Fundamentals of Management
- Organization as if the basis of management
- General characteristics of organizations
- The main types of division of managerial work: essence, content
- The nature of labor is also a need for the professional competence of managers
- Management is like a success-oriented management
- Main management functions: planning
- Main management functions: organization
- The main functions of management: staff motivation (from the point of content theory)
- Motivation of personnel from the standpoint of procedural theories
- Main management functions: control
- The school of scientific management seems to be a stage in the development of management
- Administrative (classical) educational institution in management
- School of Human Relations also behavioral sciences
- School of exercise management
- Process approach to management
- System approach to management
- Situational approach to management
- The internal environment of the organization is also its main elements
- Characteristics of the external environment of the organization as its main elements
- Objectives are also tasks in the system of modern management
- Organizational structures of the organization's governing bodies: general concepts
- Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: a linear structure
- Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: linear-staff structure
- Functional structure of the organization's management bodies. Its advantages are also disadvantages
- The linear-functional structure seems to be the organizational structure of the organization's governing bodies
- Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: matrix structure
- Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: divisional structure
- The ratio of centralization and decentralization in the structure in the structure of the governing bodies of the organization
- Communication in a modern organization: the essence, the elements are also the stages of the communication process
- Basic types of communications
- General characteristics of the process of making managerial decisions
- The main methods of preparing and optimizing management decisions
- Management is also an organizational development
- Management of Informal Organizations
- Power is also an action in the organization
Organization as if the basis of managementOrganization - a social entity, which comes from a group of people, the activities of which are co-ordinately co-ordinated for the sake of the commonality or the system of objects.
The following are the requirements for the organization :
- there is a difference between the two men, who consider themselves to be part of the group;
- the difference between the edge of the one point, which they accept as general are all the members of the group;
- the number of members of the group, who are actively working in order to achieve the goal for the sake of all the world.
The forward direction is correct for the sake of the normalization. There are irregular organizations, groups that grow together, and where people are involved in taking advantage of the dpyg with a doc- tomative regulary. Formed in almost all formal configurations, let's turn off the eyes of the kids.
Exactly in the coordination of the life cycle of the organization, its mission is to lead five main stages:
- The mission of the organization : the main goal is to survive; is associated with one person; the main objective is to exit the market;
- there is also a youth : the main goal - the payoffs in the near future are also a dangerous pochet; the style of pyekovodstva austere; The main objective - the strengthening of positions also affects the market; the task in the description of the area - the planning of the profit, the identification of the wages, the transfer of various privileges;
- зpлocть : the main goal - a systematic cobalt poc, the formation of an individual image; The effect of pyro deactivation is due to the elimination of the frost; The main objective - poc-t on different directions of activities, the creation of the market; the task in the context of the organization of the tadda is also the division of the tirda, the adaptation in co-operation with the individual peelings;
- The layout of the operation : the main goal is the co-operation of the dintygnatyx pezyltats; the effect of the pygmy is due to the coordination of actions, the main objective is to improve the stability, the absolute regime of the disposition of the population, and also the profits;
- Discharge or deconvolution : the main purpose of the co-operation in the healing of all functions; p opt opizanatsii doctigaetcya za pchemet cplochennosti peponala, kolektivizma; the main goal - housing, introduction of innovative machinery, the introduction of a modernized organization of the road, as well as a cooperative endeavor.
General characteristics of organizationsAny organization for the sake of the existence of the stated goals of the neophytes of peculation, which can be transformed into a process of a proprietary activity.
The main pecycys , which can be exploited, are people (private pecycys), the basic as well as an official capital, and the technology is also information. The main task of the establishment in the use of the use of pecypco - is the dissatisfaction of the objectives with: the minimum amount of the cost is also the maximum efficiency.
Organizations of the population are dependent on the surrounding world as in the distribution of their pecycles, as well as in the distribution of the consumers. The term "the external cd " asserts in itself eco- nomic conditions, consumers, trade unions, governed acts, law-enforcing institutions, systemic enablers, technology as well as technology.
Separation of the whole work on the components of the components of the members of the third party - the heterogeneous distribution of the food . The work is allocated to a proprietary business. A classic example of heterozygous division of the word on the developed enterprise is a product, also marketing, finance. They represent the main kinds of activities that are necessary to exist in order to be able to rebuild the repelled goals.
As a result of the operation in the organization, it is located on the coca-cola, which must be coordinated in the work of the group.
The virtual division of the world separates the work from the co-ordination of actions from each act. Naturally, in order to improve the work of other people, it is important to manage the government. The vertical distribution of the thread is ochered in the following directions:
- obschie pykovodstvo;
- thermodynamic pyrotechnics;
- economical pyrotechnics;
- Oppaticnoe yppavlenie;
- Control by the customer.
The structure of the organization - the co -ordination of the ties and the likelihood of the functioning of the government, are also the basic signs that are built into such a structure, which will allow you to effectively enter the goal of the organization. The elements of the organization raised the names of the de- fects, rulings, and sections. Stryptypnye disinhibition of the oppression is a group of people, the activities of which are also determined to be co-ordinated for the sake of sharing the common goal.
In order to ensure that the demolition of the collapsing of all targets, the existence of all the strict ele- ments must always be co-ordinated with the help of a vertical distribution of the propa- gation. Therefore, the administration is a vital, vital activity for the sake of organization. The controlled tpyd in the course of the long evolution was isolated in a common category of the common thread.
The main types of division of managerial work: essence, contentOne of the problems of the management is the higher the effectiveness of the managers. This solution is solved immediately on the basis of the separation of the managers' tune , so that specialization of directional laboratories for the execution of certain types of activities, the disintegration of the population, is also absent .
The division is based on the establishment of a group of government employees who implement the same functions of the management (planning, deployment, motivation, monitoring). Correspondingly, in the administration of the government there are special structures, which are occupied by cov- ertricular structures.
The strict division of the directional process results from the characterization of the controlled entity, as an op- inational stratum , the scale , the area of activity , disregarding the ter- ritual system . In the process of the disintegration of factors that originate in the strict division of a tree, it is specific for the sake of each in- frastructure. You can mark out the general features that are also the vertical part of the distribution of the menageres.
The vertical division of the tower is based on the removal of the three main directions - the lower, the upper also the higher.
To the lowest level of government there are managers who are in earnest of the work of the pioneer workers. They ocychstvetvlyaet yppavlenie such primitive divisions, as bragady, smens, ychatki.
The average level (50-60% of the nominal value of the management board) includes managers who are identified during the process of obtaining pseudoscience in concessions. This is where the managers of the office also enter into the functional relations of the administration of the firm, its branches, its parts, as well as the maintenance of its supporting assets, the whole programs as well.
The highest level (3-7%) is the administration of the enterprise, which is the overall constructive mechanism of operation, ee by the functional also proprietary-economical assemblies.
Each time the control is controlled, the calculated amount of work for the functions of the management is pre-determined. This is a heterosexual division of managers' tune on the functions. More than the main division is directed to the main features of the enterprise (customer, R & D, tracking, production, financials).
Taking into account the types is also the condition of the work to be performed. Allocate pyrokoditylei (take decisions, the organization of their implementation), specialties (pevtikivanie also pasparabotka vapiantov rashny), smyshashchi (infopmatsionnoe obeppechenie pcecca).
The nature of labor is also a need for the professional competence of managersIn comparison with other types of food in the organization, the directional one has a number of specific features:
- He represents the self-created tird, consisting of three kinds of activities: op-inanic-administrative as well as enlightening, analytical as well as creative, information-technical;
- Appears in the creation of the material wells, as well as the proclamations of services, including those of other workers;
- the propode is the information;
- treda treda - opganizatsionnaya also vychilitelnaya teknika;
- pezyltatom tpyda - yppavlenchechnoe reshenie.
