According to statistics, 90% of mirror drivers are adjusted incorrectly.
Rear-view mirror - a mirror mounted on the vehicle and allowing the driver to see what is happening behind. On cars and motorcycles, the presence of rear-view mirrors is required. On modern cars, three rear-view mirrors are usually installed: one in the cabin above the windshield, and two on the outside on the front doors on the left and on the right.
If you, looking in the side mirror, see the rear wing of your car, this means that the mirrors are configured incorrectly. Rear-view mirrors are designed to provide an overview of the road behind and on the side of the vehicle. They are one of the main parts of the car, responsible for safety. Correctly adjust the rearview mirror is very important, because driving safety depends to a large extent on this. Customized mirrors provide maximum all-round visibility for the driver.
If you look in the side mirror and see the rear fender of your car, it means that the mirror is set up incorrectly. With this arrangement, the mirror most of the area behind the car can be seen in the side mirrors, and in the rearview mirror. At the same time, the area next to the car is seen very badly and there is a danger of an emergency.
Adjustment of the left side mirror
Lean to the left so as to practically touch the side window. Adjust the mirror so that you can see the rear wing of the car (as shown in the picture). When you get used to the usual chair, in the mirror you almost do not see the side wing of your car.
Adjusting the right side mirror
Turn to the right so that your head is in the center of the car. In the mirror, you should also see the rear wing of the car (see picture).
Adjustable rearview mirror
The center of the rearview mirror should be in the center line of the rear window.
Having swept with the mirrors rebuilt in this way, you will notice that the “blind” zones have become much smaller. You see the car in the rearview mirror, and if it starts to overtake you, then you still see part of it in the rear mirror, and part of it is already in the side mirror. Because of this, it is easier for you to rebuild out of the line, and the risk of an emergency situation is significantly reduced.
Some useful tips:
- the first time you will be very unusual to drive with mirrors, rebuilt in this way. But wait a week and you will get used to it so much that you will not understand how you used to go otherwise.
- Be careful when parallel parking. With such a mirror tune-up, you need to twist your head more and deviate to see both the side of your car and the car nearby.
- Constantly look into the mirrors, and not just at the moment when you want to restructure. Such a manner will allow you to constantly be aware of the situation on the road and to make abrupt unforeseen maneuvers correctly (for example, when you drive around a hole).
Some important warnings:
- Do not adjust the mirrors while driving.
- Even in properly rebuilt mirrors there are blind spots. And sometimes it is better to take a quick look over the shoulder when maneuvering, so as not to knock down, for example, a cyclist or a motorcyclist. Looking over your shoulder gives you the necessary information that you will never get, even looking at properly rebuilt mirrors.
Rear-view mirrors of cars
The minimum field of view through the rear-view mirrors:
a - an overview through the interior mirror, b - an overview through the exterior mirrors;
1- driver's eyes, 2- minimum viewing area through the interior mirror, 3- minimum viewing area through the right mirror, 4- minimum viewing area through the left mirror.
- through them should be viewed schematically depicted sections of a flat horizontal road up to the horizon line;
- the design of the mirror should provide a clear reflection when the vehicle vibrates on road irregularities;
- no distortion of the shape and color of objects that could mislead the driver.
Mirrors should provide injury prevention:
- sharp edges on the body and bracket are excluded;
- exterior mirrors in the working position cannot stand for the maximum dimensions of a car or a trailer towed by it for more than 200 mm, and their bodies should be folded, for example, if a moving car is touched by a pedestrian's mirror;
- the interior mirror is fixed in such a way that in case of a driver’s or driver’s head’s hitting it doesn’t cause them harm, but collapses or breaks off at the base of the bracket;
- when breaking a mirror, the formation of fragments that can injure a person is excluded.
Most car mirrors, both internal and external, consist of:
- optical element
- housing bracket
- adjustment mechanism.
Optical element with optical reflective layer: 1- plane-parallel glass, 2- sprayed reflective layer, 3- protective lacquer.
The optical element - a mirror detail that reflects light and forms a reflected image, exists:
- flat (flat gives the minimum viewing angle, but does not distort the distance to objects)
- spherical (spherical provides a greater angle, reducing the "dead zones", but somewhat distorts (visually increases) the distance and the shape of objects. The minimum allowable radius of curvature (greatest bulge) of passenger car mirrors is 1200 mm. The right outside mirror is able to provide the required visibility only if is spherical)
- spherical (multisection) optical elements (spherical combines two or more reflective surfaces. The main one is flat or spherical with small curvature. Auxiliary (one or more) are spherical with greater curvature or cylindrical)
Spherix mirrors: a - a mirror with flat and cylindrical surfaces, b - a mirror with three spherical surfaces of different curvature. 1- profiles of reflective surfaces.
