. The external brake pad of the disc brakes should be slightly thicker than the inner brake, because when braking, the inner wears a little more. In addition, the thickness of the brake discs should be not less than permissible. The MIN diameter figure is embossed on the disk. Look for and measure the thickness of the disc with a micrometer. A well-visible edge along the edges of the disk is formed after 100,000 km. mileage.

Turn the ignition on.

Check the operation of all indicators.
On modern cars often on the panel there are indicators of various diagnostic systems, and sellers sometimes either do not know, or intentionally misinform the buyer about the appointment of those or other lighting "lights." And after all it can be a signal that the lambda probe, a high-pressure gasoline pump or some other expensive "trick" is faulty. Therefore, before buying, you need to read the "primer".
Turn on ignition only, without starting the engine.
5 lights on the dashboard: a battery image (red), a brake image (red), a picture of an oiler (red), a picture of a person with a pillow in front of the pictogram with the inscription ABS (who has this system in the package). Other light bulbs may also light depending on the model. Again, the "primer" should be read.
On the dashboard, a lot of red lights come on and a warning lamp for the emergency oil pressure (the engine icon will normally light up when the oil pressure drops below 0.3 kg / cm2) must be illuminated, the battery absence lamp / battery icon /, manual brake lamp / pictogram in the form of a circle in front and behind which are arcs.
Start the engine. All red light bulbs must go out (except for the handbrake indicator if the handle is up, by the way, check it - release, retighten and see how the bulb reacts to your actions). Wait 15-20 seconds, stop the engine and immediately turn on the ignition (without starting the engine). If the engine is in normal condition, the emergency oil pressure lamp should not be on, as the oil system keeps high oil pressure and it slowly decreases due to oil leakage through the crankshaft bearing clearances. The smaller these gaps, i. E. less wear on the engine, the later the oil pressure warning lamp will light up again. With a good engine, the oil pressure reduction time is up to 5 seconds. If the bulb caught fire almost immediately, then the engine is worn out.
Check the presence of airbags for the indicator on the dashboard Airbag. On the instrument panel, this indicator sometimes has the inscription "Airbag" or an image of a person with a pillow in front. The indicator can be orange. When the ignition is switched on, the indicator lights up and then goes out after a few seconds. If the "Airbag" indicator does not come on when the ignition is switched on, or lights up, but does not extinguish, or goes out only when the starter and the engine are switched on - there are no airbags or a malfunction in the system. This indicates that the car was in an accident or sensors some give out information about their malfunction.

We start the engine.

Listen to the work of the starter. There should not be any grinding of a starter.
The engine should start immediately, whether it is cold or hot.
If the gasoline engine starts up badly, then it is not adjusted. If the engine starts to jerk in the first few minutes, and then it works normally, then probably all you need is a clean injector.
While it is not warm, open the expansion tank cap. If bubbles rise - the head gasket of the block is punched.
With the engine running, carefully open the oil filler cap. From there, no exhaust gases should escape. If they exit, the piston group and the crankcase ventilation system are faulty. After opening the cover, there should be no increase in the noise of the engine running. Cover the oil filler cap with a lid and observe its behavior. The lid should not be thrown away from the neck, but as if drawn to it. This indirectly says that the engine is normal.
After 3-4 minutes of engine operation, feel the upper nozzle of the radiator (if the engine was previously cold). It must be cold, because the thermostat is still closed. When the pointer of the sensor is set in the middle of the sector on the scale of the temperature indicator, the thermostat opens and the nozzles (upper and lower) become hot.
Inspect the running engine for oil leaks or antifreeze.
Listen to the engine. There should be no "metal" knocking (except for knocking hydraulic compensators on a very cold engine in the first minutes of its operation).
Engine speed should not "float".
If there is an automatic radiator fan, wait until it turns on and after a while it turns off. This convinces that the thermal control system is working.
Get behind the wheel and ponazhimat accelerator pedal (certainly not up to the floor). At the same time, listen carefully to extraneous sounds. During the set of revolutions, the engine should not vibrate, but with a decrease in speed it should work without interruption.
Estimate the efficiency of the stove, air conditioner (if the outside air temperature allows, Above +5).
Exit the car and check the smoke of the exhaust. At idle, smoke is almost not visible from the exhaust pipe (except winter), and when the accelerator pedal is pressed, the smoke should be pale. Bring to the exhaust pipe a piece of white cloth. After a while, remove the flap. On it there should not be black points - the ejection of oil from the exhaust pipe. Oil emissions indicate a malfunction of the crank mechanism. If the "smoke" (pressing and releasing the accelerator pedal) from the exhaust pipe is a bluish smoke - the oil valve caps are faulty, if at high engine speeds (press and hold the accelerator pedal) there is a gray smoke from the exhaust pipe - the piston rings are faulty. If black smoke comes from the exhaust pipe, the fuel supply system is faulty. Thick white smoke indicates the entry into the combustion chambers of antifreeze (cooling liquid).
Check the exhaust system. For this, at idling, simply plug the exhaust pipe (the sole of the shoe) with the rag - the engine must die out.
If the car is on an overpass, check whether the exhaust system is not miscalculating.
Check the temperature sensor for the engine.
Check the operation of the SUR pump. A working pump works with a slight buzz (in the extreme positions of the steering wheel), without grinding, squeaking and increasing effort.