The equipment for their use can be divided into two parts. First of all, knowledge is also given to the performance of a pacific operation in the administration . They include:
- To change also accept changes in situations for which strong dynamism is also characteristic;
- infromirovannost in the development of the development of the environment in which the enterprise operates: the substance of research, technology, technology, connections, dynamies cppoca na produktsiyu;
- familiar with the experience of the manager in other organizations also otpalyah;
- cpocobnoc yppavat pecycsami, prognozirovat also planipovat paboty ppedppiyatiya, vstadeenie ppopobami effektivnosti effektivncti yppavleniya;
- To use a modern information technology, the connection is also communication.
- vysokoe chyvctvto dolga also prededannoe dely;
- being in people with people is also a trust to the partners;
- You must also express your mind quite clearly;
- It is an important affirmation of people who are reluctant to reside in the territory of the country in opranizatsionnoy iepapxii;
- to be able to quickly and quickly develop both physical and dyashnye forces and also critically evaluate the joint activity.
Management is like a success-oriented managementFor a large number of enterprises, survival, it is possible to imagine how much longer is the primary goal. For this they have to periodically change their goals, choosing them to change the potentials of the outward world in a coherent way. Almost all of the op- erations that are pervasive for businesses, often develop new types of products or services for the sake of their consumers.
In order to exist in the future for a long time, the op- position must exist as an effective one, as well as an effective one. Resultivity is the fact that "the essentials are also the same things," and the efficacy is that "the data that is written are rightly created for you".
Effektivnot can also measure measurably, in order that it is possible to determine the monetary value of its inputs (consumable pecyp- cies), as well as the output (output costs). The effective efficiency of the organization is reflected in the production. Development - this is the increase in the number of units on the way to the many units on the output side.
The controlled decisions are limited only to one's thoughts, thoughts. The control is the implementation of peal work by peal people. The immediate solution is that such a person who is practical - turned into action - is also effective.
Main management functions: planningOne of the main functions of the manager is:
The function of planning also develops the operation of determining whether a signal is sent or received, in which case the control system will be sent either to the current target or to the destination. This control is a directional solution. Planning - this is one of the items, by means of which a person attains the one and the same direction of power all the members of the population to the disposition of their common purposes. With this function, the process of control starts, from which it starts to operate.
On the left of the screen, the planning function of the production should be shown on the following basic questions:
- where do we stand in the present time?
Managers need to see also strong slave regimes in the mainstream (financial, settlement, financial, research and development), in order to determine, what can often be a complete disruption of the organization;
- where do we want to drive?
Managers are necessary, depending on the possibility of a conflict in the current environment, determine how to exist the objectives of the organization, as well as what can be done to support these objectives;
- How do we agree to do this?
Managers decide that they must provide members of the organization for the sake of destabilizing the repatriated targets.
Main management functions: organizationThe strength of functions is that in order to achieve the implementation of the solution from the opranizatsionnogo stono, that is, to create such controls that would improve the effective connections between all the elements of the control system .
ORGANIZOVAT - means to divide on the chachti also to disregard the implementation of the common control task by the allocation of the identities is also imperative, and also the isolation of the interconnections between different types of work .
The function of the function is:
- the adaptation of the organizational structure of the firm to the tasks of the nascent business;
- podbop people for the sake of the concreteness of work, too, by eliminating it, the plump, the use of pecypco in the organization.
- principle of the goal . Organization, its separate names work in the name of the abstinence of the general purpose;
- elatichncti opganizatsii . When assigning the funds, there is also a need to exist in the best possible way for the independent activities of individual workers also by administrative reprimands;
- Resistant . The system of government does not need to be constructed so that its elements are not tolerated by devastating changes in the influence of the internal environment as well;
- uninterrupted reimbursement . Suppresses the neoabsence of the systematic opranizatsionnogo work on the reconciliation of the process of the organization and the implementation of solutions;
- the immediate co-ordination . Every employer must have one head;
- amount of control . The manager in the situation qualitatively should also ensure that the work of the deported person is podchinenny;
- inconsistent identification of the police officer for the deceased;
- copazmepnocti identified in these cases;
- Exclusions . The resolution of the repetitive nature of the statute is reduced to the pyrotechnic, the fulfillment of which is appealed to the lowering directives;
- funtion of functions . The control function po- sion controls the control, and does not operate;
- the combination . It is necessary to improve the accuracy of the fairness of centralism as well as the need for it.
The main functions of management: staff motivation (from the point of content theory)The strength of the function of the motivation is included in the fact that the person in charge of the operation discharges the work in accordance with the deeds that have been removed by him, as well as the allegiances, also co-developing with the adopted directive decisions .
In general, the motivation is that this is the process of giving birth to others as well, for the sake of deter- mination of specific purposes .
The associated problems are based on the definition of internal interests , which people are forced to act with a definite image. Soglacno typyi Mcalloy , all the peers of the person can be divided into five groups :
- physiological benefits - niebododimye for the sake of survival;
- the advantages in safety are also essential in the future ;
- social cohesion - tolerance in the interest of either a purely humane co-affinity, a crowd of people;
- in love, in acquiescence ;
- the value of the expression .
D. Mack-Clailland excelled three levels of costs :
- to wake up - to desire to create on other people. Тex, y to whom the highest is the likelihood of being, also does not belong to avanturism or tyranny ", to go to the occupying of high pyrotechnical matters;
- wanting ycpexa . It does not prevent the person of any person, but the progress of the work before the issuance of a certificate;
- to pay in kindness . He knows that people are engaged in the company of symbols, the imposition of other emotions, the appearance of helping others.
- hygienic factors : the condition of the earth, social relationships, the style of the organization of the disintegration, the disruption, the social and psycho-climatic climate on the enterprise;
- Factors of motivation : work as a condition of self on the face, is clear, can reconcile. In cases where there is a positive trend, it is likely to cause a labor problem.
Motivation of personnel from the standpoint of procedural theoriesPzeczielnye tepeyi motivatsii pepconala ocnovyvayutsya na tom, as vedtyt sebya people with ychetom their vpppiyatiya also poznaniya. In the case of unprecedented economic forces, as a person allocates energy for the sake of the entanglement of different purposes, he also chooses the conclusive type of the deception .
The transfer of personality is not attributed to it, but it is also a function of the invocation of the expectations associated with this system, as well as the possible types of choice that have been chosen.
The trend of expectations .
The main idea of the future expectations of a person in the interests of a person is that he chooses the type of the deed that leads him to the satisfaction of his needs .
Expectation - an assessment of the likelihood of the eventual occurrence . The expectancy of waiting reflects the importance of three interconnections (and their corresponding expectations):
- zatpaty tpyda - pezzlata;
- Result - disruption;
- Discharge - Valence (contingency is possible).
The problem is spread out .
The problem of perseverance is that people objectively disclose the presence of a plausible dislike to neglected emotions, and then they also co-exist with the disagreement of other people who perform anthro- pical work . If the correction indicates a disbalance is also not correct, then a person develops a psycho-static voltage. In the event, do not motivate this co-worker, remove the tension also dispose of the dispenser. People can enter into a balance or change the state of the affected households , or try to change the outcome of the full disintegration .
L.Poptep also E.Loylep pazrabotali kompleknnuju the motivation of motivation . In their models, the five pyramids are :
there is a conflict in the question.
Disputed opinions depend on those who are supported by the states, which also include the physical incarnations, the establishment of the self poi in the process of life.
The level of the regulated forces is also determined by the degree of disap- pearance, also by the degree of certainty that these forces actu- ally take care of the determined level of the dis- charge.
Disapproved reviews may cause damage to be extinguished (against the discharge of the discharged work), also outside the display (pokvala pikvoditelya, ppmiya).
Confirmation of the issue is also a result of external influences, which are exterminated, including those that exist. One of the most important findings is that the effective tpyd leads to the satisfaction.
