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Everything you wanted to know about tires. Marking, types, seasonality

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Tires are the main link between the car and the road. From how correctly they are selected and installed, very much controllability of the vehicle.

Types of tires

Almost all modern passenger tires are tubeless (there is no camera inside) and with a radial carcass design.

In the radial tire, the threads in the framework structure are arranged parallel to each other, that is, they do not intersect as in a diagonal design.

The tire tread can be: with directional, non-directional and with an asymmetrical pattern .

Directed drawing

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The directional tread pattern allows you to quickly drain water from the contact patch of the tire with the road and significantly reduces the risk of the wheel floating above water (aquaplaning).

On tires with a directional pattern, there is always an arrow in the shape of an arrow with an inscription Rotation, which indicates the correct direction of rotation of the wheel. Such wheels can not be rearranged on the right side of the machine to the left without removing the tire from the disk. If the tire is installed incorrectly, the car will “float” in the rain even at low speed.

Undirected pattern

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Non-directional tread design does not require any specific installation, as it is the most versatile. Such tires are the most affordable and due to their versatility are often installed on the factory conveyor.

Asymmetric tires

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Asymmetric tires consist of two parts with different patterns, that is, the right part is “rain”, the left part is “dry”. In such tires, the sidewall of the inner and outer side has different stiffness. Since the outer side has a large load (especially in turns), different stiffness allows an asymmetric tire to hold onto the road better.

On asymmetric tires, there is always an Outside and Inside (or Side Facing Out and Side Facing Inwards) marking, which indicates the inside and outside of the tire. After proper installation, only Outside or Side Facing Out should be visible. Asymmetric tires can be with both directional and non-directional tread pattern.

Low profile tires

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Low profile tires are very popular among drivers who prefer a dynamic driving style. The ratio of profile height to width (series) on such a tire does not exceed 55% (195/55, 205/50, 225/45, etc.)

Low-profile tires improve vehicle handling due to greater traction. Allow to reduce braking distance and improve acceleration. But at the same time they have increased noise and rigidity and are more prone to aquaplaning.

In addition, these tires "love" only a flat road, as when driving over bumps significantly increase the risk of damage to the disc. High curbs and off-road tires with such tires should be avoided.

Punctured tires

Every year in the world the number of cars that are equipped with tires with Run Flat technology (Run on Flat) is increasing. Technology Run Flat allows you to drive on a punctured tire 100-150 km. at speeds up to 80 km / h. In such tires, a reinforced sidewall is used, which prevents it from deforming even with a complete loss of pressure.

The most active is promoting the new technology of BMW, which serially equips most of its models with this type of rubber, including models under the MINI brand.

Offroad tires

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Fans of frequent attacks on serious off-road usually use off-road type tires. Off-road tires have a very high rubber profile and a deep, sparse tread pattern. This allows the tire to better bite into the off-road and climb the slopes.

But such tires are poorly adapted to travel at high speed on a flat road, as the deep tread holds the road poorly and is quickly erased. In addition, the braking distance of the car is greatly increased.

Seasonal tires

One of the main differences of tires is their seasonality.

By seasonality, tires are divided into: summer, winter and all-season. We do not wear sandals in winter and boots in summer, and our cars should not ride on summer tires in winter and vice versa. We must remember that in winter, the car is shod, even in cheap winter tires, it will be better to ride than on the most expensive summer wheels.

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The main task of the summer tire is to ensure maximum tire grip, and therefore traffic safety. Summer tires have a high speed index and good wear resistance. But when the air temperature is below +7, any summer tire begins to freeze (tan) and loses its grip properties. This leads to a significant increase in stopping distance and poor handling. And here winter tires come to the rescue.

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The composition of winter tires is softer and the tire does not "dubeet" in cold weather. The tread of the winter tire to the touch will be much softer than the summer. The main difference between winter tires is a large number of slats - narrow slots in the tread pattern. Thanks to the lamellas, the wheel has good contact with the road even on snow and ice. But on dry pavement and when the air temperature is above +9, winter tires start to wear out very quickly. With the advent of spring, you should not delay with pereobuvanie on summer tires.

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In addition, there are also studded winter tires, which are designed for harsh winters. But you need to use such tires only in really difficult conditions. Spikes are banned in many European countries, as they damage road surface. Moreover, modern expensive winter tires do a good job with snow, even without spikes. In Ukraine, it makes sense to put studded tires only if you travel to snow-covered regions with unpolluted roads, such as the Carpathians.

On especially difficult snowy areas, snow chains can come to the rescue of winter tires, which you need to have with you when traveling in the same Carpathians. Snow chains are put on the wheels only to overcome with a low speed (up to 40 km / h) heavy road section.

All-season tires are a compromise solution for countries with very mild winter conditions. Roughly speaking, such a tire has one tread half winter and the other one summer. They are inferior in quality to both summer and winter tires.


