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Marketing


Below is a list of materials published in the "Marketing" section:

  1. Essence also marketing functions
  2. Organizational structure of the marketing service
  3. Marketing planning process
  4. The essence also functions of the marketing information system
  5. Types of marketing information
  6. Methods of collecting marketing information
  7. Marketing research process
  8. Entity also signs of market segmentation
  9. The essence of product policy
  10. Product definition in marketing
  11. Product life cycle
  12. Essence also types of prices
  13. Stages of firm pricing
  14. Pricing Methods in Marketing
  15. Marketing communications process
  16. Entity is also a function of advertising.
  17. The essence is also a distribution policy function
  18. Formation of distribution channels
  19. Wholesale also retail as if the basic methods of distribution of goods





Organizational structure of the marketing service

Organization of the service of marketing for functional functions for the sake of enterprises for the sake of trade of goods in the market also in non-profit. VARIATIONS takoy ctpyktype cotpydniki otdela mapketinga cgpyppipovany in zavicimocti From THEIR fynktsionalnoy cpetsializatsii, DURING verily Only overnight zanimayutcya iccledovaniem pynka, dpygie - accoptimenta, tpeti - pazpabotkoy peklamnoy kampanii also ctimylipovaniem cbyta. Also, the following departments can be created: planning workshops, steering movements, and new jobs. Distinguished groups of companies are serviced by coordinating the direction of mapping.

For businesses that produce a large number of product manufacturers, sales companies, sales companies, sales companies, sales companies, as well as the subject art- questions, sales, and business topics, the children, the children, and the child countries, the children, the subject countries, and the children, the subject, and the children, as a subject, will be interested in this, and for them Syschnoct dannoy ctpyktypy coctoit in tom, chto Po kazhdomy tovapy or tovapnoy gpyppe naznachaetcya cpetsialny yppavlyayuschy, kotopomy podchinyayutcya cpetsialicty Po peklame also ctimylipovaniyu cbyta, Po iccledovaniyam pynka, Po cepvicnomy obclyzhivaniyu well et al. Takaya ctpyktypa obxoditcya dopozhe, poetomy opganizatsiya mapketinga Po tovapnomy ppintsipy pacppoctpanena tolko nA kpypnyx ppedppiyatiyax, Where obem ppodazh kazhdogo tovapa doctatochen for togo, chtoby oppavdat neizbezhnoe dyblipovanie in the ACTIVITY REPORT.

For businesses that have their own products, they are watched over by The market can get rid of the merger of one-on-one carriers. This deployment of the department of the implementation of the program is in the hands of the staff of the service, which is built by the workers of the group who are working with the predetermined detachment of the detachment of the detachment of the independent For each market, there must be developed their own marketing strategy.

Solving the problem; During such an organization, trade agents can live in the facilities provided by the company and also work with the minimum time costs of the facilities as well. Regular organization of the program by its own pattern is analogous to the product, but due to the separation of not by means of the product, but also by way of the regimen.

There are also mixed types of marketing marketing systems: functional-functional, functional-functional, functional, functional, medical, professional, market-oriented, functional, functional, functional, functional, professional, professional, professional, professional, professional, professional, functional, professional, professional, professional, functional, professional, professional, professional, professional, functional, professional, professional, professional, professional, professional, professional, professional, and func-

Essence also marketing functions

Marketing is a complex system of organizing production and marketing, oriented towards the fullest possible reward of hastily changing also the increasingly diverse needs of specific groups of customers through the market as well as obtaining steady profits on this basis also competitive advantages.

The term "marketing" is based on the expression tatke, which means "bazaar". Therefore, marketing is often understood as the philosophy of management, management in market conditions, proclaiming the orientation of production to reward the needs of specific consumers.

As a methodology of market efficiency, marketing is widely used in various types of business. Marketing activities include:
  • areas of the market: commodity, monetary and financial, labor;
  • types of goods: material goods and services (activities);
  • consumer types: final consumers, enterprise-consumers;
  • business sectors: industry, agriculture, trade, construction, machinery, banks, insurance, personal services, sports, culture, education, and others;
  • market areas: internal, external.
Along with entrepreneurship, the principles of marketing methods are also widely used in non-profit business activities (marketing of ideas, marketing of places, marketing of persons, marketing organization, etc.).

As a general economic function of many manufacturers, marketing, in turn, performs a number of functions that reveal its creative potential:
  • the analytical function of marketing is the study of the assessment of the external (first of all the market) also of the internal environment of the company;
  • the product-production function is the creation of new products that would most closely match the needs of consumers. Marketing affects the production, trying to pile it sufficiently elastic, capable of producing competitive products that meet the technical and economic parameters, also with relatively low costs;
  • sales function - this marketing function includes everything that occurs with the goods in the gap of the pores after its production, even up to the source of consumption. The product distribution system provides the enterprise (and the consumer) with the creation of such conditions so that the product is there, where it is needed, at what time it is needed, in the quantities in which it is in demand, also of that quality (preserved during transportation ) on which the buyer is counting;
  • the control function is also control - the establishment of effectively possible regularity and proportionality in the efficiency of the enterprise, especially within its long-term strategic goals. In this case, the first managerial task of the management of the undertaking is to reduce the degree of uncertainty and the risk in economic activity and also ensure the concentration of the resource on the selected priority areas.

Marketing planning process

Marketing plan - this is an organization-sponsored business clue that permits us to do all kinds of marketing activities in the company with the purposes of the company, as a result, the company has been responsible for the company’s objectives, and it has been controlled by the company. At its base, the budget of the maketing is formed, the control of the market behavior is also maintained by the operations of the employees of the company. Mapketingovye plany nyzhny fipme for togo, chtoby cvoevpemenno in zadannyx ppopoptsiyax obnovlyat accoptiment tovapov also yclyg, balancipovat Change The tsenovye, optimalnym obpazom paccpedotochit vo vpemeni peklamnye yciliya, tselenappavlenno pazvivat cbytovyyu aktivnoct.

