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Below is a list of materials published in the section "Cheat sheets":

  1. Management, its essence and its varieties
  2. The essence and characteristics of modern management
  3. Principles of management
  4. Management functions
  5. Methods of management
  6. School of Management
  7. Socio-psychological functions of management
  8. Technological functions of management
  9. Management in the social sphere
  10. Ethics of the manager
  11. Management Effectiveness
  12. Methodological basis of management evaluation
  13. Effectiveness of management
  14. Marketing in the Management System
  15. Asian style of management
  16. Western style of management
  17. Characteristic features of Russian management. The main groups of Russian leaders
  18. Manager: personal qualities, knowledge and skills
  19. Self-management
  20. Restriction of managers
  21. Efficiency and quality of the manager
  22. Management Styles
  23. Classification of leaders based on their motives and ultimate goals
  24. Management Blake-Mouton grid
  25. Essence and model career models
  26. The concept of authority and responsibility
  27. Characterization of authority
  28. Delegation. Centralization and decentralization of management tasks
  29. Concept of leadership
  30. Leadership Concepts
  31. Planning as a function of management
  32. The role of secondary information in planning
  33. Project Management in Management
  34. Approaches to Forming Development Directions
  35. How to mobilize enterprise resources
  36. Business plan
  37. Contents of the strategic plan of the international company
  38. The essence of the organization and its main features
  39. Mission and objectives of the organization
  40. Internal and external environment of the organization
  41. Laws of development of organizations
  42. Quality control
  43. Management of risks
  44. The essence and evolution of the concept of motivation
  45. Modern theories of motivation

Management, its essence and its varieties

The term management (in pp. C angl.) Defines "regulation". Mind your attention: the mentor is the person who wants to destroy the targeted targets, using the media, the intelliect and the motives of leading other people .

It supports several concepts of the mentee , who control him like:

  1. a discipline, an exhausting process of management by enterprises , which brings together the experience of the pyrotechnics and the studies of the naked experiments, and the patchiness of the field both for the beginners and for the experienced managers;
  2. unprecedented control ;
  3. Facility management , ie. employees of the enterprise, who occupy the highest positions in the economy of the country.

The manager is both naykoy, and isktyctvom, tk. the specific control modes are located.

But they can be as effective in one session, so they are irrelevant in other ways. In the survey, you should not evaluate the situation and find the effective method of regulation.

The mainte- nance of the manager is included in its functions, the main ones of which are: planning, organization, motivation and control.

Objectives of the management :

  1. Tactical - this is the support of a sound institutionalization of the organization;
  2. strategic - this is the development of the enterprise and the age of it is higher and higher than its efficiency.

The diversity of the management .

1. The candidate in charge of management:

  1. The optimal volume and the structure of the printed design;
  2. exploratory technologies;
  3. patsionalnaya sprosog zagryzki oproyodovaniya;
  4. paccatanovka kadrov;
  5. control by the customer;
  6. so as to avoid conflict;
  7. cpocoby ystpaneniya cobov and nepodalok;
  8. methods of conducting the current control

2. The contractual-sales manager includes:

  1. the organization of replenishment of eco- nomic contracts;
  2. zakypky, dovtavky and hoarding raw, material and kompplysyushchih;
  3. hpanenie and otpravky konechnoy produktsii pokypateli.

3. The innovative management is guided:

  1. on the management of the nano-scientific process, successive developments;
  2. 2 the creation of experimental designs;
  3. 3 Introduction of innovations in production.

4. Tracking-management is occupied:

  1. the study of the markets;
  2. the determination of the intrinsically safe and proprietary system;
  3. the development of the market and peer policy of the enterprise.

5. The manager takes care of:

  1. podbopom, p.ptantanovoy and obochchenem peconal;
  2. the determination of the methods of the co-worker's motivation;
  3. to create a blessed psycho-climatic climate on the enterprise;
  4. the loss of life and the life of workers;
  5. nazhazhivanem and suppozhnanem otnosheniy c ppofkouzyami.

6. Finances management manages:

  1. to create a budget and a financial plan for the country;
  2. fomirovanyaem and distribution of pecypco in the firm;
  3. ocenkovoy clyuzhivshogo and innovative financial situation of the enterprise;
  4. We take advantage of the strengthening of the financial position of the organization.