Main management functions: controlControl - this is the process of obtaining the activation of the deployment of all targets . It suppresses its own system of observation, as well as the verification of the operation of the operation of the function of the controlled output to the received solutions, and also the processing of the specified actions.
It supports three aspects of the control :
- The establishment of the standards is an accurate definition of the goals, which must exist as a deterrent in the definite period of time. It is based on the plans, developed in the process of planning;
- measure that which was antecedent for the past, and compare the doc- tive with the expected results;
- podgotovka neeobodimyx kopekti pyykayuschih deyctviy .
Allocate the following kinds of control :
- precautionary control . Ocischevlyaetcya before the tactical beginning of the pabota. Facility ocychrepleniya - the implementation of specific rules, and also lines of conduct. Icpolzyetcya Po otnosheniyu to chelovecheckim (analiz ppofeccionalnyx znany also navykov, neobxodimyx for vypolneniya dolzhnoctnyx obyazannoctey, otbop kvalifitsipovannyx lyudey) financovym (coctavlenie byudzheta) also matepialnym pecypcam (vypabotka ctandaptov minimalno dopyctimyx ypovney kachectva, ppovedenie ppovepok);
- current control . The agent is unavailable during the performance of the work. It is based on the measurement of tactical responses, which are faded after the performance of the work. For ochechstvlyavleniya control napparaty yppavleniya neobhodima pobednaya svyaz;
- exclusive control . One of the functions is that, in order to control the information, it is necessary for the sake of planning, if the analogous actions are encouraged to run in the future. Takzhe also promotes motivation, so how will the discriminative behavior be measured.
- select the monitoring of the monitoring (system, process, partial check);
- Definition of the objectives of the control (disentanglement, rectification, and also the effectiveness of the control);
- Establishment of the control of the command (ethical, pseudo, legal);
- the choice of methods of control (diagonal, transparent, preemptive, current, exclusive);
- Assignment of the volume is also related to the control (cploshnoy, epizodic, finansovy, kachetvva produktsii).
The school of scientific management seems to be a stage in the development of managementThe school of nephew's administration (1885-1920) was connected with the works of F.Teilopa , and also Lilia Gilbert , Gentry Gantt . They created the schools believed that, using the observations, zamps, logic is also an analysis, it is possible to replicate a lot of pyrotechnic process.
The first phase of the methodology of the school of nepotism was the analysis of the maintenance of the work, as well as the determination of its basic components .
Typical for the purpose of the school of nepotism was the systematic use of the organization with the goal of acquiring workers in the development of production, too, to increase production. With this:
- Predichimpativat the possibility of perepyvov in production, in this case also for the sake of otdyha.
- Kolichectvo vpemeni, vydelyaemoe for vypolnenie oppedelennyx View reference, pealictichnym bylo chto davalo pykovodctvy vozmozhnoct yctanavlivat nopmy ppoizvodctva, kotopye vypolnimy were also platit dopolnitelno tem, kto ppevyshal data nopmy.
- People who have produced more, disappeared more.
- He called for the removal of the people who were involved in the work that had been done
- podchekkivala a greater amount of education.
Administrative (classical) educational institution in managementObobenntti administrative shkoly.
Representatives of the Classical (1920-1950) school , and by name - A. Fayol , L. Urvik , J. Myni , had an inexperienced experience of work in the quality of the highest authorities in the management of a great business. Their main job was efficiency to the work of all organizations. "Klacciki" (paboty kotopyx in znachitelnoy ctepeni icxodili of lichnyx nablyudeny, a nA DO NOT ocnovyvalic naychnoy metodologii) ctapalic vzglyanyt nA opganizatsii c tochki zpeniya shipokoy pepcpektivy, pytayac oppedelit obschie xapaktepictiki also zakonomepnocti opganizatsy.
The goal of the school was the creation of universal principles of governance , the conduct of which gradually led to the establishment of a yppay.
These principles were linked with two acutes. One of them was the development of a paci- nal system of governance of opranizatsiye . Determining the main functions of business as a financial institution, and also tracking, "classics" were yvpepehny, that can dictate the best way to divide the organization into a subdivision or group. Fayol pasmatrpival control as a universal process, which consists of several interconnected functions .
The third category of the principles of capital construction of the structure of the organization is also the management of the workers.
A. Fayol has 14 principles of management :
- the division of the thread . The object of separation is the performance of the work, the greater the amount of money, the better the better at the same time. This is mitigated because of the reduction of the number of entities on which there must be a direct attention also to the state;
- The number of seats is also unequivocal . Powers give the right to reject the order, it is necessary - it's oppo- sition;
- discipline . It also encourages repentance towards the declining agendas of the world of oppression as well as by its workers. The discipline prefers to make the most appropriate use of the functions;
- Single . The employer must send orders only from one notarized prescriber;
- the same as the direction . Each group, which acts in the same pattern, must exist as a single plan, and also have one pyrotechnist;
- podchinenchnot personal intepeco general . The interests of a single worker should not be overtaken by the interests of the company;
- the disruption of the face . To ensure that you also receive support from employees, they must pay the expatriate zapplaty;
- centralization . It is necessary to ensure that the correct relationship between centralization and decenalization is in place because of the concurrence of conditions;
- ckalyrnaya chain , that is, next to the persons standing at the pyrotechnic positions, starting from the person occupying the uppermost height, down to the pedicle of the lower call. It does not have to be turned off from the imperial system without using it, but to support it in the future, when it will be done by business;
- apos ; Mecto - for the sake of everything, also all the same - for the sake of mecca;
- sppavedlivoc - the repetition of dobroty also pravovkidiya;
- the establishment of a working place for the sake of safety . The greater the accuracy of the cadre reduces the efficiency of the organization;
- Initiative . It also determines the development of the plan, as well as the fulfillment of its effective implementation;
- cooperative dyx . Soyuz - this is the field, and it is the solution of the situation of the pepconal.
School of Human Relations also behavioral sciencesOocobennoti shkoly polychechnykh otnosheniy . The motion of the parasitic values in the response to the failure of the co-ordinate co-ordinates of the ad- vices of the ad- ditional control of the clinical scale as well as the isolation of the cell is a factor of the cell as the basic element of the effective in- fection. The greatest contribution to the development of the schools of individualities (1930-1950) was made by two people - Mary Papar Fallet also Elton Mayo. The exponents of E. Mayau opened a new direction in the direction of management. He obnapyzhil that the slightly worked up employment of the office is also an unplanned payroll not always to the higher level of production . The forces arising in the course of the intercourse between people, as well as the violence of the handlers.
Bolee pozdnie prosechestveniya, povedenennye Abpaxamom Makloy also dpygimi psikhologi, pogogli ponjat prichiny etogo yavleniya. The motives of people's paeans, according to Macloy, are, in the main, not eco- nomic forces, but different potentials , which can exist only only partially, and are equally reliable, through the use of money. Ocnovyvayac nA etix vyvodax, iccledovateli polagali chto, if ye pykovodctvo ppoyavlyaet bolshyyu zaboty o cvoix pabotnikax, verily also ypoven ydovletvopennocti dolzhen vozpactat, a vecti IT'S will be played to yvelicheniyu ppoizvoditelnocti. They reckonedendovali use the management of human values, including more effective actions of the leaders, the cooperation with the workers is also transferring them more than the generosity of the mutual sharing in the work .
Development of the front lines. The ranks of the most illustrious figurines are the late arrival of the pioneer movement (from 1950 onwards), such as K.Apdzhipis, R. Laikert, D. MacGregor, F.Gepzbepg. Data also dpygie iccledovateli izychali pazlichnye acpekty cotsialnogo vzaimodeyctviya, motivatsii, xapaktepa vlacti also avtopiteta, lidepctva, opganizatsionnoy ctpyktypy, kommynikatsii in opganizatsiyax, Change The codepzhaniya paboty also kachectva tpydovoy life.
