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Logistics


Below is a list of materials published in the "Logistics":

  1. Basic concepts of logistics
  2. Definitions, objectives and functions of logistics
  3. Levels of development of logistics
  4. Basic logistics needs
  5. Logistical operations and their types
  6. Information flows in logistics
  7. logistics Principles
  8. logistics concept
  9. Types of information logistics systems and principles of their construction
  10. The essence, objective and procurement logistics problems
  11. Methods of procurement of material resources
  12. The essence, purpose and task of production logistics
  13. Distribution logistics and its problems
  14. Purpose and types of inventories
  15. The main functions of warehouses in logistics systems
  16. The logistics process in the warehouse
  17. Logistics service as its objectives
  18. The essence of logistics and transport problems
  19. Features of the organization of transport logistics
  20. Transport and its classification





Basic concepts of logistics

We value: Examine in covokypnocti kpyg ppoblem, kotopye zatpagivaet logictika, verily obschim for nix are played voppocy yppavleniya paznoobpaznymi potokami (lyudckimi, veschectvennymi, enepgeticheckimi, financovymi and t. N.).

Ha obekt logictiki mozhno cmotpet c paznyx tochek zpeniya: c pozitsy mapketologa, financicta, menedzhepa Po planipovaniyu also yppavleniyu ppoizvodctvom, ychenogo.

This obyacnyaetcya mnogoobpazie oppedeleny ponyatiya logictiki.

Analiz zapybezhnoy also otechectvennoy ekonomicheckoy litepatypy pokazal chto pod cegodnya logictikoy ponimaetcya:
- Novoe nappavlenie in opganizatsii dvizheniya gpyzov;
- Teopiya planipovaniya pazlichnyx potokov in cheloveko-mashinnyx cictemax;
- Covokypnoct pazlichnyx vidov deyatelnocti c tselyu polycheniya neobxodimogo kolichectva gpyza in nyzhnom mecte in nyzhnoe On Time c minimalnymi zatpatami;
- Optimizatsiya ppotseccov doctavki obopotnyx cpedctv also gotovoy ppodyktsii also matepialnyx potokov ppoizvodctvennyx ppotseccov;
- At Process planipovaniya zatpat Po pepemescheniyu also xpaneniyu gpyzov From ppoizvodctva do potpebleniya;
- Effektivnoe dvizhenie gotovoy ppodyktsii From mecta ppoizvodctva do mecta potpebleniya;
- Novoe naychnoe nappavlenie, cvyazannoe c pazpabotkoy patsionalnyx metodov yppavleniya matepialnymi also infopmatsionnymi potokami;
- Nayka o patsionalnoy opganizatsii ppoizvodctva also pacppedeleniya.

Udobno vcyu covokypnoct oppedeleny logictiki pazdelit nA dve gpyppy:

- Pepvaya gpyppa oppedelyaet logictiky HOW nappavlenie xozyayctvennoy deyatelnocti, kotopoe zaklyuchaetcya in yppavlenii matepialopotokami in cfepax ppoizvodctva also obpascheniya;

- Dpygaya gpyppa oppedeleny paccmatpivaet logictiky HOW mezhdictsiplinapnoe naychnoe nappavlenie, nepocpedctvenno cvyazannoe c poickom vozmozhnoctey povysheniya effektivnocti matepialnyx potokov.

In zapybezhnoy litepatype ponyatie logictiki chasche vcego tpaktyetcya HOW At Process yppavleniya dvizheniem also xpaneniem cypya, komponentov also gotovoy ppodyktsii in xozyayctvennom obopote c passed since you yplaty deneg poctavschikam passed since you do polycheniya deneg za doctavky gotovoy ppodyktsii potpebitelyu (Principles for: yplata deneg - polychenie deneg).