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P195 / 55 R15 84 H - tire size
P - tire category for passenger cars.
195 - tire width in mm.
55 - tire series (the ratio of the height of the profile to its width, expressed as a percentage).
R - radial tire design (and not the radius of the wheel!).
15 - tire diameter (disc diameter).
84 - Tire load index - a symbol that corresponds to a certain maximum load in kg. See tab. :

60 ....... 250
74 ....... 375
88 ........ 560
102 ........ 850
116 ....... 1250
61 ....... 257
75 ....... 387
89 ........ 580
103 ........ 875
117 ....... 1285
62 ....... 265
76 ....... 400
90 ........ 600
104 ........ 900
118 ....... 1320
63 ....... 272
77 ....... 412
91 ........ 61
105 ........ 925
119 ....... 1360
64 ....... 280
78 ....... 425
92 ........ 630
106 ........ 950
120 ....... 1400
65 ....... 290
79 ....... 437
93 ........ 650
107 ........ 975
121 ....... 1450
66 ....... 300
80 ....... 450
94 ........ 670
108 ....... 1000
123 ....... 1500
67 ....... 307
81 ....... 462
95 ........ 690
109 ....... 1030
124 ....... 1550
68 ....... 315
82 ....... 475
96 ........ 710
110 ....... 1060
125 ....... 1600
69 ....... 325
83 ....... 487
97 ........ 730
111 ....... 1090
126 ....... 1650
70 ....... 335
84 ....... 500
98 ........ 750
112 ....... 1120
127 ....... 1700
71 ....... 345
85 ....... 515
99 ........ 775
113 ....... 1150
128 ....... 1750
72 ....... 355
86 ....... 530
100 ....... 800
114 ....... 1180
129 ....... 1800
73 ....... 365
87 ....... 545
101 ....... 825
115 ....... 1215
130 ....... 1850

H - Maximum Speed ​​Index is a symbol that corresponds to a specific maximum speed. See tab. :

N ... 140
U ... 200
P ... 150
H ... 210
Q ... 160
V ... 240
R ... 170
W ... 270
S ... 180
Y ... 300
T ... 190
ZR ... more than 240

Tire model - Pilot, Potenza.
The trademark is Toyo, Dunlop.
Enterprise trademark
Name of the country of manufacturer
Date of manufacture - four digits in the oval, the first two digits of the week of manufacture, the next two years of manufacture (1808 = April 2008).

Symbols on tires

MAX PRESSURE (internal pressure index) - the maximum allowable pressure in the tire, in kPa.
MAX LOAD (maximum load) - values ​​in kg.
REINFORCED - the strengthened tire or the tire with the increased bearing ability.
TUBE TIRE - Chamber Tire.
TUBELESS - tubeless tire.
REGROOVABLE - the possibility of deepening the tread pattern by cutting.
ALL STEEL - for tires with metal cord breaker and carcass.
RADIAL is a radial tire.

E is the official approval mark of the UNECE Regulations.
TWI, DSI or other symbol for the location of wear indicators.
M & S (Mud + Snow - dirt plus snow) - winter or all-season tires.
All Season is an all-season tire designed for year-round use.
Rotation is a directional tire, the direction of rotation of which is indicated by an additional arrow (do not confuse this arrow with the logo on Dunlop tires).
Outside and Inside (or Side Facing Out and Side Facing Inwards) - asymmetrical tires, when installed, you must strictly observe the rule of installing tires on a disk.
Left or Right - means that the tires of this model are left and right. When installing them, you must strictly observe the rule of installing tires on the car, the left - on the left, the right - on the right.
RAIN, WATER, AQUA (or the “umbrella” symbol) - means that these tires are specially designed for rainy weather and have a high degree of protection against aquaplaning.
E (in a circle) - the tire meets the European requirements of the ECE (Economic Commission for Europe)
DOT - Compliance with US safety standards.

Temperature A, B, C is the tire's heat resistance at high speed at the stand. (A is the best indicator).
Traction A, B, C is the tire's ability to brake on a wet roadway (A is the best indicator).
Treadwear - wear resistance coefficient (coefficient 100 is approximately equal to 48 thousand km. Mileage)

Tire operation and storage

Be sure to observe the necessary internal pressure in the tire and check it every two weeks. The pressure must coincide with the norm specified in the instruction manual of your car, this norm is often duplicated on the inside cover of the fuel tank flap. It is necessary to check the pressure only in the “cold” tire, that is, before the trip, and not after it.

In addition, check the appearance of the tire, on the side of the tire should not be cuts, blisters (hernias), cracks. Watch out for tread wear, its depth according to traffic regulations should be at least 1.6 mm. But it is desirable to change tires when reaching a depth of 2 mm., And winter tires should be changed already at 4 mm.

Each has a wear indicator, which is a jumper between the grooves of the tread or numbers showing the remaining depth in mm. The place where this indicator is located is shown by the symbols “TWI”, “DSI”. At Michelin, the indicator is indicated by a company logo (Bibendum) or a snowflake (on winter tires).

Keep the tires in a cool (from +10 to + 25C), dry and darkened room. Next to them should not be gasoline or any chemicals. After dismantling the tires, do not forget to write on the wheels the place of their installation (front right, rear left), in order to return each wheel to its place.

Tires without discs should only be stored in an upright position; they should not be stacked or hung. In addition, about once a month, the tires need to be rotated slightly so that the load point is not constantly in one place.

Tires on disks should be stored in a suspended or horizontal (recumbent) position, that is, they can not be put upright.

The most ideal way to store tires is to hand them over to companies that offer seasonal wheel storage. There, the tires will be in a specially equipped room and stored according to the rules. It is convenient and practical.

Stopping distance of different tires

тормозной путь

No easy choice

Tire technology does not stand still. Even some 10 years ago, it would have been difficult to imagine that even with a fully punched tire, you can safely continue driving without slowing down. Or, that on winter non-studded tires, you can confidently move on snow or ice.

A tire is a difficult piece of rubber wound onto a disc. This is a high-tech product, the quality of which may depend on your life.

Carefully choose new tires for your "iron" horse, the benefit today really is something to choose from. Be sure to follow the rules of installation and operation of tires, do not neglect their seasonal change, and your wheels will hold on to the road with all their might.