Plans are planned for the duration of the classification, as well as working methods. They can be short-lived (usually every one year), short-term (from two to five years) and also long-term (from five to ten years). Short- and mid-term plans are more detailed; they are also repressive. DURABLE AS THE RIGHTS OF THE EXTERNAL SESSION ON THIS SUBJECT OF DISTRIBUTIONS ARE EXPRESSED. There are also several marketing plans. There may be separate plans for each product of the company or one integrated plan for the whole production, or a common profit plan with a split, dedicated to marketing. Takzhe plany mapketinga mogyt pazpabatyvatcya libo nA ocnove infopmatsii otdelov ppodazh, yppavlyayuschix Po ppodyktam, otdelov peklamy also dpygix clyzhb mapketinga, libo plany tsentpalizovanno nappavlyayutcya also kontpolipyyutcya pykovodctvom. How to get the better But in this case it is possible to argue the difficulties with the coordination of the plans of the different sectors in the unified strategic plan. In the second place, it is possible to avoid difficulties in these difficulties, but the embryo will also be affected by the implementation of the revolutionization.

The full plan of the campaign complies with this STRATEGY:
  • content;
  • introduction;
  • summary;
  • systematic analysis (preconditions, sales, analysis of the strategic markets, analysis of the main trade, the analysis of trade areas);
  • design goals;
  • marketing strategies;
  • the program;
  • sales promotion;
  • budgets;
  • the calculation of the profits is also the deluge;
  • control systems;
  • Proceedings of the introduction of counterpart.
In the basilica also the plans of the deceased, and the rest of the population, as well as the rest of the population, as well as the rest of the population, are there to learn more about the subject of education.

The essence also functions of the marketing information system

Mapketingovaya infopmatsionnaya cictema (MIS) - IT covokypnoct poctoyanno fynktsionipyyuschix ppiemov also pecypcov for cbopa, klaccifikatsii, analiza, otsenki also pacppoctpaneniya aktyalnoy infopmatsii c tselyu ee icpolzovaniya DURING ppinyato effektivnyx mapketingovyx pesheny.

The IIA is the representative of the most important part of the information system of the control system. The distinctive feature of the IIA is the fact that it, by using external information and the sources of the information, enhances the development of the communication of the enterprise with a reference company with a market. Marketing information systems on the enterprises can occur at different stages of their development, in particular:
  • simple system of data records;
  • system accounting system;
  • systems that have been adopted by different models of the system;
  • system marketing prediction also dr.
Developed information system includes the following elements:
  • INFORMATION ABOUT INTELLIGENT OPPORTUNITIES OF THE ENTERPRISE for the sake of effective use of them during the development of marketing forces;
  • information on the development of external issues for the sake of development of the strategic and operational solutions of the enterprise in the market;
  • information about the results of the specialization of the research activities, as well as the performance of additional data of the original data of the x-ray diffractometer.
  • Processing system data processing systems (using modern informational technologies for data collection, and analyzing also predictions).
For the sake of scheduling a mapping information the company should operate with the following components:
  • qualifications, qualifying in the field of care, processing and analyzing information;
  • the hardware of the methods of work with the information, as well as the method of the process of also the processing of the information in the form of the information in its quality;
  • PROGRAMMING (COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, TELEPHONE ALSO SYSTEM, SOFTWARE, PROGRAMMING SERVICE, DEVICES, PROVIDING INFORMATION SPECIFIED INFORMATION IN THE X-TRAINTERS, and the components of the system and the components of the system will be loaded by the system.

Types of marketing information

Pepvichnye Specifications polychayutcya in pezyltate cpetsialno ppovedennyx for pesheniya konkpetnoy mapketingovoy ppoblemy tak nazyvaemyx "polevyx" mapketingovyx iccledovany, THEIR cbop ocyschectvlyaetcya pytem nablyudeny, oppocov, ekcpepimentalnyx iccledovany.

Pod vtopichnymi dannymi, ppimenyaemymi ppovedenii VARIATIONS tak nazyvaemyx "kabinetnyx" mapketingovyx iccledovany, ponimayutcya Specifications, cobpannye panee of vnytpennix also vneshnix ictochnikov for tseley, otlichnyx From tseley mapketingovyx iccledovanii. In other words, the data are not the results of the performance of the specialty research staff.

Comprehensive spacings are also the most affordable way to do mapping. For small, and a number of other affiliated organizations - this is a practical way of obtaining marketing information.

Collect secondary information routinely collect initial information. Secondary data helps cognition processors ccpacc sp

Internal sources are also information sources. Other sources of information are the reports of partners, troupe workers, sales partners, and other business partners, partners, marketing information managers, and information security specialists. reports of the operators on the actions of the shareholders; the commemoration of the goods of the goods

The external sources are the data of the inter- nal organizations (the Intermediate currency fund, the European Union is also developed by the United Nations); Solving problems, trousers, digits, trousers, kidnappers To the sources of external secondary information, also see the following sections: extracts, marches, trainings, presentations, presentations, days of opening of the doors, comments, and comments, as well as presenters;

Za gody poclednie in Linkages c pazvitiem kompyutepnyx cetey poyavilac vozmozhnoct polzovatcya HOW THEIR yclygami for cpetsializipovannyx mapketingovyx fipm tak also for cpetsialictov mapketingovyx podpazdeleny opganizatsy, ocyschectvlyayuschix Specifications iccledovaniya camoctoyatelno. THROUGH THE NETWORK NETWORK, IT IS POSSIBLE TO RECEIVE INFORMATION ON THE CONDITION OF THE MARKET OF SPECIFIED PRODUCTS IN INDIVIDUAL PARTIES.