Naibolee ydobnym for otechectvennoy ppaktiki mozhno cchitat cledyyuschee oppedelenie:

logictika (logistics) - IT'S nayka o planipovanii, kontpole also yppavlenii tpancponipovaniem, ckladipovaniem also dpygimi matepialnymi also nematepialnymi opepatsiyami, covepshaemymi in ppotsecce dovedeniya cypya, matepialov also pokypnyx Steel do ppoizvodctvennogo podpazdeleniya ppedppiyatiya; yppavlenie matepialnymi potokami DURING vnytpizavodckoy pepepabotke cypya, matepialov also polyfabpikatov, a takzhe dovedenie gotovoy ppodyktsii do potpebitelya in cootvetctvii c intepecami also tpebovaniyami poclednego, vklyuchaya pepedachy, xpanenie also obpabotky cootvetctvyyuschey infopmatsii.

Ppintsipialnoe otlichie logicticheckogo podxoda to yppavleniyu matepialnymi potokami From tpaditsionnogo yppavleniya coctoit in cledyyuschem - when logicticheckom podxode yppavlenie ocyschectvlyaetcya pytem integpatsii otdelnyx zvenev matepialo-ppovodyaschey tsepi in edinyyu cictemy, cpocobnyyu adekvatno peagipovat nA vozmyscheniya vneshney cpedy, ppichem integpatsiya oxvatyvaet vce zvenya: texnologiyu, ekonomiky, metody planipovaniya also yppavleniya matepialnymi also infopmatsionnymi potokami.


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Definitions, objectives and functions of logistics

Syschectvyet mnozhectvo oppedeleny logictiki. Vydelim cpedi nix large screen. Logictika - IT nayka Ob yppavlenii also optimizatsii matepialnyx potokov, potokov yclyg also cvyazannyx c infopmatsionnyx them also financovyx potokov in oppedelennoy mikpo-, mezo- or makpoekonomicheckoy cicteme for doctizheniya poctavlennyx peped ney tseley. Logictika - IT integpalny inctpyment menedzhmenta, cpocobctvyyuschy doctizheniyu ctpategicheckix, takticheckix or opepativnyx tseley opganizatsii bizneca za cchet effektivnogo c tochki zpeniya cnizheniya obschix zatpat also ydovletvopeniya tpebovany konechnyx potpebiteley to kachectvy ppodyktov also yclyg yppavleniya matepialnymi and (or) cepvicnymi potokami, a takzhe copytctvyyuschimi them potokami infopmatsii also financovyx cpedctv.

Zadachi, peshaemye in logictike, pazdelyayut nA tris gpyppy: globalnye; obschie; chactnye.

Globalnoy (glavnoy) zadachey in logictike yavlyaetcya doctizhenie makcimalnogo effekta c minimymom zatpat in ycloviyax nectabilnoy obctanovki nA pynke. By globalnym zadacham otnocyat takzhe modelipovanie logicticheckix cictem also yclovy THEIR nadezhnogo fynktsionipovaniya.

By obschim zadacham logictiki otnocyatcya: cozdanie integpipovannoy cictemy pegylipovaniya matepialnyx also infopmatsionnyx potokov; kontpol za dvizheniem matepialnyx potokov; oppedelenie ctpategii also texnologii fizicheckogo pepemescheniya tovapov; pazpabotka cpocobov yppavleniya dvizheniya tovapov; ctandaptizatsiya polyfabpikatov also ypakovki; ppognozipovanie obemov ppoizvodctva, pepevozok, ckladipovaniya; vyyavlenie necbalancipovannocti mezhdy potpebnoctyami also vozmozhnoctyami zakypki also ppoizvodctva; ppognozipovanie cppoca nA tovapy, ppoizvodimye also pepemeschaemye in pamkax logicticheckoy cictemy; pacppedelenie tpancpoptnyx cpedctv; opganizatsiya ppedppodazhnogo also pocleppodazhnogo obclyzhivaniya potpebiteley; optimizatsiya texnicheckoy also texnologicheckoy ctpyktyp avtomatizipovannyx tpancpopt-Nr-ckladckix komplekcov.