New progress has been made in a larger process to provide assistance to a child in the establishment of self-reliance on the basis of the use of the arrangements for directing the supply to the building as well as the management of the facilities. The main goal of the school was to increase the efficiency of the organization in order to increase the efficiency of its peche- ces. The main point was that the correct use of nukes about the administration would always ensure that the effectiveness of the child, as well as the organization, was also increased. However, in some cities this income has been rendered inadequate.
School of exercise managementThe construction of the School of Management (since 1950) is connected with the emergence of cybernetics, as well as the use of operations. On the other side, the use of operations - this is the use of methods of nondestructive testing to the oppor- tional facilities of the organization.
After the installation, the problem of the range of the equipment after the operation of the equipment raises the model of the system.
The model is the form of the representation of the peo- ple, which serves this peal, which has a comprehen- sive understanding of it. After the creation of a model of a variable, the assigned values are obtained. This will allow you to compare equally well with each one of the alternate ones, as well as the differences between them.
The key to the economic administration of the government is the replacement of significant paccy expectations by models, simvolami also significant values .
In the future, in the school, the strategy of decision-making was culminated . In the current time, the tests in the order of control are written in the following order:
- the methods of the mathematical modeling of the processes of processing are also used to solve the problems in the operations;
- an algorithm for the development of optimal solutions with the use of thermostatic and static solutions, the performance of games is also high;
- the large number of also the original models of economic phenomena.
Process approach to managementThe cash flow was first paid by the administrators of the administrative board , which tried to determine the functions of the supervisor. However, they listed the data of the function as an unacceptable amount from the data. In the case of this, the economic process pays the functions of the control as it is interconnected.
The control is considered as a process, as well as the work on the de-activation of targets by means of drygs - this is the phase of the uninterrupted interconnected actions. These actions, each of which are also a process, are called functions. The total of all functions suppresses any control.
A. Fayol allocated five functions of management . On the other hand, "it does not mean to suggest that you plan, plan, organize, co-ordinate," or "control".
In general, the appearance of the control can be changed by using the functions of planning, configuration and motivation of the control. These functions are combined with connecting processes of commutation as well as the decision making process. Rukovodstvo (leader) pascmatrivaetcya kak kotokotoyatelnaya nyatelnnoc. It suggests that the influence of individual workers on the group can also be such that they work in the direction of the deter- mination of the goals that are necessary for the sake of op- portunity.
System approach to managementThe system of the system first was used in the same nakaks as well as in the teknik. The use of the system in the control system in the late 50's. The most important steps are the steps of the steering nail . Systemic income - this is not a dial-up of any principles for the sake of managing, but the way of thinking in order to be able to operate is also a direction.
System - this is a shortcoming, which is made up of borrowed parts, which from each one takes its toll into the character of the one. All operations are systems. There are two main types of system: the closed ones are also opened .
The closed system has fast fixed fences, its operation is not dependent on the system that is being installed. The open system is characterized by the use of a c- wheel drive .
Crypnye kotpavlyayuschie slystvayuschie syshchyx system chtto cami are sistemami. These data are called progress . In the organization of production - this is a different section, the level of management, the social components as well as the co-operative.
Ponimanie togo chto opganizatsii ppedctavlyayut coboy clozhnye otkpytye cictemy, coctoyaschie of neckolkix vzaimocvyazannyx podcictem, pomogaet obyacnit, pochemy kazhdaya of shkol yppavleniya okazalac ppaktichecki ppiemlemoy only just ogpanichennyx ppedelax. They made it possible to concentrate attention on the one-to-one development of the organization: the leading school took over the social progress, the shocks of the nuanced government - the technical ones. Neither one of the schools seriously zedymyvala nad vzdveystvimem cde na naprizatsiyu.
The model of operation as an open system. Organizatsiya polličaet from the outside of the environment, information, capital, private pecyccies, materials. Data komponenty nazyvayutcya input . In the process of independent activities, the organization processes these inputs, transforming them into production or services. This projec- tion also serves as the output of the organization, which it will take to cope with the environment.
If the control system is efficient, then during the process of the transformation, the required flow rate will appear. In the area there are many additional revenues, such as profits, the identification of the market on the market, the increase in the volume of sales, the increase in the number of operations.
Situational approach to managementSitiatsionny trudnog vnec a large incidence in the economy of management, using the possibility of direct use of the coun- teracts to specific conditions as well. The central point of the cetacean movement is the system, that is , a concise set of facilities that can influence the development in this day.
Ippolzya this way, the drivers of the moght lychshe understand what kind of ways to be in the greater cppenct to support the deployment of the aims of the organization in a coun- tered system. As well as a systemic , cytyaconic approach, it is not a simple collection of prescriptions, it is also a way of thinking about opranizatsionnyh problems also pešeņxah. In addition, the co- operation of the control system is also co-ordinated . Itak, citjatsionnyj podhod tries to uvazat konkpetnye priemy also kontseptcii s oppedelennymi konkpektnymi cytjatcijami for the sake that doctich the purpose of the organization is more effective .
Sitiatsionny trudy ispolzyet sityatsionnye vzlichiia mozhdy opganizatsiyami also vnutpi sami opizanatsy. The manager does not need to be deter- mined, for example, the meaningful scenarios also affect the efficiency of the organization.
The internal environment of the organization is also its main elementsThe information about the internal system of the news agency is not intended to be able to identify the possibility, the potential, on which the company can calculate in the context of the repatriation of the repatriated targets. Analisis of the internal system also allows for the elimination of the target as well as the tasks of the organization. It is important that, in addition to the production, the wording of the organization ensures the availability of the opportunity to work for its employees, creates the specific social conditions for their life.
Analisis of internal environment is conducted in the following directions:
- ppoizvodstvo : obem, striktipa, pimping tampas; nomenektapa produktsii predprpiyatiya; the recovery of raw materials as well as the supply of oil, the recovery of their use, the control system of seizures; The cash crop is also a system of its use, a separate system, the technical efficiency of the facilities; the availability of production also includes the availability of infractions; the ecology of production; the control of the quality, and also the quality of the equipment; patents, technical stamps, etc .;
- pepconal : ctpyktypa, potentsial, kalifikatsiya, kolicichtvene koktav pabotnikov, ppoizvoditelnoct tpyda, tekichcht kadrov, stoimcht pabochey sily, interesecy also potebncti pabotnikov;
- Operation of the control : an op- inational line, the control system; ypove management, kalifikatsiya, cpocobncti also benefits high pyokovodstva; technical culptype; ppecizh also the image of the company; the organization of the system of contacts;
- sighting : goods, produced by the firm, on the market; It is possible to collect non-infectious information about the market; distribution channels are also sold; The monitoring budget is also its maintenance; marketing plots are also programs; news; image, as well as the quality of goods; ctimylirovaniya sales, advertising, tehnoprazovanie;
- Finansy also see : financial stability is also a payment; profitability is also a prerequisite (for goods, regents, channels of sale, agents); Also, the associated grounds are also coexisting; Effective system of accounting, in this case, the account of the budget, the financing of the budget, the planning of the profit.
Characteristics of the external environment of the organization as its main elementsIn nactoyaschee On Time menedzhepam neobxodimo ychityvat deyctvie faktopov, naxodyaschixcya vne opganizatsy, pockolky opganizatsiya HOW otkpytaya cictema zavicit From vneshnego mipa in otnoshenii poctavok pecypcov, enepgii, kadpov, potpebiteley. The manager must identify the fictitious factors in the incarnation that will affect his organization, the bombardment of the methods is also designed to take place in the outermost region. Organizations are urged to adapt to the environment in order to survive also to co-opt effectiveness.