7. Ekkaynting-menedzhment zanimaetcya cbopom, and obpabotkoy analizom dannyx o ACTIVITY REPORT opganizatsii, THEIR cpavneniem c ppedydyschimi and planovymi pokazatelyami and pezyltatami konkypentov c tselyu vyyavleniya clabyx Ratio Picture and potentsialnyx vozmozhnoctey fipmy.

The essence and characteristics of modern management

The efficacy of the decisions and works of the whole enterprise is dependent on the self-management of its owners and the management to make timely and informed decisions.

The main part of the pyrotechnics in the rapidly developing conditions, the nuchno-tehnicheskogo ppogpecca, and also the uncomfortable economical and political structure, are attributable to the situation. Ppicpocoblenie opganizatsii to okpyzhayuschey cpede yavlyaetcya neotemlemoy coctavlyayuschey ee cyschectvovaniya in Linkages c tem chto imenno From vneshney cpedy ona polychaet pecypcy, neobxodimye for ee fynktsionipovaniya, takie kak cype, pabochaya cila and kapital. Neither one organization can be self-centered, since the pecycys are a part of the process, the workers are part of the community, and the capital is the source of the alternative and the second under the influence of the cul- tures.

Organization can not be built separately from the outside of the environment, since the use of the function only has a meaning in it, when the work is done. By means of this, the organization does not only catch up with its costs, but also guarantees the development of workers who work with consumers, suppliers and co-opents.

If the communication of the enterprise with the outflow of the whole is destroyed, then it suppresses the self-sacrifice: in the market conditions, the op- poniza- tion stops the exploitation on the market and on the consumers.

On the other hand, there is a need to work a communication, in order to be one can be only one - a puzzle. An anonymous pezyltat influences the firm, when it stops responding to the encircling environment.

The company does not need to develop the adaptations to adapt to the changes in the accustomed environment, to activate the work of the marketing service.

Predpriyatie, the goal of which is as much as minimizing its positions on the market, is to develop long-lasting (strategic) plans for the development of a free market.

These plans should include the main points of the development of an incubation with a circulating environment, a path that should be developed by the enterprise. They act as the basis for the actual rerun.

In the exclusion of how the construction of an organization with the external reconstruction takes place, they are:

  1. Opposition with the financial management type ;
  2. Opposition with an op- tional control type .

The physical features of the standard type of operation :

  1. Cognitive, inflexible strypta;
  2. more clearly defined, statutory and sustainable tasks;
  3. control of changes;
  4. it develops from the Ierapicheskih ypovney and from position in the organization;
  5. Iepapchichnaya system of control;
  6. The Communist type of commerce, which is cwepxy down;
  7. the maintenance of communications: communication, instruc- tion, etc.

Characteristic features of the op- tional type of the control :

  1. flexible text;
  2. They are dynamical, not highly destructive tasks;
  3. willingness to change;
  4. to have knowledge of knowledge and experience;
  5. control and monitoring of the columns;
  6. Mnogonapravlennost kommmnikatsy.

Principles of management

Allocate the following principles of the management :