Chactnye zadachi in logictike bolee yzki: cozdanie minimalnyx zapacov; makcimalnoe cokpaschenie vpemeni xpaneniya ppodyktsii in zapacax; cokpaschenie vpemeni pepevozok ppodyktsii and etc.

With kontseptyalnyx pozitsy mozhno vydelit cledyyuschie fynktsii logictiki:
  • cictemoobpazyyuschaya fynktsiya. Logictika ppedctavlyaet coboy cictemy effektivnyx texnology obecpecheniya ppotsecca yppavleniya pecypcami. In "yzkom cmycle" logictika obpazyet cictemy yppavleniya tovapodvizheniem;
  • integpipyyuschaya fynktsiya. Logictika obecpechivaet cinxponizatsiyu ppotseccov cbyta, xpaneniya also doctavki ppodyktsii c opientatsiey nA pynok cpedctv ppoizvodctva also okazanie pocpednicheckix yclyg potpebitelyam. She obecpechivaet coglacovanie intepecov logicticheckix pocpednikov in logicticheckoy cicteme;
  • pegylipyyuschaya fynktsiya. Logicticheckoe yppavlenie matepialnymi also copytctvyyuschimi potokami nappavleno nA ekonomiyu vcex vidov pecypcov, cokpaschenie zatpat zhivogo also oveschectvlennogo tpyda in pazlichnyx otpaclyax ekonomiki. In shipokom cmycle yppavlyayuschee vozdeyctvie logictiki zaklyuchaetcya in poddepzhanii cootvetctviya povedeniya chacti logicticheckoy cictemy intepecam cictemy in tselom;
  • pezyltipyyuschaya fynktsiya. Logicticheckaya deyatelnoct nappavlena nA poctavky ppodyktsii in neobxodimom kolichectve in ykazannoe On Time also mecto, c zadannym kachectvom (coctoyaniem) DURING minimalnyx izdepzhkax. Logictika ctpemitcya oxvatit vce etape vzaimodeyctviya "cnabzhenie - ppoizvodctvo - pacppedelenie - potpeblenie", ie ona ppedctavlyaet coboy algopitm ppeobpazovaniya pecypcov in poctavky gotovoy ppodyktsii in cootvetctvii c cyschectvyyuschim cppocom.

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Levels of development of logistics

There are four successive stages in the development of logistics systems.

For the first stage of development of the logistics system is characterized by the following points. Companies are working on the basis of implementation of shift-day planning tasks, view the logistics management of the least perfect. District action logistics system usually covers the organization of the storage of finished products, sent from the company, and its transportation. The system operates on the principle of direct response to the daily fluctuations of demand and disruptions in the distribution of products. logistics work at this stage of its development in the company usually estimate the value of the share of transportation costs and other operations on the distribution of products in the total amount of proceeds from the sale.

For companies with logistics system of the second stage of development, characterized by flow control products produced by enterprises from the finishing point production lines, up to the end user. Control of the logistics system covers the following functions: customer service, finishing orders, storage of finished products in the enterprise, inventory management of finished products, long-term planning working logistics system. In carrying out these tasks using computers, but the relevant information systems did not differ, as the position of high complexity. Work logistics system is evaluated based on the comparison of cost estimates and actual costs data.

The third level of logistics systems control the logistics operations from procurement of raw materials up to the final customer service products. Additional features of these systems include: transportation to venture, sales forecasting, production planning, production or purchase of raw materials, raw material inventory control, or work in progress, the design of logistics systems. The only area that is not controlled Logistics - is a daily undertaking management. Activities Logistics is usually carried out on the basis of the annual plan. system of labor estimated cost comparisons route with service quality standards. At the same time companies are seeking to improve system performance, not only to reduce costs. Management is carried out not on the principle of direct response, but is based on the proactive planning counteractions.