Allocate the following basic characteristics of the external environment:
- the interconnection of the effects of the outside of the environment - ypiven forces, c kotopoi change one of the facts on the other factors. Changing any type of packing can help to change the changes;
- the connection of the external environment is a number of factors, on which the organization is responsible, and also the effectiveness of each act;
- the movement of the cd - ckopoc, with which the changes occur in the configuration of the organization. The reduction of the current operations changes with the setting of the screen. The motion of the outward opening can also exist for the sake of one facility, and the lower one for the sake of others. In the highly mobile environment, the organization or distribution should be referred to more than one infectious information in order to take effective actions;
- the choice of the external environment - the co -operation between the major infomation o the medium that the organization opposes, also be sure in the accuracy of this information. By undelivering the expansion, then try to take effective steps.
The Environment of the First Inclusion includes the factors that are irrelevant to the operation of the organization. They include writers, actors, tidy pecycs, laws, as well as establishments for the liquidation of the population, trade unions, consumers, as well as co-opents.
As soon as they are completely independent, they understand the facts that can not be called the immediate origin on the organization, but they appear on its e-mail. The concern is that of such factors as the state of the economy, the nuanced-technical nature of the society, the co-cyclical as well as the political changes, the influence of the corporeal interests, which are also essential for the sake of the emergence of activity in other countries.
Objectives are also tasks in the system of modern managementThe goal - this is the final state, the desired result, which is the culmination of any organization . The commanded information centers are used for the purpose of establishing the standards for the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of the organization, giving them an overall opportu- nity for the sake of excellence. In fact, there can exist either a substitution, or a co-ordination of the specified faktopov. The goals are always based on developmental hyposities in the body, therefore, they depend on the accuracy of these hypo-theses. The more regular the process is, the higher is the disposition, then in general the whole should be put.
The goals fall near the operator:
- The concatenate is also a measurable target . The expressive goal in the conclusive modifiable formations, pycconently produces a clear break for the sake of the next steps, also the scores of the work. Takzhe will be easy to identify, but also very easy to operate in the direction of the movement of targets;
- Explanation of the objects in time . On the first day, people are endowed with long-term goals, then they are working out cpdn-also short-term goals for the sake of accomplishing the long-term goals;
- dottisimye purpose . The purpose is to ensure that they do not overstep the possibil- ity of the organization;
- taking countermeasures . Action is also a riddle, which, for the sake of one destiny, does not need to be supported by others.
They are in the system of the management. Understand the "zadacha" otlichaetcya from the notion of "tsel" cledyayuschim image: zadachi - this is the purpose, which is suspected of being sensitive to the determined moment of time in the forefront of the process, on which a prac- tically correct decision is made . The problem is indicative of the unreasonable aims of the organization, which is characterized by a high degree of disinfection.
Zadachi chacto predpelenyayut like a prescription cepiyu pabot, kotopaya must exist in emergency croki. From the technical point of view, the targets are written not for the worker, but for him . Each option includes a series of tasks that are considered as an unobjectionable entry into the location of the location of the site.
The objectives of the organization are divided into three categories. This work is with people, people are also infomation.
Organizational structures of the organization's governing bodies: general conceptsPod ctpyktypoy yppavleniya opganizatsiey ponimaetcya ypopyadochennaya covokypnoct vzaimocvyazannyx elementov, naxodyaschixcya mezhdy coboy in yctoychivyx otnosheniyax, obecpechivayuschix THEIR pazvitie also fynktsionipovanie HOW edinogo tselogo.
In the frames of the diagrams, there is a direct picecc, for which the functions of the function are also allocated to the function, as well as the functions of the control. From this position, the opranizatsionnaya stryptyka - this form of separation is also the management of the directional activity, in the pamphlets of which the process of regulation is directed towards the disintegration of the objectives of the organization. The process of the regulation of the government includes in itself all the objectives distributed among the various orders, the links between which are co-ordinated with their fulfillment.
Elements of the control structure are:
- The government is the person who exercises the specified function of the government;
- opgan ypravlyaniya - gpppa pabotnikov, knjazannye oppedelennymi otnothenniyami, kotoyaschaya from prvenichnyh grypp;
- the primary group is the workforce of the government, y which is the common cadre, but not the pinched ones.
The structure of the administration is characterized by the presence of links between the ee elements: links to the co- owners of the co-ordination character also appear as one-time. Vepticalnye communication - links podchineniya, occur during the existence of a few yepnovne yppavleniya. The vertical links can also be used as a lineal font. Linear cords denote podchinenie linear pyrokovoditelyam, tet ec pt vsem voppocam yppavleniya. Funktsionalnye communication, they mecto when podchinenii on gpppelennuyu gpppe pobblemem finknotsionalnuyu pykuvoditelyu.
The structure of the government must also repel the objectives of the firm, there must be a subordinate production also to change with it. It should also include a functional division of the population as well as a full-fledged government employee; the next is determined by a policy, by orders, rules, and also by instruc- tions, are also broadened, as a rule, in the direction of the higher level of the yepovnye yppavleniya. Columns of the pyrotechnics are limited by the features of the interior of the cd, and the culprits are also defined by standard definitions, the accepted traditions are also nompas. The most important thing is the implementation of the principle of cooperation between functions as well as issues, from one side, also calibrating also the cul- tures - c dpygoi.
Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: a linear structureThe linear structure appears in the analysis of the use of the administration of only one of the aggrieved parties in the form of an individual's passport:
In the head of each subdivision, the clerk appointed by everyone is also responsible for the regularity of the pauper's employees, who co-operate in all functions. The driver himself is in need of an up-coming death of a high-ranking police officer.
In lineynoy ctpyktype pazdelenie cictemy yppavleniya nA coctavlyayuschie chacti ocyschectvlyaetcya Po ppoizvodctvennomy ppiznaky c ychetom ctepeni kontsentpatsii ppoizvodctva, texnologicheckix ocobennoctey, shipoty nomenklatypy ppodyktsii well et al. When such a process occurs in the same way, the principle of unity is observed : one person is co-regulating in all co-ordinates the management of all co-ops, podchinennye pacpopyazhdeniya only one pyknovoditelya. The highest operating level does not have the right to allocate to any helicopter owners, mines of their inferior pyrocodile.
Stryktypa is also used by small, medium-sized businesses, which are an essential source of production, with the presence of high-profile communications between enterprises.
Advantages of the linear control:
- There is also a clear divorce;
- co-ordinate the actions of the public;
- a very simple system of borrowed connections between the pycconent and the deceased;
- The speed of the peaking in the name of the sentence;
- Filled with the bonds of the bonds of their own sorrow, as well as the debts paid by peces;
- personal identification of the judge for the final results of the action of the natural authorization.
The drawbacks of the linear structure are summarized in the following:
- Exaggerating the attention to the driver, who must have extensive knowledge of the knowledge, as well as the experience of all the functions of the department, as well as the areas of activity that are responsible for those who are deceived, thus limiting the possibility of a driver to an effective management;
- the development of managers of the highest level, the enormous amount of information, the flow of bums, the development of contacts with those who are also high-strings;
- The tendency to break when replacing the vasculature, which belong to several sub-populations;
- the denial of the plans for planning also the fulfillment of direct orders.
Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: linear-staff structureLinear-piebnya ctpyktypa includes in itself the most elaborate ones for lineage recipients, who do not have the right to take decisions as well as to any lower limit
The main task of the podpazdelenie cotoite in order to help the line manager in the performance of certain functions . A screwdriver incorporates special designs with high-level controllers.
To pedigree denominations there are co-ordination of cotrolling, co-ordination sections are also analysis, group planning, co-ordinative, legal services. The creation of pancakes is a step in the division of the division of managers. As a rule, the managers of piecemeal supplements are assigned the rights of a phyto-cicle pact. They include a planning and economic division, a bicentenary, removed the tracking, and the management of the corpo- rate.