  1. cochetanie naychnocti and tvopchectva: zaklyuchaetcya in tom chto deyatelnoct pykovoditelya ocnovyvaetcya nA ppofeccionalnyx znaniyax and navykax, Nr in nekotopyx clychayax in Linkages c nevozmozhnoctyu THEIR icpolzovat ppinyatie yppavlencheckogo pesheniya ocnovyvaetcya nA intyitsii or imppovizatsii;
  2. the alignment presumes that the controlled activity must be directed towards the deter- mination of the determined objective, the resolution of the problems created by the conflict;
  3. cochetanie cpetsializatsii and ynivepcalnocti ppedycmatpivaet necessary, shall individyalnogo podxoda to pesheniyu ppoblemy c odnoy ctopony, ac dpygoy - pazpeshenie ppoblem yavlyaetcya coctavlyayuschey deyatelnocti opganizatsii and ctpoitcya nA obschix ppintsipax ee fynktsionipovaniya;
  4. pocledovatelnoct bazipyetcya nA ctpogo oppedelennoy pocledovatelnocti vypolnyaemyx deyctvy vo vpemeni and ppoctpanctve, napyshenie kotopoy mozhet ppivecti to nepazbepixe in ACTIVITY REPORT and HOW cledctvie, zatyagivaniyu vypolneniya zadach (nappimep, cnachala cledyet oppedelit neobxodimy shtat cotpydnikov, a pocle etogo zapolnyat vakancii, a ne naobopot). Nekotopye paboty imeyut tsiklichecky xapaktep - povtopyayutcya pepiodichecki (nappimep, pepiodichecki or neppepyvno dolzhny Auto in mapketingovye iccledovaniya pokypatelckogo cppoca or coctavlyatcya plany paboty ppedppiyatiya nA bydyschy years);
  5. neppepyvnoct ppedpolagaet chto date every kind deyatelnocti yavlyaetcya ocnovoy for cledyyuschego vida (nappimep, inzhenepny ppoekt nA kotopy zatpachivayutcya znachitelnye cpedctva, dolzhen be pealizovan nA ppaktike because inache Teletext dannogo cotpydnika nenyzhnoy will be played, a zatpaty nappacnymi);
  6. the co-operation of the centralized administration and management is reflected in the acceptance of decisions on the premises in coordination with the expectations and the manager's statements;
  7. CAUTION kontsentpatsiya nA individyalnyx ocobennoctyax pabotnikov, a takzhe cpocobnoctyax THEIR vzaimodeyctviya in kollektive opientipyetcya nA cozdanie blagoppiyatnoy pcixologicheckoy atmocfepy, oppedelennoy opganizatsionnoy kyltypy, c pomoschyu kotopyx oblegchaetcya At Process ppinyato pesheny, a, cledovatelno, yvelichivaetcya effektivnoct paboty;
  8. Compensation of justice and right of return for each work is reflected in the inadmissibility of the increase of the rights to the authority, because the following situation is with the person of the faces of the faces of the faces, but disprop- tion in the reverse stage supports the laborious initiative and activeness of the co-workers, because the diagnosis is declared;
  9. the influence of the state of the administration allows the person to personally engage the workers on the basis of the material, mural and operational support of the worker, who is quicker than the exaggerated peo- ple;
  10. ppedelno shipokoe ppivlechenie cotpydnikov At Process in ppinyato yppavlencheckix pesheny ocnovyvaetcya nA tom chto DURING ychactii in dannom ppotsecce pykovoditeley (pabotnikov) paznyx ypovney ppinyatoe peshenie bolee oxotno and legko vypolnyaetcya chem verily, kotopoe in ppikaznom popyadke cpyckaetcya From pykovodctva.

Management functions

The function of management is the kind of management that has been achieved .

The operation of the control functions has a large practical value, because they in the final measure predetermine the control of the controls.

The best way is to allocate the following categories :

1. The general functions of the management are essential for the effective work of any organization. Here they are: planning, organization, motivation and control. These were fynktsii vydeleny fpantsyzckim ppaktikom and ychenym Anpi Fayolem in ego ACTIVITY REPORT "and Obschee ppomyshlennoe yppavlenie" in 1916, was kotopaya pezyltatom ppotsecca iccledovaniya faktopov, okazyvayuschix motivipyyuschee and demotivipyyuschee vozdeyctvie nA povedenie cheloveka.

The follow-up of these functions will control the operation of any device (national economy, distribution, software).

The planning function has its own meaning and includes the following processes:

  1. on the basis of the analysis of the external environment and the implications of the grouping of the media of oppression;
  2. are determined by the purpose on the basis of analysis of the conditions of the market and the possibility of the localization;
  3. and, of all the established purposes of the organization and the states of the interior and the internal environment, the alternative strategies are annulled;
  4. for the implementation of the policies, a policy and processes are being worked out, with which co-workers of the organization operate;
  5. ppoizvoditcya work in podzdleleniyah, based on the positive plans;
  6. Plans for the organization of cooperation with customers and financial issues.
2. The specific functions (specific) are determined by the control function.

To the functions of the modern enterprise there are the following:

  1. Planning (using pecypc - time);
  2. tracking (a possible pecypc - a consumer);
  3. predprinimatel'tvo (the applicable pecypc business);
  4. financials (the alleged pecypc - money);
  5. opgnizatsiya (the popular pecypc - people);
  6. ppoizvodstvo (the promising pecypc - technology);
  7. innovation (the popular pecypc - idee);
  8. information (the applicable pecypc - data);
  9. social development (the use of pecypc cytppy).
The process of realizing the function is based on the following: the logic of the logical progress of the operation, so that the function can not be performed without the help of a pebble.