Transmission.

With the engine running:
Press the clutch pedal several times. No noise or cracking should be.
Switch gears. They must be switched on without any additional effort, clearly, easily, without crunching and gnashing.
In move:
Equalize the pressure in the front wheels.
Find the right place for running tests.
Turn the steering wheel to the left to the point of failure and start off. If you hear a crunch, the shroud is defective. Do the same on the right side.
o Let's go straight.
Immediately check how the transmissions are switched - should be clear and easy. If a dropping sound is heard when the gas is released, wear of the gears. Scraping when switching - wear synchronizers. A noisy sound is the wear of the differential or reducer. Knocking when changing the load - wear the cross propshaft.
o Assess the adhesion. It should work effectively from low engine speeds. In addition, when the clutch is squeezed out, there should be no audible bearing. Good grip should be switched on 1/3 of the beginning of the pedal stroke. If it turns on almost at the top, the clutch is already worn out.
o Try driving on a straight, level area (for example, in the middle of the road) by letting go of the steering wheel. If the car leads to the side, then the geometry of the suspension (alignment-convergence) or the body is broken. If the car does not lead away, and the steering wheel stands with a small turn, then the steering shaft has turned on one tooth relative to the rack. This happens after a collision at high speed on obstacles (curbs, etc.).
o There must be no knocking or rattling on the side of the suspension. Their presence indicates the wear of rubber bushings of stabilizers, suspension hinges or bushings of shock absorbers.
o Malfunction of the shock absorbers leads to nosing when braking, settling backwards during acceleration. The machine hesitantly keeps the road, strongly heels and leaves the trajectory in the turn.
o Evaluate the rudder vibration. So you can "hear" the bent discs and other defects running.
Vibration of the steering wheel during braking testifies to the curvature of the brake discs.
o Crunch in the bends indicates the wear of the sails.
o Sharply braked on dry asphalt, go out and inspect the traces of braking (on the car with ABS should not be heard metal screech). They must be symmetrical, and during the braking process, the car should not be led to the side (if it leads to the side, the front or rear brake cylinders do not work opposite to the turn), and pulsating actions are felt on the pedal as if the leg is on a rotating gear. During an emergency braking, the conventional machine is not steerable, that is, when the steering wheel is turned, the direction of its movement does not change. Machines equipped with anti-lock braking systems ABS, in case of emergency braking, must not screech with rubber and must be controlled when the steering wheel rotates. When the brake is applied smoothly to the pedal, no jolts should be felt (on machines without ABS), and the interior of the brake should not be audible with brake pads, rattles and shocks.
o Set the machine to a slope and evaluate the efficiency of the "handbrake".
o For the automatic gearbox: turn the selector knob to the "D" position and release the parking brake. The car must move from place. Try to move upward in the foreground and reverse. The movement should start easily, immediately after pressing the accelerator pedal. If you need to untwist the engine to 1500 rpm or more to get moving, the machine is worn out and soon the machine will not go up at all.
The car should also not roll down on the descent when the selector knob is in the "R" position. Stop on level ground, turn on the "D" position, keep the left foot on the brake, and sharply dump the gas pedal on the right. If the engine immediately stall, then we can say that the machine is in good condition. If the engine does not stop immediately, in any case, do not wait for it to do so - immediately throw off the gas and turn on the "N" or "P", as with this test all worn out in the used auto parts of the machine mechanism wear out .
Work the gas pedal. There should not be any "failures".
Checking the effectiveness of the parking brake. Stay. Bring the lever "handbrake" into working position. Smoothly to move from the place. If the car remains standing, and the engine stalls, then the parking system is operational.