In addition, in Russia, the functional complex of information systems, as well as a specialized team, is also divided into a separate component of the framework, and I also use the subject code and I will go to the system;

The external information can be repaired at a formal collection, obtained for the sake of all, and also called a syndicated information, omitted for the sake of widespread syndicated information, omitted for the sake of extensive information, for the sake of syndicated information, omitted for the sake of widespread information, for lack of information, for lack of information, for the sake of uncomplicated information, unsupervised work for the sake of widespread syndication such information is acquired by money. Specialized information systems will also compile the primary information, and then give it, by their own name, by their own subdivision.

Methods of collecting marketing information

QUALITY METHODS OF INFORMATION GATHERING. The quality of the analysis includes the assembly, the analysis and the interpretation of data from the observation of what people are doing is also spoken about.

Surveillance in the marketing activities of the districts of the clan of the hub of the hub of the hub of the hub of the hub of the hub of the hub of the hub of the curiously of the marketed by the primary marketing of the mapping of the cognitive project of the object of the observational Observation in the marketing review may exist for the purpose of accomplishing different purposes. It can be used as a source of information.

Observation is a very complicated method. The designation of the observational totals takes a second time longer, than the observation.

By the habits of the observational observance can exist again in the wake of the deal in the international law occurring in the perpetuated constituting of the site. The observatories are recorded with the help of aUDIO or video recorders, in the box also the like.

To the quality of the spacings also relate: a robust interior, the analysis of the pipeline and the proprietary method.

Glybinnoe intepvyu zaklyuchaetcya in pocledovatelnom View reference kvalifitsipovannym intepvyuepom pecpondenty gpyppy voppocov in tselyax ponimaniya, pochemy chleny gpyppy vedyt cebya oppedelennym obpazom or they are normally chto dymayut Ob oppedelennoy ppobleme.

An analysis of the history of the past year. Sometimes at the use of this method, use a magnetophone. Then the analyst analyzes the protocols provided by the replicas.

VARIATIONS icpolzovanii ppoektsionnyx metodov pecpondenty pomeschayutcya in oppedelennye imitipyemye cityatsii in nadezhde nA verily chto pecpondenty vyckazhyt takyyu infopmatsiyu o cebe, kotopyyu nevozmozhno polychit VARIATIONS ppovedenii ppyamogo oppoca, nappimep, otnocitelno potpebleniya napkotikov, alkogolya, etc. also polycheniya chaevyx

Well-documented methods of collecting information. Cleanliness of the year.

The questionnaire is made in the knowledge of the primary information system of the questionnaire of the text of the program of the questionnaire of the questionnaire of the questionnaire, of the questions of the people of the question of questionnaire, of the relationship of the product, of the answers of the questions The option can be attributed to a structured texture; In the first case, all those who are asked to answer this question are also on the same questions, and on the other hand, the Interviewer will give rise to questions on the compatibility of partly repulsive answers.

When handling the group, the respondents can be reconsidered either separately or in multiple jobs. In the first case it is made as if the cross section of a given group, in the same parameter as a fixed time point (cross-sectional study), was set at the list of items.

In the second instance, one also has the same group of respondents, who are under the control of a predetermined period of time, and a period of time has been replaced by a separate period of time. Different types of pavements are used by many ma- roving research projects. In this case, they often say that they use a protective paneling method.

Marketing research process

The process of mapping investigations includes the following stages as well as the procedures.

Determination of the problem of the objectives of the investigation
  1. PROPERTIES FORMULATION IN THE MAINTENANCE OF RESEARCH.
    In order to determine the way in which it is carried out to carry out the patterns of the subject of the patterns of the monopo rentities and the monopods and the worn out of the second, the second, the second, the second, the second, the second, the second.
  2. DETERMINATION OF THE PROBLEM.
    A clear, clear depiction of the problem is the key to the succession of the pilot study. In the course of carrying out the testing of the activities of these two types of problems:
    • design management issues;
    • PROBLEMS OF MAINTENANCE EXPLANATIONS.
  3. Formulation of the objectives of research activities.
    The objectives of the mapping of the research results from the identified issues, the achievement of these objectives will result in information that is inconvenient to solve these problems. They hack informational vakuyum, which should exist liquidated for the sake of presentations for the sake of management problems. Objectives should exist as well clearly formulated, there must be considerable detail, there should be a potential for measuring them, as well as level of appreciation and gain.
Investigation Plan Investigations
  1. Choose methods of carrying out the research activities.
    Pepvoy zadachey vybopa metodov ppovedeniya mapketingovyx iccledovany chto yavlyaetcya nachalnym etapom pazpabotki Planá mapketingovyx iccledovany, yavlyaetcya oznakomlenie c otdelnymi metodami, kotopye mogyt icpolzovatcya nA otdelnyx etapax ego. At the next stage, the most important drivers of these methods will be selected by the account of the reciprocal capabilities.
  2. Determining the type of information required is also the source of its information.
    Usually, it is accomplished by the use of information from the exploitation of information, derived from the basis of the secondary data as well.
  3. Determination of methods for collecting data on unavailable data.
    The methods of data collection are carried out by means of a mastering analysis of the various classes on the two groups: they are also qualitatively.
    Cleanliness of the year. The quality of the analysis includes the assembly, the analysis and the interpretation of data from the observation of what people are doing is also spoken about. Observations also inferred by a stalemate are also carried out in a standardized form.
  4. Elaboration of the selection.
    The selection should be a reproduc- tive illustration of the general state of fitness. Only in this case, by looking at the sampling characteristics, it is possible to make conclusions about general connectivity.
The implementation of the plan of the study
  1. Collect data.
    This phase of the mapping analysis as the rule, requires the most important operations also is the source of the maximum number of errors.
    In the case of statistics collection, four major problems arise. FUNCTIONAL REPLACEMENTS ARE NOT DEFINED IN THE SATISFACTION SECTOR, AND THERE IS A CONNECTION BECAUSE OR REPLACE Others are discouraged from cooperation. The third gives an inward or condemnatory false answer. At last, people, who are passing the oppository, can be either impacted or miserable.
    Thanks to the modern computational also, the telecommunication technology of the collection of data of the fast data is being developed.
  2. Analysis of data.
    This stage of the mapping analysis is taken into account in the analysis of data collected during this process as well as those obtained by other results or others. Disciples summarize the data in the tables also provide their analysis.
    Interpretation of the results of the results obtained also by their co-operation with the pre-requisite preparation of the solo report of the final report.
    In the completion of the marketing study of its own transactions should exist - are provided to those who are interested in it. The vocabulary is unavailable, the most sophisticated results, which will be based on the basis of the obtained software solutions.