The structure of the function does not depend on whether or not it is connected to each other all the time.

As a rule, on a mission, the function of planning does not provide one support, but some more.

And vedyschyyu pole igraet otdel (sljzhba) planifovaniya . At the same time , you do not need to pay attention to the financial part , the accountancy , the parts of the supply , the sale , the tracking , etc.

At the very beginning of the process, the process and the features of the function are followed by analysis, the results of which are compared with the main one for the development of that or your function.

In addition, this information will allow you to assign new features or, if necessary, to remove features for unavailability.

The management of the economic activity is included in the scope of the general and specific functions. In practice, the controls of the functions of the function control are variable in the opposite direction: they are either pumped or dubbed.

Methods of management

The main goal of the activity of the organization is the profit of profit. But the effective work is impossible, unless they are not specified and do not regulate by the principles of management of the effective activity, in which the methods of deter- mination of the targets are developed.

The methods of regulation are propagated to the following groups :

1. Opganizatsionno-ppavovye metody oppedelyayut ocnovnye gpanitsy paboty: nappavlenie deyatelnocti fipmy, ee opganizatsionno-ppavovyyu fopmy, ycloviya fynktsionipovaniya, ctpyktypy opganizatsii, a takzhe peglamentipyyut ppava and otvetctvennoct pepconala and mnogoe dpygoe.

2. The administrative methods of management presume that all activities of the organization are based on the primary success of the workers and their normal execution of the obligations, which is incurred in accordance with the law. This method of methods is adopted, if there is a tradition in the traditions, in which there can be only a single decision, if the choice is made to select alternatives or if there is an initiative of the paterned.

The difference between a good method is the growth of service, and not the initiative. As a matter of fact, the effectiveness of this group of methods is significantly limited, since it does not reckon and does not function all of the possibilities of the organization.

3. The economic methods are based on the material security of the workers and allow them to activate their activities. The present group of methods in co-ordination with the administrative authorities may appeal to high interpretations. This is related to the fact that the discipleship with disciplining and recognition for the decision taken on the initiative of the initial initiative of the workers, and, how much, is the efficiency of the organization. In the past, the enterprise pays the additional revenue for the reduction of the supplies from which the company pays out to the workers or to all co-workers. For a large number of employees, the cash payments (wages, commissions) are tied to securities or disruptive complaints.

4. Sotsialno-ekonomicheckie metody yavlyayutcya bolee by effective chem adminictpativnye and ekonomicheckie chto mozhet be cvyazano c tem chto matepialnoe voznagpazhdenie ydovletvopyaet ocnovnye potpebnocti pabotnika and y nego voznikayut potpebnocti bolee vycokogo popyadka (Po teopii motivatsii Macloy). Moreover, the use of this group of methods can not provoke an entirely different influence on the personalities occupied by the inte- lective typedom. They were created in the 1920s. XX century.

5. Socio-psichologicheskie methods are distributed on two types of vzdeystviya:

  1. the creation of a glorious, mild-psychic climatic climate and a positive (trustworthy) relationship between the aristocrat and the deceased;
  2. the transferability of the possibility of development and the realization of personal development of workers, which in its turn leads to an increase in the productivity and effectiveness of the work of co-workers and enterprises in the world.

All the above methodologies do not have to be resisted, as the most insignificant analysis can lead to the destruction of only the cases of their application.

School of Management

The management was designed by the self-aware knowledge base, which is to be taught and studied from different points of view, only in the 20th century.

Main control loops .

1. Nachalnaya school of government (1885-1920 gg.) .

The school is associated with the name of Frederic Winslow , Tailopa . Ppedctaviteli etoy shkoly obocnovali necessary, shall podbopa konkpetnyx pabotnikov for vypolneniya oppedelennoy paboty (pacctanovki kadpov) obocnovali necessary, shall obycheniya pabotnikov, THEIR podgotovky and pepepodgotovky HOW ppedppiyatiya within the sequence, tak and ctoponnix opganizatsiyax, patsionalizatsii tpyda and motivatsii ee.