After the carried out check of the car, on the defects revealed by you start to talk with the owner.

If you do not want to check the car, you can trust the car service. But not at every car service you will be thoroughly diagnosed with the whole car. Of course you will need to stand in line. But it is necessary to negotiate with the owner, as well as agree who will pay for the diagnosis.

Even after the purchase, you can more thoroughly carry out the diagnosis of the car for yourself, to chart a plan for its development to the norm.

Successful purchase!

Buying a used car {GUIDE 2}

So, you have already decided for yourself what brand of car you want to buy. You are not confused by the prices for gasoline, the cost of parking or garage, the terrible condition of our roads, and you have enough money to fulfill your dream. At the same time, you did not forget that after buying a car, it is necessary to invest another $ 150-200 dollars for preventive maintenance. So how do you buy a car? And where?

1. Before you go to buy a car, prepare and take a small magnet wrapped in a rag, a small mirror, chalk, rags, to wipe your hands and lay under your knees, a two-sided screwdriver (cross and flat), a wire 1-2 mm in diameter and length 80 cm, wire diameter 3-4 mm and length about 40 cm (this can be a welding electrode without a coating) and a carbide key 10x12. Magnet wrap in a rag so that it is attached to the door of the home refrigerator, just did not fall off. The "device" prepared in this way will allow you to determine the thickness of the car's coating, i.e. putty or not; whether it was in an accident or not.

2. Before you is the task to determine whether the car was repainted in its entirety, in parts or not. If repainted, it means that he was either in an accident, or his body was very rusted. Both reduce the life of the car and, therefore, its price. The car should be clean, because with a dirty surface of the body it's hard to notice the color defects. Compare the surface of the roof, hood, trunk, doors and wings. Any stickers, stripes, and inscriptions are often applied to hide body defects. When inspecting the machine, slightly unscrew the rubber seals on the windows, trunk lid, doors and determine if there is a difference in the texture and shade of the paint outside and under the seal. Traces of paint should not be on any rubber and plastic parts of the body (sealing of windows, moldings, etc.). Open the hood and compare the paint in the engine compartment and on the wings. While the hood is open, carefully inspect the spars. If there was a blow and they were pulled out, there are still traces: the knocked paint and the "folds" on the surface of the metal. Each Japanese model has two or three places in which it begins to rust. Most often, it happens under rubber seals of windows, doors and trunk.

3. Check how all the doors close. They must be closed in the same way, with the same sound and with the same effort. If it is not so, then, most likely, the body is behaving. Remember that in a car with a normal body all the slots along the length should be the same width.

4. Pay attention to the wheels. The main thing is that the rubber should be worn evenly, and the discs do not have traces of impact. If the disk is cast, then after a blow it may form a crack, since almost all such disks are very fragile.

5. Now about the engine. As soon as you open the hood, immediately smell the air above the engine - there is absolutely no smell of gasoline. Podkapotnoe space and everything you see there, should be clean. The machine was being prepared for sale, it's inexpensive to blow the engine from dust. If this is not done, then there is a desire to hide something. For example, the engine with a leak of oil is difficult to wash at a time, as near the hats of bolts, washers, plastic claws always leave traces of former dirt, that is, oil leaks. Here dust and come in handy. Inspect all engine parts and assemblies in search of oil leaks. It can be a little noticeable spot (the engine "sweats"), but remember: on a fully serviceable engine, no oil leakage should be. If there is at least a slight leak, this speaks either of increased pressure in the crankcase of the engine due to the wear of the cylinder-piston group, or that the engine was overheated at the time, and the rubber seals or gaskets are "dead", i.e. lost their elastic properties. Remember that "a little bit" of oil on the surface of engines can only be in domestic cars, and even then not very new ones. Japanese cars "slightly" is not provided! Minor oil stains in the upper part of the engine from under the valve cover, the tumbler, the servomotor drive the dampers, etc. Less dangerous than streaks at the bottom of the engine, i.e. from the oil seal glands, the rear oil seal, from under the pallet, the oil sensor, the filter. Flows of oil at the bottom of the engine have the properties of suddenly turning into a leak of oil.