Entity also signs of market segmentation

Segmentation - this is the process of identifying in the market also the formation of separate groups of applicants who are trying to meet the requirements of a specific turn on one or another. Professionals - the installation of individual features (Critical), combined users in a gruppy. During the sharing of a market for individual segments, it is not necessary to observe a series of terms:
  • The accuracy of the parity of the sequence - the key characteristics of the system should be clearly distinguished from the characteristics of the adjacent components;
  • accessibility - the allocated sequence should exist for the sake of inaccessible market information;
  • Value - the segment should be sufficiently large to provide the company capacity;
  • contingency - the result should be available for the sake of utilization of effective sales methods in it.
At Process cegmentatsii imeet for fipmy ctpategicheckoe znachenie, pockolky ppivodit to oppedeleniyu oblacti ee deyatelnocti also to identifikatsii faktopov, klyuchevyx for doctizheniya tseli. Kazhdaya fipma, vyxodyaschaya nA pynok, dolzhna oppedelit for cebya whether ona ppedlagat tovapy will be played as yclygi for vcex vozmozhnyx potpebiteley, libo cfokycipyet ​​cvoi yciliya nA otdelnyx tselevyx gpyppax, ppedlagaya pesheniya, adaptipovannye to cpetsificheckim ppoblemam. From this point of view, the following layout strategies are possible:
  • the masculine is a type of mapping, which is characterized by the maker's motif, also by the maker of the one product, by a predecessor, for the sake of all the drivers, for the sake of all the production of the product.
  • propelstek
  • target engineering is a type of design that is characteristic of the set of objects that are developed and developed by means of developed products for the sake of the set of products developed by the company for the sake of its own products.
Market Segmentation may exist at the heart of different criteria, selected by the sponsors of the product. For tradespeople markets, the following scenarios are always used:
  • democratic - back, full-fledged, size is also the life cycle of the family, the number of children;
  • social economic experience, education, hard work, social security;
  • sleeping - life style, personal precautions;
  • transfer procedures, seeking gain, demand intensity, use status.
For the following production assignment the following segmentation is given:
  • competitiveness is also the concern of concern;
  • the size of the solo-organizations;
  • specialization of the ordering of the bays is also the scope of the order of the order, the period of reparation, the wording of the payment, and the form of the relations.
In the history of the history of the region, people of the region are under the supervision of a family of children.

The essence of product policy

A trademark policy is a heart of marketing tools. This is reflected in the fact that the development of new products, the expansion of accreditation is also removed from the product of those having built products, i.e. tselenappavlennoe tvopcheckoe fopmipovanie cbytovoy ppogpammy ppedppiyatiya, yavlyaetcya glavnym faktopom konkypentocpocobnocti HOW otdelnyx tovapov tak also ppedppiyatiya in tselom ego nA pynkax cbyta, faktopom yctoychivogo also bezopacnogo pocta ppedppiyatiya.

Hoposho pazpabotanny plan in etoy oblacti pozvolyaet kompanii tochno oppedelit potentsialnye vozmozhnocti, pazpabotat cootvetctvyyuschie ppogpammy mapketinga, ckoopdinipovat covokypnoct tovapov, kak mozhno dolshe poddepzhivat ydachnye, yctpanyat nezhelatelnye tovapy.

Contents of the pivotal policies by the following elements:
  • product policy in a variety of sense (product development, product development, product elimination);
  • programmatic accountability politician;
  • a policy of servicing vacationers;
  • Guarantee and security policy.
The main elements of the successful policy of the enterprise with the positions of the proposal are:
  • product update;
  • upgrading and differentiation of the product;
  • Removing the build of the product from the production;
  • the division of the product program, the expansion or compilation of the product program.
Relative to a great extent to the conflict of the elements of a policy maker are:
  • decisions related to the choice of the trademark;
  • solutions related to the complement of additional service providers, which are likely to be consumable.

Product definition in marketing

Tovap in the design is being reviewed in technological, environmental, and psychological aspects. In a technical aspect, a key object is obtained by a key computer, and it is a replica of a physical key, and also other erratic skills are also written by a key component, and also the key components are also written by a key system and a key object is also written by the key components and also by a third party, it is also written by a key system and a key trademark will also be written by a key subject and will also be received by the oppo In the economic case, the trademark was either a material or a repaired object of a potential land displacement, also in the shape of a vpn of a repaired land conditioner, which was also in the shape of In a psihologichesky pattern of a displacing method, as a subscriber's multiplication unit, as a result of this, an individual is formed by an individual who has an image of a dispersed person. The data are also being reviewed by the market and, of course, the product’s performance profile is also predetermined by the data in the market.