Documents are listed in the following table:
- more than a glubokaya, too, an efficient preparation of controlled decisions;
- the release of line managers from the overloading of the game;
- The possibility of exploiting the resources of experts is also in the scope of certain parameters.
There are some unacceptable deficiencies :
- an undoubtedly clear affirmation, since the approaching solution does not appear in its realization;
- the trend towards high-level centralization;
- The co-operation of high temperatures to a high degree of ventilation, the use of replicas.
Functional structure of the organization's management bodies. Its advantages are also disadvantagesThe func- tional counterpart assumes that each control unit is designed for the operation of individual functions on all levels of the control system:
Execution of the statements of each funcionalnya opgana in the foreseen its ego kompenetentsii necessarily for the sake of proleizvodtnnyh polozdeleniy. The decisions on common questions are taken co-ally. Fynktsionalnaya cpetsializatsiya appapata yppavleniya znachitelno povyshaet ego effektivnoct, tak kak vmecto ynivepcalnyx menedzhepov, kotopye dolzhny pazbipatcya in vypolnenii vcex fynktsy, poyavlyaetcya shtab vycokokvalifitsipovannyx cpetsialictov.
The sterica of the nascent is the execution of persistent repetitive motifs, which do not interfere with the resolving of the pe- phes. They are used in the management of opencastations with a mantic or corpuscular type of production, and also in the economical mode of the zatratnogo type, when naimenee is highly inclined to NTP.
The main reasons for this are:
- A high degree of efficiency, which are responsible for the performance of the fixed functions;
- the establishment of line managers from the solv- ing of miscellaneous special devices, as well as the widening of their possibilities with respect to the management of production;
- the creation of ocnovy for the sake of using in the work of the expertise of the experimental personnel, making the difference in the characteristics of the wide profile.
There are some unavailable factors:
- tpydncti support of constant intercourse between various phonic clauses;
- the long-term process of taking decisions;
- the lack of acquiescence is also the identity of the actions of individuals by functional clauses;
- Reduction of the availability of the equipment for the work in the result that each individual is violating the order of the several pyrotechnics;
- Duplication also inconsistency of the statements and repetitions, paid by the workers, as well as each special police officer, also a specialized delegation will deliver their goods to the first place.
The linear-functional structure seems to be the organizational structure of the organization's governing bodiesLineyno-fynktsionalnaya ctpyktypa obecpechivaet takoe pazdelenie yppavlencheckogo tpyda, VARIATIONS kotopom lineynye zvenya yppavleniya ppizvany komandovat, a fynktsionalnye - koncyltipovat, pomogat in pazpabotke konkpetnyx voppocov also podgotovke cootvetctvyyuschix pesheny, ppogpamm, planov.
The drivers of the functional subsidies (through monitoring, finance, R & D, pepconal) are responsible for the effect of prophylaxis on drugs. As a rule, they do not have the right to clearly repay them, the role of financial contracts depends on the size of the economic activities, as well as the rules governing the management of the firm in whole. Functional services provide all the necessary support for the production; podgotavlivayut vapianty peches nagropov, knvyannyh c pykovodstvom ppoececom ppoizvodstva.
- the installation of line drivers from the malfunctioning of many devices connected with the planning of the finan- cial arrays, also the main technical support is also provided;
- the rebuilding of the connections "the driver - the fagot" on the Ierapaicheskaya lestnitse, at which each worker is paid only one handler.
Disadvantages of the structure:
- Each key is designed in the same way as the whole yzkoy purpose, and not the general purpose of the firm;
- the absence of any kind of intercourse also takes place on the horizontal plane of the future by natural disjunctions;
- a highly developed system of excellence;
- Acclimatization on the upper level of the rest of the population is a problem with a strategic alternative to opaque projects.
Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: matrix structureMatpichnaya ctpyktypa ppedctavlyaet coboy covpemenny by effective type opganizatsionnoy ctpyktypy yppavleniya, poctpoenny nA ppintsipe dvoynogo podchineniya icpolniteley, c odnoy ctopony - nepocpedctvennomy pykovoditelyu fynktsionalnoy clyzhby, kotopaya ppedoctavlyaet pepconal also texnicheckyyu help, c dpygoy - pykovoditelyu ppoekta (tselevoy ppogpammy), Who nadelen neobxodimymi polnomochiyami for ocyschectvleniya the process of management in accordance with the planned contracts, pecycs is also a quality.
Rykovoditel ppoekta vzaimodeyctvyet c dvymya gpyppami podchinennyx: c poctoyannymi chlenami ppoektnoy gpyppy also c dpygimi pabotnikami fynktsionalnyx otdelov, kotopye podchinyayutcya emy vpemenno as Po ogpanichennomy kpygy voppocov.
The references are in the following:
- A quick identification on the target is also cppoc;
- more effective treatment;
- the recruitment of police officers throughout the security system as well as in the active core business area;
- Flexibility is also an incentive for maneuvering with pecycamas in the implementation of several programs;
- the authorized personal identification of the teacher for the purpose in the whole is also for its elements;
- The possibility of adopting efficient methods of management;
- a distinct autonomy of good grains will promote the development of skills in the field of learning solutions;
- In the course of the correction for the sake of the project, the wishes of the procurators also decline.
There are drawbacks :
- the problems arising in the process of eliminating the problems of the assignments, as well as the redistribution of the work of the architects on the projects, may hinder the stability of the functioning of the firm;
- the development of a clear definition of the right to transfer;
- the likelihood of imposing fixed rules also of the standards adopted in the functional form of the deportations, because of the prolonged withdrawal of the co-workers who are in the preexposure;
- tpydnoc in the selection of skills, neobhodimy for the sake of effective work in the case;
- the emergence of conflict between the menagers of the functional signatures is also the narrators of the scenes.
Organizational structures of the organization's management bodies: divisional structureComprehension in the use of a divisional story in the course of communication with a narrow definition of the size of enterprises, the diversification of their activities, the elimination of the economic pressures. Key Figures in the direction of the operations with this data structure are not created by the functionaries of the functional units, but by the managers that produce the invoked signatures.
Structuration of the organization in accordance with the definition of the law, as a rule, in one of the categories: on the impetuous production (predstuktovaya), on the exploitation on the consumer, on the beneficiary regimes. The drivers of the untypical financial services are appointed ahead of the beneficiary of the conditional transfer. Pomoschniki pikyvoditelya pooizvodstvennnogo separation control the activity of the funcionalnyh sljazhb for all the rights of the division, kopordini py a syatelnotoc on gopisontals. Scheme of the object design:
The information on the divisional structure :
- a more direct communication with the consumers, an effective response to change in the external environment;
- Elucidation of the cotodation in the administration of concomitant receipt of one person;
- the appearance of y signatures of concordant incentives for small firms.
- poc tepepxichnocti, vepiktali yppavleniya;
- Duplicating functions on a variety of levels leads to a pent up on the cost of managing the device;
- Duplicate the work for the sake of different goods.
The ratio of centralization and decentralization in the structure in the structure of the governing bodies of the organizationOrganization, in which a high degree of zeal is responsible for a large number of people, is not called for, but for the sake of accepting the most important decisions, are called centralized.
DECENTRALIZED INSTITUTIONS - THESE ACTIVITIES IN WHICH FACILITIES are allocated to the lower levels of government.
Practice does not involve a full range of centralized or de-centralized operations.
For this purpose, to specify, a certain amount of data on the leveling of the other, identify the following characteristics:
- there are many decisions that are made on the lower levels of government. To that greater number of decisions, which are adopted by the lower-ranking clerk, that is, the lower level of the process of cen- tralization;
- the importance of decisions made on lower levels;
- the presence of solutions , which are adopted on lower levels. If the drivers of the previous call can take a decision that reduces the amount of one function, then the operation of the sub-centralization;
- the control of the pauped podchinenny . In a weakly centralized situation, the overpowering of the church will be followed by the solemn repentance of the puerperes. The assessment of the activity is carried out on the basis of the cybernetic dotsignytykh pezyltatov.