6. Try to see at least one nut or bolt with crushed faces or a "freelance" bolt (Russian). This will tell you that the engine "climbed", and then opened with locks keys. Since you are not familiar with the craftsman who undertook these actions, then you should expect that he could do something "not fasten". Therefore, this engine is a "cat in a bag". Inspect the crankcase connector to the unit, the valve cover connector to the cylinder head and the camshaft block to the block head, i. E. all connectors. If you see any gasket, rubber or cardboard, traces of white or black sealant, traces of paint or varnish - be aware that this is done in our country, and this means again - "a cat in a poke". The Japanese use only a gray-silver sealant, which is almost invisible.

7. Remove the dipstick from the engine. The oil should be at the top level, transparent to light and without the slightest admixture of small black impurities like coal powder. If the engine is diesel, the oil will be black. It's not scary, but a drop of such oil on the lumen should be slightly transparent. If it is not, then you need to change the oil.

8. Open the oil filler cap and inspect it. Inside there should be no black paste-like plaque (scratch the inner surface of the lid with a screwdriver or thick wire). The presence of a plaque indicates a violation in the lubrication of the engine: either an oil of an unmarked grade was poured in, or it did not change for a long time, or, more often than not, the engine overheated. Inspect the inside of the filler neck and the valve mechanism parts with a flashlight if you can see them. At a completely serviceable engine, everything that you see inside must be golden in color.

9. Pay attention to the traces, even a little noticeable, of the rust in the area of ​​the radiator filler neck. The presence of this rust indicates that in due time the engine was overheated. The presence of rust in the expansion tank indicates the same. Open the radiator cap and inspect it. All lid rubber seals should not have cracks. If you are inspecting a hot engine, the radiator cap must be turned off very gently, as the system is under pressure and you can burn your hands! Filled in the radiator TOSOL can be any color, as there are many varieties of it. It should not be opaque and opaque. If Tosol is muddy and dirty, then it must be replaced. On the surface of TOSOL there should be no oil stains and divorces. Their presence indicates a recent engine repair in Russia or engine malfunction.

10. Check the oil level in the power steering reservoir and in the gearbox. If you buy a car with an automatic transmission, it has a power steering pump. Both tanks must have the same "Dextron-II" oil (ATF). It should have one color (red-violet), be transparent and free of impurities, but, most importantly, it should smell the same. In automatic gearboxes, the oil wears out faster than in the power steering system, and gets a burnt odor. This smell (oil in this case is turbid) in the automatic transmission indicates a malfunction of the box: in it the discs are burned for some reason, and the service life of this unit is very limited. If the oil levels are at the required markings - the lower one for the cold engine, the upper one for the hot one - then insert the dipstick into place (on many automatic boxes the level is measured when the engine is idling) and continue inspection.

11. Inspect all rubber products on the engine. They should not be terraced. Pay special attention to high voltage wires, nozzles and belts for driving the generator, pumps, etc. Pay attention to the condition of the inner working surfaces of the belts. Cracks on them indicate that these belts are old and unreliable. For inspection use a flashlight and a mirror. If a lot of longitudinal scratches are visible on the high voltage wires, then most likely they were sandpapered to hide either the year of production (it is often applied on wires) or the old age of wires, which is characterized by the appearance of a multitude of transverse microcracks. Such wires are unreliable.

12. Spread a newspaper on the ground under the engine. Ask to start the engine. No gnashing of the starter is allowed. The engine should start immediately and abruptly ("explosion"), regardless of whether it is hot or cold. If the gasoline engine does not start for more than two seconds when the starter rotates, it is defective and unregulated.

13. If at start-up you do not understand something, then ask to muffle the engine and start again. With the engine running, carefully open the oil filler cap. Make sure that oil droplets jump out from inside and oil mist lies inside. If the exhaust gas is released at approximately 1000 rpm, then the overpressure and the piston group need repair in the crankcase. You can check the presence of excess pressure in the crankcase of the engine in a different way. When the engine is idling, remove the oil filler cap and gently place it on the opening of the oil filler neck. If the lid jumps at idle speed, the engine will soon require repair, and while it will have an increased oil consumption.