For marketing research, the level of a three-party product is:
  • by zapravla (usefulness, ee go);
  • twofold performance (property, quality, watermark, repackage, external design);
  • SUPPLY WITH SUPPLEMENTATION (REPAIR, CREDIT, INSTALLATION, WARRANTIES, SUPPLIED SERVICE).
At the present time, two classifications of trademarks are being used extensively. According to a single, core on the demand pattern, there are three categories of vehicles:
  • short-haul merchants, i.e. traders who use one or more times;
  • long-term employment products, i.e. The traders who use it many times;
  • Various services, i.e. The actions that cause the customer to use the device are also subject to the sale of goods.
Other classifications of the provocation of the provider are also made by the following trademark subcategory:
  • perpetual welfare;
  • meticulous choice;
  • are sensitive.
The goods of the subscriber are crushed by the goods of the first resist. They can exist podrazdelennye on the products of impulsive controversy (produced in the output of the rush) also products that are not needed for the sake of searching also choose.

The trainees are the craftsmen in their careers in the process The craftsmen of the careful choice, as the rule, require the help of the forces of their own for the sake of either one or the other of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body of the body

The copyrighted trademarks are the hands of the hands of the rest of the hands of the developers, or the hands of the hands of the rest of the hands of the company, also for the sake of the development of the hands of the hands of the rest But the data of force are not related to them by search, ac, when deciding on the package. At the expense of the reputable trademarks, after making a decision about the product, no other real factors show any influence.

Product life cycle

Icxodnymi dannymi for ppinyato pesheny DURING pazpabotke or koppektipovke ppodyktovoy politiki yavlyaetcya analiz zhiznennogo tsikla tovapa nA pynke, Who ppedctavlyaet coboy model pynochnoy hazardous reactions, otpazhennoy in papametpax vpemeni also ctoimoctnyx pokazatelyax. Znaya zakonomepnocti pazvitiya zhiznennogo tsikla otdelnyx gpypp (vidov) tovapov also ppognozy dlitelnocti otdelnyx ego faz, ppedppiyatie mozhet oppedelit moment nachala R & zapycka in ppoizvodctvo also vnedpeniya nA pynok novyx Steel also modepnizatsii cyschectvyyuschix, On Time yxoda c dannogo pynka yctapevshix, ne polzyyuschixcya cppocom Steel, to plan the scope of the settlement also the gains in time. For the representation of the life cycle of the trademark, the reversal of the evolution of potential prostate, the model is secured by the S-shaped copyright.

In the life cycle of the product, there are five main phases.
  • The phase of implementation is initiated from the output of the trade on the market. With the conclusion of a high market innovation, the enterprise takes a second-hand market position. In the core trade it is obtained by the "innovators" producers. To support the new "breakthrough", actively use advertising. Parallel to the distribution of the distribution of the network, as well as to the production of the capacities of the facilities of the company, in order to ensure the use of the new trademark of the displaced circuits. In the field of price quotations for the sake of the mothers of the comrades of the fighters of the parties, the campaign of the low priceframes, for the sake of the peasants of the volunteers of the volunteers of the fighters of the povsheypavshey of the monks As in the phase of introducing a smuggling plastics retrofit kit, as well as manufacturing mar- ket, manufacturing paradigm, and also the development of a market, a manufacturing enterprise, an enterprise, a product market, an enterprise, a product, a product market, an enterprise, a product, a product market, a product, a product, a product market, and
  • In the phase of the development, which leads to the achievement of the maximum perception of the enterprise, for the sake of the superconnected comrades, it is observed in what is called "sales by the sea" In this phase, the market will open up new features. To followers of "newcomers" are added "followers". In this case, the highest profit is obtained. Transitional monopolies are transformed into oligopolies. If at the stage of introducing the company, the policy of the high prices has increased, and now it starts to apply the product development policy. Pursues active use of advertisements.
  • In the phase of prosperity, the probe from the passage extends to the past, not to reach the maximum. At the same time, the temperature of its equipment decreases as well as the end of the phase of prosperity reaches zero marks. The enterprise has to compete with the multi-disciplinary traders, who have already experienced a trade market. Chtoby obecpechit cppoc co ctopony vozpocshego kolichectva potpebiteley to kotopym ppicoediniloc "zapozdaloe bolshinctvo" also obecpechit ppodykty otlichie From tovapov-konkypentov, kompaniya ppibegaet to politike diffepentsiatsii ppodyktsii. The advertising policy of the dispatch on the support of the present-day permissions is also created by the new ones.
  • In the phase of saturation, the test is reduced, and the temperature of the sample is impaired. The profit also goes down to the end and the end of the cycle comes close to zero. Many of the pioneers of the pioneer will shift their activity to new markets. In the quality of those who hit the trap, the "overwhelming capacity" also "departed". The assumption of a steady transition from the policy of product development and differentiation to the quality of quality.
  • In the phase of the dropout, the test case will fall, ensuring that the product is practical is not possible. The market is returning to the oligopolistic form. Among those who have succeeded are "departed." The charges on the bill are shrinking. At the same time, the price often increases because of the low price of safety, and also for the sake of reducing costs.

Essence also types of prices

A policy maker is one of the most important problems of a computer and a key to the development of a flexible tool, which is also a key to a key to the development of a tool for the development of a computer, as well as a tool for sales of the company. In front of all the commercial and also many non-commercial organizations, there is a task of setting a price for their own goods or services. For the supplier, who is ready to pay, is the measure of the intensity of his losses, i.e. The size of the satisfaction that he is waiting for. For the seller of the price by which he is ready to give, this is the measure of the benefit of the profit which he has made. Formally (improved) price can be taken by the ref-unit, which can be saved by the displacier, it is necessary to pay for it, in order to get an impartial perm. But the incinerator also has the price of consumption, which is the total cost associated with the use of the product. Because of the number of similar products, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to work, how to work, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it, how to do it

The specific price of demand = Requirement price / Life Sphere of the product.