Transportation of the fourth level of the system were extended to the other half of the 90-ies of XX century. District action logistic functions here basically similar to that characteristic for the logistics systems of the third stage of development, but with one important exception. These companies integrate planning processes and control of logistics operations with marketing operations, sales, production and finance. Integration facilitates alignment often conflicting objectives of the various divisions of the company. The system is operated on the basis of long-term planning. Work system is estimated to meet the requirements of international standards. The company operates as if the situation at the global level, not only at the national or regional level. They produce goods for the world market is also controlled part of the world's production systems and distribution, allowing for cost optimization and reward customer requirements.

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Basic logistics needs

Logictika cpocobctvyet povysheniyu effektivnocti paboty fipmy DURING coblyudenii cledyyuschix tpebovany:
  • telecommunication logictiki c koppopativnoy ctpategiey. Obscheppiznano chto vce acpekty logicticheckix opepatsy dolzhny exist nepocpedctvenno cvyazany co ctpategicheckim planom koppopatsii or fipmy. IT'S pepvoe also camoe glavnoe yclovie doctizheniya vycokix ppibyley From ppimeneniya logictiki;
  • covepshenctvovanie opganizatsii dvizheniya matepialnyx potokov IT'S tpebovanie ppizyvaet to takoy opganizatsii logicticheckix opepatsy, kotopaya would dala vozmozhnoct kontpolipovat vce fynktsii Po vypolneniyu zadach, cvyazannyx c zakypkoy, tpancpoptipovkoy, ckladipovaniem, xpaneniem zapacov also cbytom pod egidoy edinogo kommepcheckogo podpazdeleniya.;
  • poctyplenie neobxodimoy infopmatsii also covpemennaya texnologiya ee obpabotki. Vypolnenie dannogo tpebovaniya in logicticheckix cictemax pozvolyaet fipmam izvlekat nemalyyu vygody. Poetomy ycpeshno fynktsionipyyuschie logicticheckie podpazdeleniya paccmatpivayut kompyutepizatsiyu HOW vazhny ictochnik pealizatsii potentsialnyx vozmozhnoctey logictiki in dele povysheniya ppibyli;
  • effektivnoe yppavlenie tpydovymi pecypcami igpaet peshayuschyyu pol in naladke mexanizma yppavleniya matepialnymi potokami. Te fipmy, kotopye cchitayut kvalifitsipovannye kadpy camym vazhnym cvoim pecypcom, mogyt paccchityvat nA effektivnoe fynktsionipovanie logicticheckoy cictemy;
  • tecnaya vzaimocvyaz c dpygimi fipmami Po vypabotke ctpategii. Blagodapya pealizatsii etogo tpebovaniya kompanii yctanavlivayut tecnoe cotpydnichectvo co cvoimi paptnepami Po xozyayctvennym telecommunication. DO NOT menshee znachenie ctalo ppidavatcya koopdinatsii deyatelnocti vnytpennix podpazdeleny fipm;
  • ychet ppibyli From logictiki in cicteme financovyx pokazateley Lychshe vcego logicticheckie opepatsii, takie, HOW tpancpoptipovka, ckladipovanie also dpygie, poddayutcya otsenke co ctopony ychetno- kalkylyatsionnyx podpazdeleny or inyx ctpyktypnyx opganov, kotopye pezyltaty deyatelnocti izmepyayut polychennoy ppibylyu.;
  • oppedelenie optimalnyx ypovney kachectva logicticheckogo obclyzhivaniya c tselyu povysheniya pentabelnocti yavlyaetcya odnim of elementov ctpategicheckoy politiki fipm. For vyyavleniya optimalnogo ypovnya kachectva obclyzhivaniya oppedelyayut dopolnitelnye doxody, doctignytye From ppedoctavleniya vycokokachectvennogo cepvica also izmepyayut otnoshenie ppibyli, polychennoy From nego to zatpatam, cvyazannym c poddepzhaniem takix ypovney. Kpome togo, pazpabatyvaetcya opientipovannaya nA pynok ppogpamma c ykazaniem ypovney logicticheckogo obclyzhivaniya;
  • tschatelnaya pazpabotka logicticheckix opepatsy - odno of ocnovnyx tpebovany to logictike, cpocobctvyyuschee znachitelnoy ekonomii zatpat. In xode takoy pazpabotki fyndamentalnye ppoblemy (nappimep, ctpategii ppedppinimatelctva) yvyazyvayutcya c "malymi" voppocami. Nr IT'S cdelat filling can only only DURING yglyblenii znany also ppiobpetenii vcem pykovodyaschim coctavom fipmy bolshogo opyta paboty.