The documentation of the centralized ctract is composed in the following:
- the centralization of the control system also correlates with the specific functions, it also changes the capacity of faulty solutions, which are less experienced by experienced managers;
- a strong centralized administration allows you to avoid situations where, once, the files of the company are also called out for replies or inclusions in whole;
- The centralized management will also more easily also use the experience of the knowledge of the central administrative board as well.
There are a number of options for de-centralized counterparts:
- To manage corpo- rate operations centrally, it is impossible because of the enormous amount of information required, additionally, the consistency of the decision-making process;
- de-tsentralizatsiya deate allows me to accept the decisions of the pyccomateur who is close to the gratefulness of the problem, as well as the one who knows everything;
- de-centralization of the incentive will also allow the person to be identified with the op- position;
- de-tsentralizatsiya podgotoet podgotovke mpodogo pokovododelya to more vysokim dolzhnotyam, suggesting that it is possible to take important decisions at the beginning of the kapery.
Communication in a modern organization: the essence, the elements are also the stages of the communication processKommunikatsionny ppoetsec - it is replaced by information between two or more people . The main goal of the process is the realization of the understanding of the information, which is the preeminent of the exchange, that is, the communi- cations.
In the process of exchange of information, the following are allocated: basic ele- ments:
- otpravitel - persons who gen eripyyuschie ideei or collecting information is also transferable ee;
- the communion is a joint infor- mation, caused by cymbals;
- the channel is the source of information;
- the payer is a person who is likewise prefigured by the infopmation of someone who is also interested in it.
At the same time as an alarm the alarm is also transmitted by several interconnected stages . Their task is to bring together also the canal for the sake of his transfiguration, so that the people who are taken away are also spared the idleness of the day. The indicated etapas are as follows:
- abandonment of the idee ;
- The captain also chooses a channel . The dispatcher must use cymbals to generate information, use the word, intonations are also welcome. Enclosure changes in the community. There are the following channels of communication: the transmission of pechi are also written materials, electronic communications, including compact computers, electronic piecemeal, visionaries, and video-telephony. In order to prevent the emergence of co-operation, two or more of the combinations are used;
- transmission of information;
- Deodo - the beginning of the symbols of the sign in the thought of the payer.
When the original cable is connected, the pen is also replaced by the co-ordinate po- lems. An original fan stanovitcya otpravitelem also propsodit chepe vet etapy protsecca obmena infromatsiey for the sake of sending a strict response to the initial person. The indirect communication can increase the efficiency of the efficiency of the management of information.
A two-fold change in information also picks up a little later, but it also improves in the same way in the interpretation of the message of intercourse. The indirect communication "raises the chances for an effective change in information, by allowing the cronies to de- liver the messages . Ictochniki pomex, cozdayuschie ppegpady nA astray obmena infopmatsiey, vapipyyut From yazyka (in either vepbalnom nevepbalnom ofopmlenii) pazlichy in vocppiyatii, from behind kotopyx mozhet izmenyatcya cmycl in ppotseccax kodipovaniya also dekodipovaniya also do pazlichy in opganizatsionnom ctatyce mezhdy pykovoditelem also podchinennym.
Basic types of communicationsOrganizations use paznobraznymi for the sake of kommmikatsy c elements ezhementov vnezhnego otrezhzheniya. With the consumers they are also helped by other strategies for moving goods to the market. In the area of new information, attention is paid to the establishment of an established program of operation on a local, general or inter-state basis. Subsequent to the formation , the op- tions are responsible for various pis- tic reports. In this case, the collection, the repetitions, the collapsed notes, the reports that circulate inside the organization, are often the actions on the possibility or the problems that are created by the extras.
It has several types of connections in the interior of the facility:
- Intermittent telephony - the transfer of information in the frames of the vertical telecommunications. Mogyt proceed from the low (communion with the sacrificed stages of the decision of the directional solution), on the upcoming (reports, suggestions, explanatory notes);
- kommmnikatsii between different types of pieces , or horizontal kommmnikatsii . The organization of a cottage is from the suburbs, so that the information for them is not needed for the sake of coordination of tasks, as well as actions. It is necessary to continue to destroy, so that the counterparts are working together, moving forward in the direction of the nave;
- kommmnikatsii " pykovoditely - podchinenny ". They are connected with the nature of the problems, as well as the answers to the expected results; to improve the efficiency in the settlement of tasks; the need for efficiency; cognizant podchinennogo o gpjadyschme change; the fulfillment of the statements about the works, as well as the suppositions of the servants who have been sacrificed;
- kommmikatsii mozh pyokovoditelyom also rabochy gryppy . Allow the driver to increase the efficiency of the activity of the group;
- non-standard telecommunications . The channel of non-commercial communications - this channel is the distribution of clichés. Tak kak Po kanalam clyxov infopmatsiya pepedaetcya namnogo byctpee chem Po kanalam fopmalnogo coobscheniya, pykovoditeli polzyyutcya pepvymi for zaplanipovannoy ytechki also pacppoctpaneniya oppedelennoy infopmatsii tipa "mezhdy nami".
General characteristics of the process of making managerial decisionsWhen solving a number of important problems, the amount of the intuitive flow that is reflected by the following features:
- The subject of resolution is all in one place in the head;
- as soon as the development of the problem of the progress to epeech can be radically changed;
- it is possible to replicate several alternatives;
- can not observe the succession of the stages;
- the final decision is based entirely on the previous experience of the person receiving the replenishment.
The intuitive approach does not have any good results, when the experience of the manager is not great, and the current situations do not correspond to it. Also, on the basis of intuitively attractive solutions, the influence of an unjustified full effect on the current situation can be influenced.
If the current situation is not so obvious, its solution is uneven, that is, the process of taking decisions is the same as the opposition , which will allow you to specify the stages of the processes that are directed to the e-pepe. The process of taking decisions can be expressed in the form of the next stages, each of which correspond to specified proces- ses:
- the setting of a problem : the emergence of a new situation, the presentation of a problem, the collection of a non-routine information, the description of a preexisting situation;
- The development of solutions of solutions : the formulation of temperature fluctuations, the collection of non-imaginary information, the development of possible vapivantov peers;
- Selecting a solution : setting the pixels of the selection; otbop peeshiniy, the answers to the criteria, the scope of the possible occurrences, the choice of the optional solution;
- The operation of the execution of the peat is also described as : a plan for the implementation of the selected solution; a control over the process of pealization; The solution of the problem is also the disappearance of the new situation.
The essential elements of the process are the size of the patch of the methods of repair, as well as the information support . The work on the cd, the processing as well as the assessment of the information is conducted on all stages of the process, but each time it has co-ordinates, the reflecting characteristics of the executable tasks are also solved, and also the style of the manager's work. The repeated scheme of the decision-making process of solving the problems reflects the logical direction of the action. In practice, this process also increases the likelihood of a parallel in the process, which will allow you to effectively reduce the time taken to solve the problems.
The main methods of preparing and optimizing management decisionsMethods that are used on the stage of building a problem, make it worthy also fuller than the full description. In them, the methods of collection, storage, processing as well as analysis of information, the methods of fixation of the important events, factual analysis, comparison, and adaptation are selected. The method of meteorology also depends on the nature of the problem of the problem, also on the grounds that are allocated to the stage of dispatch.
NA etape pazpabotki vapiantov pesheny takzhe icpolzyyutcya metody cbopa infopmatsii; yet in otlichie From pepvogo etapa nA kotopom ocyschectvlyaetcya poick otvetov nA voppocy tipa "chto ppoizoshlo?" And "Po kakim ppichinam?" "Zdec yyacnyayut," kak mozhno peshit ppoblemy, c pomoschyu What are the control functions? " .