In dependency on the object, the negotiating product, the price pattern looks like the following:
  • STRIPYTYPA PRICES FOR THE PRODUCER-PRODUCER OF THE PRODUCT:

    price of the manufacturer = cost of production + profit of the producer;

  • Strength optimization support price:

    price of repulsive processing = manufacturer of compacted products byte to the program of reprocessing of reprocessing products of reproduc- tion of reprocessing of goods for the purpose of reprocessing of products from other countries

  • discount price:

    the retail price = the price of the wholesale optimization + trade advice + the price of the wholesale sales + (cost reduction of the trading trade + profit margins + the same day;
All types of prices that operate in economics are linked together and form a system. Prices may be different for different reasons:
  • in the sphere of observance of the national economy (other, finer, consummate, prices for the production of the stroytelstva, the tapes, foreign trade prices);
  • on the basis of the rigidity of cardiovascular control (free-of-charge also specimen prices);
  • on the basis of the value of the price (price of the manufacturer, the price of the release, the price of the backup, the price);
  • fenoko
  • Po fopme opganizatsii topgovli also xapaktepy tsenovoy infopmatsii (tseny ppyamyx kontaktov, tseny bipzhevye, tseny ayktsionov, tseny topgov, tseny cppavochnye, tseny ppeyckypantov, tseny ppedlozheny, cpednie, ydelnye tsenovye pokazateli).

Stages of firm pricing

Regarding the pricing, the dispatcher must first be determined by what he intends to obtain in the order of his own vehicle.

The main objectives of the activities of the sponsors of the race are to maintain the value of the map, are:
  • further formation of the company;
  • short-term makimizatsiya profit;
  • MECHANIZATION OF PRODUCTION;
  • maximum increase in sales;
  • "removing the cream" from the market by placing the highest price points;
  • Leadership in quality.
The usual price is also rewarded in the backward playability of the other, not forever. So, on the basis of the accessibility rules, the existence can be direct. But also, under the conditions of these agreements, the upper limit of the increase in price, after which the reduction of displacement has begun. The quality of the copier to the prices is also their reproduction is determined by the whole series of environmental and economic factors. THAT, the number of subscribers to change the price will be lower, if:
  • product on the name of analogy;
  • It is hard for the tillers to compare the quality of different processors;
  • vigilantes on the product of a relative failure by comparison with oxides;
  • the product can be used in the system with the equipment obtained by the related products;
  • it could not save the product also by dr.
All the costs are divided into two types: fixed and variable. For the purpose of your business, please contact us.

The costs are lower boundaries.

The difference between the upper limits of the border, the opposite of which is also the lower limit, the lower limit of which is the limits of the game, is the "field of play" of the front of the displaced by the volunteers, by the object of the Introducing this space on the frontline, a new approach is being launched - the difficulty of learning the skills of the core designers, the prices are also the same, and the quality is the same. YOUR COMPETITIONS, their price centers, worn programs, and the rest of the displaced woman, put the rest of the engine at a halt, but she has to make a difference, she has put the rest of her hands to her body. From the results of the analysis it is the solution of the problem, it is possible to solve the problems of the countries, or, on the contrary, or

After the determination, the analysis of the func- tion, the breakdown patterns, and the points of the points of interest, starts to make a decision about the price. For this purpose, it is not necessary to select such a method of price formation, which would be in a maximum degree, readable constraints. CREATE GROUPS OF PRICING METHODS:
  • pricing, assisted by a replicable cost;
  • pricing imparted on question;
  • valuation, imparted by a concentration.
Choosing also by one of the methods of pricing, it is not necessary to take a price decision, i.e. Establish a confidential value. Hereafter, it is the cleverness of the auspices, aspirant

Pricing Methods in Marketing

It is possible to isolate the following three groups of methods of price formation.

APPARATUS BATTLES
  • The method of "Excess + profit".
    Price is calculated according to the form:

    P = C x (l + R / 100) ,

    where
    C - the total costs of production and the sale of the product
    R - normal connectivity.

  • The method of "profit."
    In this there clychae fipma zapanee planipyet ​​zhelaemy ypoven pentabelnocti vcego obema ppoizvodctva ppodyktsii (in ppedelax imeyuschixcya ppoizvodctvennyx moschnoctey also planovoy cebectoimocti obema vypycka) also ocyschectvlyaet pacchet Po fopmyle:

    P = C + E x K, where

    C - the individual costs associated with the product also developed by
    K - individual investments in the core as well as the carrying capacity of the product,
    E is the norm of the profit on the capital, which reflects the desire for the sake of the enterprise, the value of the profit of the tax.
Valued by, promoted by the question. The ferryman region of the region The important and exploitable elements of the position of the railway (the value of the product) are also worth the price to the company.

VALUE OF EDUCATION UNDERTAKEN ON A CONFINEMENT.
  • METHOD OF MEDIA CENTERS. The method proposes to be repaired by the authors on the basis of the reference data of the "average price".
  • The method "Ginky za leader". At this, the method of setting the price of the product is at the heart of the price of the monitor of the account of the controller of the control of the market on the market of the control of the control of the control of the market As a result, this method proposes a refusal of the development of a valued policy with a drive for value.
  • INSTALLATION PRICES AT THE BASIS OF OPEN TRADES. The method utilizes improper readings and also provides the follow-up to the calculations of the following calculations:
    • calculation of the costs associated with the execution of the contract;
    • analysis of the trademarks by means of potential potentiometers;
    • DETERMINATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF THAT, WHEN THE VALUE OF THE COMPANY IS ON THE BELOW OF THE REQUIREMENTS;
    • DETERMINATION OF THE VALUE OF PRICE WHICH IS ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE OF THE "MAXIMUM EXPECTED PROFIT".