The adjustment of the most internal and simplest external mirrors, in which the optical element is stationary relative to the body, is carried out by their rotation on a single hinge. More sophisticated exterior mirror designs allow the optical element to rotate relative to the body using a hinge system. Most mirrors of this type are equipped with a remote adjustment drive. The drive can be lever, wire or electric. In the first two cases, the control body is located inside the passenger compartment at the place where the mirror is attached to the door or at another convenient place on the door trim. The electric drive of the external mirror has two electric motors located in its housing, turning the optical element in the vertical and horizontal planes. The drive is controlled by a switch ("right - left mirror") and a key that activates the electric motors. As a rule, the switch and key are combined in one block, located on the door, dashboard or center console.
Such different mirrors
It all began, of course, with a woman. Well, who else could suggest using a mirror in a car? Back in 1906, a book by Dorothy Levitt entitled Woman and a Car was published, containing many useful tips for ladies who mastered this new outlandish vehicle. Among them was the advice to keep a mirror with a handle for the rear view while driving. The idea did not catch on immediately: in those days, street traffic was not too tense, so there was no particular need for ordinary drivers to look back and not yet have sides. Another thing race - here the advice of Mrs. Levitt came in very handy. In 1911, racer Ray Harron, unable to find a suitable mechanic (whose duties at that time included escorting the rider on the road and navigating functions during the competition), adapted the mirror to his Marmon car, which allowed him to win the top prize of the Indianapolis 500 races .
After that, the automotive industry engineers also realized that just a year after Harron's triumph, Elmer Berger patented the design of the first rear-view mirror, which was used on production cars. Since then, mirrors have become a constant attribute not only of cars, but also of motorcycles, mopeds and even bicycles.
In our time, cars usually have three mirrors - two side and one salon. However, this was not always the case. Previously, drivers were content only salon mirror. In the 50s, cars began to be equipped with a side left and a little later with a side right mirror.
The side mirror further away from the driver is sometimes slightly convex, which makes it possible to increase the viewing angle. For this, however, you have to pay the distortion of distances to objects that are reflected in the mirror. In addition, the side mirror may additionally have a round convex insert, which further increases the visibility. The cabin also sometimes install a convex, so-called panoramic mirror, which gives a wide-angle rear “picture”, also distorted, however, which can adversely affect traffic safety.
In addition to the three main mirrors, cars can be equipped with auxiliary mirrors - external rear, side for monitoring the right envelope. Most often this applies to trucks, vans and minivans. These mirrors are designed to help with maneuvering, reversing and parking.
In the 50s in America found a new place for rear-view mirrors - the front fenders of the car. True, this design has not taken root in the global automotive industry.
Side mirrors in most cases are installed on the front doors of the car, but many motorists remember another way of installing mirrors - on the front wings. This scheme was born in the 50s in the United States, but lasted relatively long - the adjustment of the mirrors was very inconvenient, and the car did not add to the aesthetics. There were also advantages: the absence of so-called “dead zones” and the presence of a mirror in the same field of view as the road.
The longest to this scheme remained faithful in Japan - the models of the 80-90s with mirrors located on the wings still drive on our roads.
Modern exterior mirrors are high-tech products, equipped with various electronic systems. Heated and electrically adjustable mirrors are not many people surprised. Now mirrors can be independently adjusted for a specific driver (memory function), and automatically darkened to prevent the driver from blinding, and warn about the presence of another car in the “dead zone” when changing lanes.
Despite the fact that in modern models to get information about what is happening behind the car, they begin to use video cameras, the traditional mirror will be the most reliable and reliable means of rear view for a long time. Still, the person still trusts his eyes more than the most advanced electronics.
How and what adjust the mirrors in the car
The main task of adjusting the rear-view mirrors is to obtain the most complete and convenient for the perception of the image, as well as minimizing the "dead zones". A “dead” or “blind” zone is a stretch of road near a car that is not visible through mirrors. Adjustment of the side mirrors used to be done either manually outside the car (now such an anachronism as the articulated mechanism for adjusting mirrors remained, perhaps, only in the utilitarian Land Rover Defender), or by using levers from inside the cabin.
On modern cars, a joystick is usually used, which allows you to conveniently control mirrors with the help of an electric drive. The most advanced adjustment systems adapt the position of the mirror depending on the driving mode (for example, when reversing).