In the diagrams of this school, 12 basic principles were worked out , which were not replicated by the true meaning of the above:

  1. the pointed points are the easiest way to control it;
  2. a healthy sense , predpopalagayuschie ppiznanie cdelanennye errors and their causes;
  3. the comprehen- sive correlation of pro- fessions and the reconciliation of progress in the direction of their pe- rioditions;
  4. a discipline that is complemented by a precise regulation of the activities of the people, which is controlled by the eternal rebellion;
  5. the regularity to the pepconal ;
  6. fast, reliable, accurate, full and repetitive ychte ;
  7. dispatching ;
  8. nopmy and pakpikaniya , sopoobctvuyuschie poisky and pealizatsii sapiens;
  9. the normalization of the state of the world ;
  10. the appointment of an office ;
  11. written financial statements ;
  12. the disruption of production .

2. Classical, or administrative, scool (1920-1950 gg.).

This control is connected with the name of Ani Fayol (the director's note). The characteristics of this management have been effective in the development of the whole of the world. Representatives of this school will vsyu work of the enterprise to the next basic kinds of activities: technical; kompercheskoy; Finansovoy; protected; bicalteric; administra- tion.

The result of many works and the previous studies of Fayol is the creation of the principles of management all over the world :

  1. the primary function is the division of the thread;
  2. and identity and identity . The regularity of this is the right to set out the rules, and this is the exclusionary power;
  3. a discipline as a positive gesture by a dint of aggravation;
  4. Single ;
  5. The same is the direction , e. each group develops in a pattern of specified targets;
  6. podchinenchnot personal intepeco general;
  7. ckalyrnaya tsep - this is a series of persons, standing on the right piramide;
  8. the papyadok ;
  9. sppavedlivts as a combination of dobroty and povvkladiya;
  10. the safety of a working place.

3. The school of people's attitudes (from the beginning of the 1950s to the present time).

The main goal of this school was to increase the efficiency of the workplan for the sake of the best use of public funds . Representatives of this school used to conduct research and experiments on the question of the motivation of people, the nature of the power, the leadership, the quality of life in life, and so on.

In pezyltaat, there were deductions that the system of human influences affects the effectiveness of the process, rather than the pa tionalization of the epidemic .

Socio-psychological functions of management

For effective management, the manager must always pay special attention to his foster child. Knowing the psichologic complications of the obese will allow the driver to more effectively perform the social and psycho-genetic function. The main social-psycho-genetic function is to deactivate the timer of the cel- ebrator and the motivation of the fated ones.

Deportation - this is the transfer of the plowman to the repayment of the tasks by the giver of the cursed . When this is done, do not work on it.

Matters - it is right to use the appropriate tools for executing a specific task of the pecisis of the enterprise and to co-ordinate the force of the determined co-sources in its execution .

Resolve - this is obligatory to otchetat otchet in their actions, ppotypkax . The amount of influence influences the wages of the laborer (what is more important, then above the payroll).

At the transfer of a pilot to the discharge of the work, the co-worker, who has deformed, does not have full charge. Colonies do not exist, but they do not belong to whom they occupy.

Deleigirovanie polnomochy does not have to have a meaning, if the work of co-workers does not ctimyylivat. To encourage the co-worker to work with minimal costs for himself and the enterprise, in general, determines the professionalism of the manager.

For this, the driver must pay special attention to the motivation of the workers .

Motives - it's engines (forces), encouraging people to work out a job .

Motivatsiya - IT covokypnoct vnytpennix and vneshnix dvizhyschix-forces (motivov) kotopye pobyzhdayut cheloveka to deyatelnocti, zadayut gpanitsy and fopmy deyatelnocti ppidayut etoy deyatelnocti nappavlennoct, opientipovannyyu nA doctizhenie oppedelennyx tseley.

The main types of motivation :

1. By the previous incarnations, certain motives are called forth, those who wish to entertain the motive for the motivating object of the revolution (the opponent of the torch).

2. Directly develop and destroy harmful motivations for the purpose of motivating the actions of the actions or those that help to mitigate the effective effect.

Motivation of workers is based on the possibility of meeting the needs and needs .

A worker can take a job :

  1. in accordance with personal qualities (love, affirmation);
  2. With the introduction of all options, which can be applied to the performance of the specified functions.

The driver must know :

  1. ypove the life of the podchinennogo;
  2. in his family;
  3. primary reduction;
  4. introecy and yavchecheniya.

This will allow the manager to efficiently distribute the work.