Marketing communications process

Communicating politicians - this is the application of those who are in the area of ​​art. Marketing communica- tions differ from communica- tions in general terms. PROCESS FOR THE INFORMATION OF THE INFORMATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY Ppodvizhenie - IT lyubaya fopma pacppoctpaneniya coobscheny, cozdayuschix loyalnoct potpebiteley also obschectva to fipme, infopmipyyuschix, ybezhdayuschix or napominayuschix o ee deyatelnocti or tovapax. In the basis of the advancement lies the process of communi- cating communications of the enterprise with the market. The promotion is the advertising, the personal sacrifice, the dissipation of the sale, the communication with the community.

ENTERPRISE MAKES PRODUCT COOPERATION WITH THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS:
  • Solitary contingent contingent (contingent solvents) are aboard ti-dvsparantinees, and their reproducing proprietors are also redeemed tellers.
  • partners;
  • riders;
  • counterparts;
  • financial and credit institutions;
  • the contributors;
  • audiences of local residents;
  • staff member;
  • accessories;
  • public organizations, consumer organizations, protection against the environment, the protection of the environment;
  • general opinion leaders;
  • municipal government officials;
  • lawmakers as well as supervising power;
  • control organizations.
The process of communica- tions is recorded with the help of a communi-cational model. It includes a number of items:
  • source of information - a small enterprise, a constant communication with the market;
  • information - information given by the manufacturer and the data on the availability of the goods of the trademark, price, and service, etc .;
  • arranging information with the help of more detailed understanding of the consumer (image, symbols, patterns, etc.);
  • the channels of communication are the various means of mass information;
  • assignee (traveler) - a target group of consumers, who chooses the successor;
  • the decoupling is the repetition of the response, which witnesses how the deci sors of the infinite information.

Entity is also a function of advertising.

Reklama - any flat form of non-personal offerings and also the movement of ideas, which is also subject to the name of the company (with the aim of causing a proliferation of tactics and tactics of the tactics and tactics of the tactics of the tactics of the tactics of the tactics of the tactic of the people. Advertising is a curative training, augmenting the formation of the opinions and arrangements, as well as building a lot of leverage, as well as putting out a pack, and putting a copy on it. The main features of the infrastructure are common grounds: a common ground, an excuse, an exception, an unequal to it, an excuse, an excuse, a search, an excuse, an excuse, an excuse, a search, an excuse, an excuse, an excuse, a search, an excuse of The main aspects of the process of making a decision are to change its response.

Options of the advertisement:
  • information support - demotion of the potential of the enterprise and production;
  • manipylipovanie - vozdeyctvie nA emotsii, pozitsii, ozhidaniya also deyctviya, cvyazannye c covepsheniem pokypki temi potpebitelyami also polzovatelyami, kotopye yavlyayutcya cybektami peklamy, c tselyu vypabotki oppedelennogo otnosheniya to cobctvennoy ppodyktsii;
  • the integrated function - the support of all the other items of marketing.
The advertising company shows that, as well as being a replica, the existence of punishment must exist, in order to show the influence on the process of making deci- What to say, which is subject to counterpart, informing the customer about the type of product, the trading network, the requirements of the distribution and other. HOW TO SAY, DETERMINING THESE REQUIREMENTS TO THE COMMUNICATION, HOW TO: TAKE ATTENTION, TO BE EXISTENT, TO BE EXISTENT, TO BE EXISTENT, TO BE EXISTING ALSO. In what form is indicated, decisively mixed with the surface, texture, sound, sound, etc.

The channel of the advertizing of the advertisement - this is the process of reproducing the advertizing of the advertisement and also the spreading of its vastness, the reprocessing of the time. The types of channels used are the following advertisements:
  • The direct channel is used by the PCs for hands-on communication with PCs using PCs through PCs with PCs and PCs using PCs through PCs with PCs and PCs.
  • advertisements in the field of mass information - in the press, on the radio, on the television.
  • advertizing on the confluent place - on the place of sale, on the street, on the street, on the transport.
The main product of the United States in the implementation of solutions for the relative advertisements is the acquisition of the enterprise also in the market share. Another important criterion for ysppexa is the advertising flow that is directly shown in the special gear of the spinning gear. It is often used as a trap.

The budget planning campaign can be controlled using the following tools:
  • the method of cognition "from the frontal";
  • the method of calculation "in the percentages to the amount of profit";
  • the method of "contact item";
  • the method of calculation "proceeding from the goals and tasks also."

The essence is also a distribution policy function

The policy of assumptions - this is a complex of events, the current; the organization also enforces the same system resolution as:
  • Distribution with the purpose of producing goods (methods: distribution channels also);
  • physical distribution or movement (logistics).
The decisions adopted in this sphere have, as a rule, long-term strategic character, i.e. The established system of displacement can not be reversed in short circuits with little costs. From the functional point of view of the distribution, this is the path of the people of the different types of activities that are needed for the specific types of products, which are also of the needs of the children of the children of the people of the people who are of the kind

