Pedestrian visibility zone or traffic on a car in conditions of poor visibility
In the SDA of Ukraine, in paragraph 4.4. said : in the dark and in conditions of poor visibility pedestrians moving along the roadway or roadside should isolate themselves, and if possible, have retro-reflective elements on outer clothing, for their timely identification by other road users (No. 886 of 01.10.2008) .
This information will be useful not only for drivers. It should be known to pedestrians who, wearing black trousers, are surprised that drivers do not notice them. Add to this winter, slippery roads and not always the availability of roadside lighting.
Driving at night and in conditions of poor visibility
The observation of the road and the interaction of the participants in the traffic are greatly complicated in conditions of insufficient visibility and in the dark time of the day. The rules give clear definitions of these concepts. Driving a vehicle becomes dangerous if the road is less than 300 m, which is possible with fog, rain, snow. The conditions of insufficient visibility are typical for the transition period from light to dark and on the contrary, that is, in twilight.
With the onset of darkness, the visibility of the road and the objects located on it deteriorates. The headlights of the car illuminate only a limited section of the road, and objects appear in the lighted zone suddenly, to identify them it takes more time than the day. The reaction time of the driver at night increases by an average of 5 times.
Characteristics of driving conditions at night
In the dark time and in conditions of insufficient visibility it is almost impossible to color the objects. They differ not in color, but in brightness, and the brightness of road objects (vehicles, pedestrians) and their contractuality with respect to the road are greatly reduced. The distance at which vehicles are detected at night is reduced by almost half compared to light time, but the driver seems to be at a greater distance. Generally in the evening twilight and at dawn many drivers have a so-called optical illusion. Contours of objects blur, cars of non-white and non-bright yellow colors merge with the background and the covering of the road. In the light of the headlights, objects and road irregularities are distorted.
Sharp and frequent changes in the illumination and brightness of objects require continuous adaptation of the eyes, as a result of which the driver's eyes quickly become tired.
The greatest danger occurs when the driver is blinded by the light of the headlights: visibility deteriorates sharply, and often completely disappears. If the driver fails to comply with the Regulations ("without changing the lane, reduce the speed and stop") when dazzling, during the dark adaptation time the car will turn out to be uncontrollable, and even at a low speed (30-40 km / h) the car passes 100 m and more. In these conditions, the driver can not only not see the danger or obstacle, but also not be able to withstand the trajectory of the car. As a rule, he follows only that the steering wheel does not change position. However, the car is able to change the trajectory without the participation of the driver and go beyond the road. Most of all, the tired driver is dazzled.
Statistics show that in the dark, almost half of all accidents with the most severe consequences occur. The accident rate increases, in part, due to the weakening of traffic control. Reducing traffic intensity gives many drivers the confidence that they can move at a higher speed and maneuver more freely than during the day, and the weakening of control creates a sense of impunity.
The main methods of driving at night
To work on a car at night you need to carefully prepare. Elimination of technical malfunction on the road in the dark time of the day requires a lot of time; It is difficult to detect and eliminate the cause of the malfunction, especially such as a leak of oil or coolant. Therefore, when checking the technical condition of the car should be very careful. Inaccurate laying of tools, rags, appliances can also be a hindrance in the way. If these items are scattered, then in the dark, and perhaps in the cold or in the rain, the driver will spend a lot of time searching for the desired object.
Particular attention should be paid to cleaning, checking the completeness and serviceability of lighting equipment, windshield wipers and windshield washers. Many drivers ignore the need to adjust headlights - an arrangement that ensures the correct distribution of light on the road and reduces the likelihood of dazzle. It is necessary to check and adjust the headlights at least once a year.
The speed of movement in the dark at almost all times should be less than the speed in the daytime. It must be installed such that the stopping distance of the car is less than the distance of visibility. If this rule is not respected, then hitting an obstacle in the zone of visibility or collision with it is much more difficult to prevent.
Getting closer to the oncoming car, the driver should quickly determine whether he is moving or standing still. You can verify this by using the shadow cast by the front of the car, or by reflecting the headlights on the wet road surface. Switching the headlights to the low beam is necessary in the case when the driver feels uncomfortable or switched the light of the driver of the oncoming car. After switching, set the speed according to the reduced visibility distance and observe the right edge of the carriageway. Periodically, you need to view your band, but avoid the delay in looking at the headlights of the oncoming car. This will save the best visual sensation and help to replace an obstacle that will be on the lane or appear to the right of it.