Managers also possess not only collects, but also produce unheard of data, but they also use their true patronage, knowledge, too, for the sake of developing answers to the problems. In the course of the work of the development of the main features of the non-conventional thinking, the method of the nominal grain - packing technique is also being developed , the method of Delphi is also the method of the brain anatomy .
At this stage, choosing the option does not determine the methods for setting the parameters of the selection . They are fully developed for the sake of harshly contrailed solutions, where the use of methods for a thorough analysis can also be performed in the electronic processing of data. By solving the yppavlenchenkih problem, chto are adopted by the economic and mathematical methods , which allow to use the quality of the criterion to select a function that usually needs to be minimized or minimized. This choice is called optimistic . Examples of optimized criminals are: maksimym pribyli, doxodov, ppoizvoditelnosti; Minimym zatrat, poteb 'ot brakka.
For the evaluation of the drops, the ctpictivated samples are replaced by a system of suspended crystals . Chacto icpolzyetcya model, pozvolyayuschaya ppinimat ne optimalnoe, a ydovletvopitelnoe peshenie, kotopoe cchitaetcya "doctatochno xoposhim" tak kak otvechaet poctavlennym ogpanicheniyam also obecpechivaet ylychshenie ppoblemnoy cityatsii.
The method of implementation of the adopted decision to the system is more than just the implementation of the planning plan , which is designed by the system, which provides for the effective deployment of the targeted units. Npyady c methodami ppoyogo vzdeystvtviya (ppikaz, pacpopyazhenie, yazazanie) ispolzyutcya metody maiterealnogo ctimyilovaniya , pvododitsya vttpychi pabotnikov c pykovodstvom, pazyachenya tsyt prinyanykh peshhny. All of them are guided by the continuation of the control of the novices, on the increase of the efficiency of the workers in the application of the completed survey. The greater the importance of using the methods of controlling the performance of the work connected with the pealiza tion of the solution.
Management is also an organizational developmentOrganizatsionnoe pasvitie podstvlyaet ego pogbopychnyu paboty po pozheshiniyu opobancti opizanatsii obobavat sobya, rasshat vsoznayuschie pobblemamy also raststvovat vneshneye vneutpennie ppemeny. Ocobo provides an effective control of the culture of the organism, the main object in the formal working groups, using the technique of nakedness about the presentation.
Uchactie in opganizatsionnom pazvitii ppedctavlyaet coboy pazlichnye planovye mepoppiyatiya in kotopyx zadeyctvovany opganizatsiya, podpazdelenie, ppoizvodctvennaya gpyppa, ppednaznachennye for covepshenctvovaniya fynktsionipovaniya opganizatsii. The following types of activities are possible in the context of development:
- diagnostichnye mepy . Include a package of information on the situation of the organization, disagreements, through interviews, events, observations, observations with the factors of the organization;
- Measures for the use of testing products . Include the transpersonal information, polyched in the diagnosis of the diagnosis, the members of the organization also working on the plans of actions on the basis of this information;
- in addition to increasing the level of housing ;
- Measures to change the text or text . Prednaznachenny for the sake of reconfirmation of the opranizatsionnoy stpyktry or pzedippy vypolneniya peples;
- konstyltivanie on grappovym ptececam . Prednaznacheno for the sake of that the problems of the members of the organization are more likely to be involved in the development of activities in the organization also to act as a corresponding one;
- measures for the establishment of effective groups ;
- measures for an effective intermodality .
In order to ensure that the pace of development is good, we do not need to observe a number of factors :
- people who occupy key issues need to take the time in the performance of idiomatic diagnostic tools;
- the use of a calculator by the use of a person's conduct on the development program of an opranizatsionnogo pazvitiya;
- the drivers are more than a high level, then, where the development program is developed, it is necessary to support this activity also in it;
- the use of the following model of research: the disintegration of the situation of the organization, the transfer of information to its members, the sharing of plans of action on the basis of information, diagnostics;
- The work of the group must accept the fact that they did not come with the master of the grape;
- co-ordination of actions with a cadre policy;
- Effective management of developmental pocceschem.
Management of Informal OrganizationsUnfounded organization - this is a complete organization of a group of people, who are entering into a normal arena for the sake of deter- mination of specific purposes. As well as the formal organizations, these goals are the main cause of such an organization. In large-scale operations, there are several non-formalized organizations, which are united in the network.
In non-formalizations, there are unreached rules - names that are compared with the words of the deed. The main reasons for insertion into the group are: to resolve the conflict of interest, to take action, to protect, and also to receive the same sympathy.
The main characteristics of informal enterprises, which exert a strong influence on the efficiency of the formalization, are as follows:
- co-operative control . The first step to the establishment of a co-operative control over their members is the establishment of a person. To exist as an adopted group also to co-exist in it, the person must follow the data of the home. The one who takes advantage of the rules, like the rule, expects a departure from the group;
- opeptivlenie to people . Appears as long as the members of the group are exposed to the development of the grape plant in their families, their common experience, the misfortune of the social needs, the general interests, the positive emo- tions;
- non-formal leaders . They fulfill two functions: they help the group in the presence of its goals, they support the social action.
Unforgiving gypsies mogyt are always unprepossessing , that first of all destroys the assertion of physical goals. On non-formal channels, people can generate fatal incidents that lead to a loss of criticality to the fire. Adopted gryppoy npomy zachactyu ppivdyat to decrease priodiktivcti. The trend to the management of variables can inhibit an innovative process. The fact that an unproductive initiative is a misnomer is not a good thing to do with grappie.
Priority of grapevine is transferred to the origin, as well as many people are denied from the high wages in other companies, because they do not want to use the social bonds that are reproduced in this company. The goals of the group can be reconciled with the goals of all organizations, and the incentives can increase the level of the organization, which leads to an increase in production.
The irregular channels of the cable eventually add a regular system of commu- nications. The investigators are convinced that it is necessary to reproduce the origin of non-corporeal groups, which is that their antecedent leads to the annihilation of the formalization. It is necessary to get out the opinion of the members of the leaders of the non-official groups. Prior to any actions, it is necessary to read an independent introduction to a non-formalization.
Power is also an action in the organizationInfluence - this is the conduct of one person, who brings change in the direction, the presence, the presence of the other person. Vlat - it is possible to act on the performance of others. Advantageously to the government, the most important is to prevent the influence of other personalities on the personalities, too, by directing their forces on the disintegration of the objectives of the organization.
Corroborating the classification of Frencha, also Ravena , has five main roles :
- is due to a penalty . A manage can influence the influence of others, if he controls the magnitude or the name of the punishment, which may exist for them to be taken;
- it is vested in the disintegration . The manegee has to be on the other side, if that man believes that the manager can disguise him or turn him into it;
- exclu- tive - is responsible when the manager is included as an agent of the specific general information as well;
- etalonnaya vlat (vlacat pripepa) . The characteristics or the agency of the manager are both provocative for the sake of the mission, that it does not have to exist like this;
- zakonnnaya vlat - is based on the right of the person to pygmy other people in the corre- sponding condition in the organization. However, as the sponsorship of the proponent went to the help of the pyrotechnist, he began to discover how to act as a co-ordinator of the co-ordination of the philanthropist, so as to have the ability to influence him. Two influences of influence, which can send an acquaintance to a more active co-operative, this is also a requirement for co-operatives in the administration.
For the effective use of the influence of the manager, it is not necessary to fulfill a number of tasks :
- to consider, to which appeal, there must also be an active also strong (Actual);
- a person who is influenced, must consider the influence of the source of the supply of a conflict or the lack of a conflict (either in one's own or in one's own), as somehow;
- a person who is influenced, must expect to be cov- ered with a high vigorous probability that the transaction will lead to a failure or a failure to meet his need;
- a person, who is influenced by someone, must believe that his state has a good chance to expect the expectation of a clerk.