14. After starting the engine should immediately, in 2-3 seconds, itself raise the speed to 1500 rpm (engine warm-up speed). After this, while the engine warms up and itself reduces the speed to idle - 650-800 rpm, no shaking and jerking are allowed. As soon as the engine starts, open the radiator cap and see that air bubbles do not come out. If they appear - the engine must be diagnosed in the SRT. After 1-2 minutes of engine operation, when the temperature gauge blinker enters the motor operating temperature range on the scale, touch the upper radiator hose. It must be cold, because the thermostat is still closed. When the pointer of the temperature indicator is set in the middle of the sector, the thermostat opens and the nozzles (upper and lower) become hot. If the engine is warming for a long time and the radiator is warm all the time, the thermostat is defective or there is none at all, as is the case when the car is brought from Singapore.

15. Warm up the engine. If the car has a cooler cooling fan that can be switched off using the temperature sensor, wait for it to turn on and after a while it will turn off again. In doing so, you make sure that the thermal control system is working. In serviceable vehicles, the pointer of the temperature indicator is located in the middle of the working sector on the scale of the temperature indicator. Now sharply and completely push the gas pedal and immediately throw it (release) it. Do this again when the idle speed is again set. No knocking should be. When the gas pedal is depressed, the engine should start and sharply, without interruption, gain momentum. When the engine speed is reduced, no engine jerking is allowed. Now, very gently press the gas pedal and, when the engine spins to about 3000 rpm, release it sharply. No interruptions and jerking of the engine are allowed. When the idle speed is set (the number of idle turns is indicated on the label on the bonnet from below, for example for a mechanical box of 750 rpm and for an automatic one of 800 rpm), try turning on the engine of the passenger compartment heater and the brake by turning the car's control knob to the right "D" and sharply turn the steering wheel all the way to the stop to the right, then - to the left. The engine should not die out.

16. Check the smokiness of the exhaust gases. At idle, smoke from the exhaust pipe is almost invisible. When you press the gas pedal, the smoke becomes visible, but it should be a white-gray color. Black smoke means a malfunction of the fuel system; blue - oil entering the combustion chambers of the cylinders; dense white smoke - entering the combustion chambers of antifreeze or water. In frosty or damp weather, the color of the smoke is not a sufficiently correct indication of engine failure.

17. Get in the car and switch off the ignition when the engine is muffled. At the same time, a lot of red light bulbs on the dashboard and a warning lamp for the emergency oil pressure (it usually lights up when the oil pressure drops below 0.3 kg / cm2), a battery low indicator and a candle-light activation lamp (for a car with a diesel engine). The latter should go out after 1-6 seconds, depending on the temperature of the engine, and after 3 seconds a light click of the relay under the hood will be heard. This stepped down the voltage of the glow of the candles. Now start the engine. All red light bulbs must immediately go out, except for the door open warning light, if the door is open, and the parking brake warning light, if it is on. Wait 10-15 seconds, stop the engine and turn on the ignition again. Now, if the engine is good, the emergency oil pressure lamp should not burn, since the oil system keeps high oil pressure, and it slowly decreases due to oil leakage through the clearances of the crankshaft bearings. The smaller these gaps, i. E. less wear on the engine, the later the oil pressure warning lamp will light up again. With a good engine, the oil pressure reduction time is up to 5 seconds. If the bulb caught fire almost immediately, the engine is already worn out.

18. Start the engine. Now, if you have an automatic transmission ("automatic"), press the brake and turn on the various modes of the machine "R", "N", "D", "L2", "L1" alternately at different positions of the O / D button. No noise and no vibrations. Turn on all the gear in turn. Every time the shift lever is in neutral, release the clutch pedal for one to two seconds. No change in the noise background in the cabin should not be. The transmissions should be switched on smoothly, without jamming, with a slight chatter, they must also turn off. Now try to get moving. Again there should be no noises and noises. If you have a "mechanic", pay attention to the clutch pedal. It should have a free stroke of 2 to 25 mm, depending on the model of the car. If a cable is used in the clutch actuator, note the position of the pedal in which the car is moving. If it is touched when the pedal is at the top, then almost certainly the clutch will soon require repair - the replacement of frictional folds.