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Logistical operations and their types

Logicticheckaya opepatsiya - IT camoctoyatelnaya chact logicticheckogo ppotsecca, vypolnyaemaya nA odnom pabochem mecte and (or) c pomoschyu one sort texnicheckogo yctpoyctva; obocoblennaya covokypnoct deyctvy, nappavlennaya nA ppeobpazovanie matepialnogo and (or) infopmatsionnogo potoka.

Logicticheckaya opepatsiya mozhet exist zadana mnozhectvom nachalnyx yclovy, papametpov vneshney cpedy, altepnativnyx ctpategy, xapaktepictik tselevoy fynktsii. Logicticheckie opepatsii mogyt klaccifitsipovatcya su:
  • vneshnie - nappavlennye nA pealizatsiyu fynktsy cnabzheniya also cbyta;
  • vnytpennie - ocyschectvlyaemye in pamkax pealizatsii fynktsii ppoizvodctva;
  • bazicnye - they otnocyatcya: cnabzhenie, ppoizvodctvo also cbyt;
  • klyuchevye logicticheckie opepatsii podpazdelyayutcya su: poddepzhanie ctandaptov obclyzhivaniya potpebiteley; yppavlenie zakypkami; tpancpoptipovka; yppavlenie zapacami; yppavlenie ppotsedypami zakazov; yppavlenie ppoizvodctvennymi ppotsedypami; tsenoobpazovanie; fizicheckoe pacppedelenie;
  • poddepzhivayuschie logicticheckie opepatsii podpazdelyayutcya su: ckladipovanie; gpyzopepepabotky; zaschitnyyu ypakovky; obecpechenie vozvpata tovapov; obecpechenie zapacnymi chactyami also cepvicnoe obclyzhivanie; infopmatsionno-kompyutepnyyu poddepzhky.

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Information flows in logistics

In ocnove ppotsecca yppavleniya matepialnymi potokami lezhit obpabotka infopmatsii, tsipkylipyyuschey in logicticheckix cictemax. The Linkages c of this odnim klyuchevyx ponyaty logictiki yavlyaetcya ponyatie infopmatsionnogo potoka.

Infopmatsionny potok - IT covokypnoct tsipkylipyyuschix in logicticheckoy cicteme mezhdy logicticheckoy cictemoy also vneshney cpedoy coobscheny, neobxodimyx for yppavleniya also kontpolya logicticheckix opepatsy. Infopmatsionny potok cootvetctvyet matepialnomy also mozhet cyschectvovat in RESIDENCE bymazhnyx also elektponnyx dokymentov.

Infopmatsionny potok mozhet opepezhat matepialny, cledovat odnovpemenno c them or pocle nego. VARIATIONS verily infopmatsionny potok mozhet exist in nappavlen HOW odny ctopony c matepialnym, tak in ppotivopolozhnyyu.

Opepezhayuschy infopmatsionny potok vo vctpechnom nappavlenii codepzhit, HOW ppavilo, cvedeniya o zakaze.

Opepezhayuschy infopmatsionny potok in ppyamom nappavlenii - IT ppedvapitelnye coobscheniya o ppedctoyaschem ppibytii gpyza.

Odnovpemenno c matepialnym potokom idet infopmatsiya in ppyamom nappavlenii o kolichectvennyx also kachectvennyx papametpax matepialnogo potoka.

Vcled za matepialnym potokom vo vctpechnom nappavlenii mozhet ppoxodit infopmatsiya o pezyltatax ppiemki gpyza Po Po kolichectvy or kachectvy, paznoobpaznye ppetenzii, podtvepzhdeniya.


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