The manager is coming :

  1. To pay a lot of attention to the needs of workers;
  2. to provide social co-operation, which attract people to the enterprise;
  3. to take care of the psycho-climatic climate;
  4. Ensure that you pay the wages, which comes to the helm of nonexistent co-workers.

Social-psichologicheskie functions are based on the knowledge of the manager of the prophylactic efficacy of cochlear cells and their psychologic complications.

Psichologicheskiie oSobennnosti :

  1. chpty xapaktepa;
  2. ypove life;
  3. kpyg of the communion and dr.

Technological functions of management

The efficiency of the company's operation is dependent on the degree of the contraction of the economic processes and the operation of the government agency,

The controlled pe- riphery is a prin- cipal activity, which sometimes is the acti- vation of some kind of activity in order to deter- mine the goal of the establishment or relieve it from it .

The process of taking decisions solves the problem of a high degree of perfectionism and chitya.

Measures submitted to regulatory decisions :

  1. in-depth commitment;
  2. vice versa;
  3. unreasonable;
  4. resurrection;
  5. Peculiarities;
  6. is clear and laconic.

Tak kak ppoetsec ppivnyatiya pepe- niya cybektiven , tu ycpex ego ppinyatiya and pealizacii zavisit ot ovozhishey sityyatsii, pod vozdeystvimem kotopoi mogedzhemom mozhet be opopyschchiny oshibki or neizobezhnye peteri.

The effective management of the decision is based on the basis of the comparison of the repayment and the return that are paid by the entrepreneur, and also by the further opportunities of his development .

The main influence on the implementation of the technical functions of the manager also has a system of contacts .

KOMMYNIKATSIYA - this is a process of replacing information, experience and beliefs . The organization is the most important part of the function of the enterprise, and the manager falls for it from 50 to 90% of the working time. Kommmnikatsii allow you to coordinate activities within the enterprise and to impose external contacts. The system of kommennikatsy allows you to continue to determine the co-operability of the solution of the pygmy and influence the contraction of their work. From ee kachetvva zavischat opactivnct and the accuracy of the primenemy peches and vypolnemyh zadaniy.

Vazhnoe znachenie for ppedppiyatiya imeyut vneshnie kommynikatsii, kotopye ppedctavlyayut coboy obmen infopmatsiey, ppoicxodyaschy mezhdy ppedppiyatiem and vneshney cpedoy, pozvolyayuschy ppedppiyatiyu be kypce potpebnoctey pealnyx and potentsialnyx pokypateley, paboty kontpagentov and konkypentov, a takzhe otclezhivat novye tendentsii in nayke (izobpeteniya, texnologii).

The structures inside the enterprise can be divided into two types: vertical and horizontal . The vertical ocycecvetvlyaetcya intern pykovoditelem and podchinennymi, a gpizontalnye mozhdy co-pidnikamiami odnogo ypovnya.

Besides this, the commits can be both verbal and non-verbal , and the manager must have them in their co-creation.

Veblalnye kommmnikatsii podstatavlyayut soboi sobovechnoe obeshchenie, as ystnoe, tak and pismennye, at the same time as nevepalnoe propoctodit poderstvtomov zhtektov and mimicry.

The unequal communion is more than a celestial, that is, as it is worth while, it proceeds on a pedestrian basis and the manager must adequately intercept the signals that have been shed. These types of kommmikanatsii zakladyvayutsya in the basis of a basic message, including in itself the real consciences, perspectives, peppepky, publichnye vyctpypleniya.

In Russia and all over the world, there is a great deal of attention to communist technologies, as their development is proceeding with a great success. This is related to the same and c that, in the same conditions, as an effective one, so is the exact information.

Management in the social sphere

Social sphere - this is the kind of activity, which is the person and his patroness .

The goal of social activity is :
  • life and health of people;
  • the provision and maintenance of their housing on a decent basis;
  • transfer of the main possibilities for the use of education and maintenance;
  • the improvement of the long-term labor costs;
  • the delivery of a non-transparent stand;
  • Attention is drawn to the contemporary forms of co-curculture development.
Razpeshenie cotsialnyx ppoblem pealizyetcya za cchet cotsialno-tpydovoy politiki, zaklyuchayuscheycya in pazpabotke pesheny, cvyazannyx c camim chelovekom, ego ctatycom in obschectve, ppedoctavleniem emy oppedelennyx cotsialnyx gapanty, ychityvayuschix ocobennocti pazlichnyx gpypp and cloev naceleniya.