If the driver of the oncoming vehicle does not switch off the main beam, it must be prevented by switching again. In the event that he continues to violate the Rules or if after a switch the state of inconvenience does not disappear, you should slow down, take a cautious take on the right and stop on your lane. It is also advisable to proceed with the oncoming traffic of a column of cars with headlights on.
It must be particularly cautious if the oncoming vehicle should be with the light off or with one headlight on. It is not excluded that a car with faulty headlights (both or one) is moving towards.
On the roads in rural areas, there may be a counter-movement of agricultural self-propelled machines, the dimensions of which exceed the width of the lane. In such situations, as in cases with a faulty left headlight, the danger is quite real, since the left side of the oncoming vehicle is invisible and a collision is possible. To prevent it, it is necessary to increase the interval to one-and-a-half times the width of the truck or, after taking a right, to stop.
At night, it is very difficult to estimate the distance to the oncoming car or its speed. Therefore, if there are any signs of a counter car from the intention to overtake should be discarded. Approaching the overtaken car, you need to change the main beam to the passing beam at least 150m away from it. At the same time, the road is clearly visible thanks to the light of the headlights of the overtaken car. The main beam can be turned on before the end of the overtaking, and the driver of the overtaken vehicle should turn on the dipped beam before completing the overtaking.
Turns of the road at night look different than during the day. It is difficult to assess their curvature, and therefore, to choose a safe speed. When turning, the outer lane is better illuminated. In the event that the car is equipped with fog or wide-angle headlights, they should be turned on before starting the turn.
When the driver sees on the dark road a beam of light falling across it, it means that he is approaching the intersection to which another car is approaching. It is necessary to establish a speed that will allow the driver to take the necessary safety measures. Approaching the unlit intersection, it is necessary to warn the participants of the traffic, located on the crossed road, several inclusions and lights off. When driving on unlighted roads, a major danger is a vehicle stopped on or near the carriageway. Therefore, even for a short-term stop, you should try to drive out of the road.
When driving on wet or dirty roads, it is necessary to stop and wipe the windscreen, headlights, direction indicator lamps and brake light from time to time. In addition, for a good cleaning of the windshield, you must constantly monitor the condition of the windshield washer and wiper blades. If the car is moving along a broken road, it is recommended to use the low beam headlights, which at a reduced speed better illuminates the road directly in front of the car.
The typical mistakes of inexperienced drivers when driving on unfamiliar roads is the loss of orientation and arrivals to the forest belt or to the right side of the road. It is more convenient and easier to navigate along lines of longitudinal marking, bright fences along the edges of the road, reflectors on the fencing posts, and also on green plantations located in the zone of headlights. At the same time, it must be remembered that the fencing posts or light reflectors, as a rule, warn that there is a danger in this place - a turn, a mound, a bridge, etc. By the nature of the headlights of the oncoming cars, the driver can determine the road profile. The periodic appearance and disappearance of light indicates a cross-sectional profile. If the light seen does not disappear, the road ahead is even.
Given the intense fatigue of the driver when working in the dark, it is desirable that its duration does not exceed 6 hours. To restore efficiency, it is necessary to take breaks for 5-8 minutes: the first - after 2-3 hours of traffic, and the next - after 1-1.5 hours, and rest should be active. It is also desirable that after 4-5 hours of movement the break should be prolonged, with the reception of hot food. After a night voyage, as well as in front of him, the driver needs a good rest.
Characteristic of movement in conditions of insufficient visibility
Significantly deteriorating the conditions of visibility during snow, heavy rain and especially in the fog. The mist closes the landmarks, changing the color of the rays of all colors, except red. So, yellow light in the fog becomes reddish, and green-yellowish. The veil of fog can be so thick that even with the lights on, you can not distinguish anything at a distance of 3-5 m.
In dark time and under conditions of poor visibility, the driver is in a state of heightened emotional stress most of the time, so he is much more tired than in the daytime.
Rules of behavior on the road, for pedestrians
Do not speed up the step and do not run along with the child to stop the desired route transport. Explain this to your child!