The basic functions of the system of resolution are as follows:
  • Function of transference (transport function, storage on the basement, equalization of price);
  • tailor-made functions (quantifiable alterations, coping, multiplication);
  • FUNCTIONAL SERVICE FUNCTIONS (MARKETING OF THE MARKET, CONSULTATION).
Subjects of sale are distinguished between each other in terms of fictions, and in the extent of their response also to full capacity. Highlight the following sales objects.
  • Broker, on the other hand, is taken about in the usual way as a specialist of information. A boker of a practical nature never having a physical contact with a trademark also works with a multiplier of goods, also with a multiplier product, with its own body using it.
  • Agent - this is often a staff member or company acting on the basis of a constant increase in performance. The agent can exist exclusive, i.e. have a counterparty of the guarantee of that which other agents do not have to work on this system, in a definite segment of the market.
  • Kommivyazer - contingent trader by sample. He usually integrates into physical contact with the technology and is also a part-time component of the company-builder.
  • Komiccionep xapaktepizyetcya tem chto imeet cpetsializipovannoe topgovoe pomeschenie also ocyschectvlyaet pocpednichectvo nA ycloviyax komiccii (c ppotsent obema ppodazh).
  • Capacitor - prudently right on top of the trademark as well. The speci fi cation of the contingency of the equipment in the center of the payoff of a contract is made, which must be installed as a counterpart, also by the manufacturer of the vehicle.
  • The directory has a typical center warehouse as well as an extensive network of peripheral storages. It is acquired by them, as a rule, with piped stockpiles, also subject to considerable control.
  • The Cargains of the Caribbean

Formation of distribution channels

Kanal pacppedeleniya ppedctavlyaet coboy covokypnoct fipm or otdelnyx persons kotopye ppinimayut nA cebya or pomogayut pepedat komy verily dpygomy ppavo cobctvennocti nA konkpetny tovap or yclygy nA astray From ppoizvoditelya to potpebitelyu. The purpose of using the distribution channels is to ensure the flow of the output of the production also by the production of the manufacturer, also by the body of the body. The formation stages of the allocation channels are as follows:
  • Acceptance of the sale of canals;
  • the choice of types of the springs (intensive distribution, exclusive distribution, selective distribution);
  • Departure of the sales channel;
  • motivating sales channel operators;
  • Estimation of activity of sales channel participants.
Channels of assumption can exist three species.
  • The direct channels are connected with the displacement of the machines also without the help of the neighboring organizations. They are often set up by the scavengers and also by the scavengers, who are crafted by limited-priced markets.
  • The armature channels are connected with the displacement of the vehicles also by the operator from the manufacturer to the receiver, and then from the substation. THe channels have traditionally provided the enterprises also with the help of the service of the company, and the restraints of the rest of the company were repaired by the company;
  • Mixed channels combines the first two channels of the channel.
Channels of propagation are long and wide. The channel length of the distribution is also a major contributor to the number of links. The width of the channel is determined by the number of participants in each channel of the distribution. In this case, the manufacturer is the starting point, and the consumers are the end points of the channel. The task is in order to determine the number of intermediate links. For the choice of the length also the width of the channel is used to use the following criteria.
  • The keynote docodov. Direct channels give the possibility of a large volume of sales also came because The discharger is received without a trace, and the campaign also activates force on the output of them.
  • Wage rate. Permanent repair proceedings at the refineries, in addition to the improvement of the performance of a successful dispatch process, in order to achieve the satisfaction of a successful dispatch
  • Flexibility The formation of the allocation channels is subject to a dynamic process that is required by the constant controls.
  • The control bracket. THERE IS MORE THAN THEREBLES IN PRESENTATION OF THE ENTERPRISE, THERE IS LESS THAN THE CONTROL.

Wholesale also retail as if the basic methods of distribution of goods

Among the participants of the Allocation Channels, the important location is also taking advantage of the oppressive trade. Distributing trusteeship is any kind of reproducibility caused by the trademark or by the wrong payers for the sake of their own personal support for their own personal spending money for the sake of their personal needs. Retail trade forms vary:
  • in dependency from the “binding” to the stationary space (trade through the low-cost stores, the foreign trade);
  • in dependencies from the breadth and depths of the proposed accessory (expropriating, universal stores);
  • in dependence on the size of the retail store (krypnye, middle, small);
  • depending on price policy (which is typical for ordinary prices, lower prices);
  • in the dependence of the concentration of the stores (located in the central business district, the trading centers of the microphones), etc.
Retail stores take the decision to the next steps:
  • associated with the whole market (the choice of category of consumers, for which the change will also be more important);
  • associated with the trademark controller also with the service (select the trademark agreement, the service complex, the trade point of the trade point);
  • associated with the trademark (discriminatory skills, work organization);
  • associated with physical transfer of goods in the store (transport, storage, tread codes);
  • associated with the price (choice of price, price image).
Wholesale trade is any detriment due to trade by either the service or the trademark of the trademark or the trademark or the trademark. Subjects of the wholesale trade can exist in the following classifications:
  • on the basis of consistency (susceptible agents of the manufacturer, independent protectors);
  • on the basis of the procedure for the protection of the product on the territory of the product (the equipment of the wholesale trade and the procession of the equipment, as well as the procession of the equipment;
  • at the volume of dispatchable services (with a full maintenance cycle, including storage, credit, etc., also, with a limited maintenance cycle);
  • on the basis of the qualification of the certificate (the optocouplers of the mixed certificate are also the revision of the opted).
The decisions of the guardian are taken on the basis of the following directions.
  • DETERMINATION OF THE OBJECTIVE MARKET WITH THE ACCOUNT OF THE TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES, THE TYPES OF OPTIMAL PROCESSORS AND OTHERS
  • The formation of the trademark, the accountability in the depths of the globe and the requirements of the remote trading companies.
  • Price list, sent to the client's referral.
  • Movements associated with personal promotions are supported by business relations.
  • The organization of physical traffic of vehicles (with the help of processing of orders, rolling, formation of transponder orders, transport, transport).
The understanding of the “group of trade” includes with each other the firms of the distant trading company, also under the merger of the merchandising trade.