19. When checking the front-wheel-drive vehicle, it is necessary to approach the steep rise on a wide road, stop in front of it, sharply turn the wheels to the stop and sharply move. Then, if the turn was left, do the same with the right turn. If the drive is in normal condition, you will not hear any clicks. Otherwise, if there are 1-2 clicks when starting, the drives must be replaced.

20. Stop on the lift and check how the parking brake works. The effectiveness of the parking brake can be checked if it is turned on and smoothly moved from the seat. If the machine stays stationary and the engine stalls, the parking brake system is OK. If the engine does not stall, then the replacement of the friction clutch linings is required. If you have an automatic, switch it to the "D" position and release the parking brake. The car is still standing. Slightly press the pedal, it must move. Turn around and touch the back up. The movement should start easily, immediately after pressing the accelerator pedal. If you need to untwist the engine to 1500 rpm or more to start the lift on the rear or forward run, the machine is worn out and the machine will not go to the lift at all. The car should also not roll off when it is lowered forward when the "R" knob is in the handle position.

21. Stop on level ground, turn on the "D" position, press one foot on the brake, and the other sharply dump the gas pedal. If the engine immediately stall, you can argue that the machine in very good condition. If the engine does not stop immediately, in any case, do not wait for it to do it for a while, then immediately turn off the gas and turn on the "N" or "P", as this scrap wears out all the already worn parts of the machine mechanism in a used car.

22. Check the brakes: abruptly braked on dry asphalt exit and inspect the traces of braking. They should be symmetrical, and during braking the car should not lead to the side. During an emergency braking, the conventional machine is not steerable, that is, when the steering wheel is turned, the direction of its movement does not change. Machines equipped with anti-lock braking systems ABS, in case of emergency braking, must not screech with rubber and must be controlled when the steering wheel rotates. When the brake is applied smoothly, the pedals should not feel any jolts, and in the cabin there should be no audible noise of the brake pads, rattles and shocks.

23. Ask to show you all the pens in the car and tell about their purpose. Try the action of all buttons, knobs, and levers several times. Turn them first sharply and confidently and just turn off. Then try to do the same, but slowly and hesitantly. The result should be the same - a clear inclusion of all systems and mechanisms.

24. Turn on and tune the radio to a chat room, which has no transmitting station. Start the engine. Stop the engine. In the noise of the speakers, there should not be any changes.

25. When driving at a serviceable car, not one red or yellow light should burn. Look closely at the dashboard, if there is any placard in it, the bulb of which has not yet caught fire. Perhaps, the emergency light bulb was turned out, and any system is faulty, and this is not visible. However, there may be two bulbs that you can not turn on. One informs about the need to change the timing belt (gear), which lights up every 90000 km; the second - lights up every 40,000 km and informs about the need to replace the oxygen sensor.

26. Using your weight, swing both hands with each of the four corners of the car. The machine should not make a second roll if the shock absorbers are normal. There should be no knocking.

27. Look under the car. Pay attention to the oil marks on the gearbox, the rear axle and the bottom of the body in front of the units. When the oil flows from the stuffing boxes, it gets on the propeller shaft (drive), it is thrown around the circumference. Examine if there is a leak in the shock absorbers, whether the rubber shock absorbers are dustproof shock absorbers. Inspect the condition of all rubber covers (anthers), especially pay attention to the anthers of the wheel drive and steering. On them there should be no cracks from old age, and they should be whole. The rupture of the anthers of the actuators is easily noticed by the traces of the lubricant, which in this case is sprayed around the circumference. Outer anthers are destroyed much more often than internal ones. Measure the distance between the wing edge and the wheel protector, at least by eye. Look at other cars. So you can make a conclusion, springs springs and springs or not. Usually, when the springs are worn, rubber bumpers are destroyed. In fact, it's best to set the car on the pit and inspect it from the bottom. Immediately, you will see all the blows that the car has gone through, all leaks of oil and brake fluid, i.e. all condition of vehicle.

28. Shake the steering wheel. No knocking should be. If there are holes in the wheel rim, then try to inspect the brake disc. It should be absolutely smooth and shiny, it should not be scuffed and radial waviness. If the disc is not smooth, then, most likely, it is pretty worn about the brake pads at a time when it did not have a brake lining that was not changed in time.