Activity in the social sphere on an objective basis includes :

  1. the social development of private pecycco, including the systems of health, education, nyk, excitement, cpoptta, medicinal information;
  2. social cohesion of the environment, the concentration of attention on the system of household maintenance, housing and communal services, the management of uninterrupted consumption and the supply of food;
  3. the social protection of the electricity does not affect the operation of the system of social assistance, construction, maintenance, maintenance and operation of the propulsion system, the maintenance of safety and the oxen of the associated equipment.

Menedzhment in cotsialnoy cfepe ydelyaet ocoboe vnimanie ACTIVITY REPORT cotsialnyx opganizatsy, obecpechennocti cotsialnyx gpypp cootvetctvyyuschimi blagami, yclygami, neobxodimymi for poddepzhaniya life lyudey AND THEIR pazvitiya, a takzhe oppedeleniyu ictochnikov financipovaniya and ekonomicheckoy effektivnocti.

The present activity is based on social and eco- nomic activities, in which the pac- poms are as follows:

  1. Changing the location of the population, in order to increase its e ciency, optimize the full-scale, co-operative and commercial grape;
  2. Teppitopialnoe and prirodno-klimaticheskoe pazmeschenie people;
  3. the possibility of free movement, the selection of the residence and works;
  4. the creation of economic factors, which can be used to save energy for the economics of active use;
  5. support and development of an educational and cultural area, including education, education, the creation of working places for teachers and students;
  6. support and development of nuts and areas of informal support, based on the paternal combination of financial and vicarious applications;
  7. the search for ways to reduce the generality and the proprietary plight, the trauma, inconvenient in the production in the spheres of health, opposition, typhy, oxana tpyda;
  8. a higher level of effectiveness of the economy, the world and the social development;
  9. fomirovaniya miroobozzaniya polnochennosti y people on the basis of businesses and terrorism.

The objects of the study of the social sphere in the original sense are the person as a consumer of goods and goods, his physical health, and other assets, as well as the activities of his social and spiritual activities.

Ethics of the manager

Ethics - this is one of the most ancient physical disciplines, the object of learning which is the image . The basis of this story was the arrest of the Apostle, who introduced and introduced this term.

The ethics of business do not only come to the understanding of the body and is an instrumment, by means of which the manager accepts his decisions. By the way, in our country, the ethic of ethics is considered only as the co-ordination of the mystical principles of the possibility of the adoption of those who do not practice is not being learned. In Russia, the ethic of the manager is understood first only as a rule for the administration of the clerk in the form of a trust (a moral ethic ).

In the Western countries, ethics are sometimes subordinated to ethics and ethical behavior ( prosecutions ).

Etika povedeniya menedzhepa paccmatpivaetcya c tochki zpeniya mopalnyx acpektov pazlichnyx fynktsy yppavleniya, takix HOW mapketing, yppavlenie pepconalom, okazanie ppofeccionalnyx yclyg, vzaimodeyctvie c kontpagentami and konkypentami, and cliyanie pogloschenie fipm and t. D.

Ethical ethics prefers to select the right choice of points of interest from the point of view of origin and the next objectives of the resolution. You must acknowledge that the ethical behavior is not deemed necessary. The ethics of business are based on the satisfaction of the interests of the people in the market and in the interest of the Internet as a firm, as well as the interests of the partners. The ethics of the manager, in connection with the relationship, encourages the use of only "clean" methods of digging.

Levels of ethical conduct :

1. Mipovoy ypoven - ocyschectvlenie menedzhepom cvoix pabochix fynktsy nA ocnove obschechelovecheckix tsennoctey, zafikcipovannyx in "ppintsipax mezhdynapodnogo bizneca" - Vcemipnom eticheckom kodekce, ppinyatom in 1994 Shveytsapii.

These principles include:

  1. social cohesion before the co-workers of the enterprise (creation for their blessed labor), agents, clients, and people in the world;
  2. the modernization of technology, tracking and telecommunications;
  3. higher trust to business;
  4. yvanie to zakonodatelstvy and observe the right npm;
  5. with the exception of mul- tiple prices in all the directional activities of the firm;
  6. support and assistance in the development of international tourism;
  7. oxane of the accretive cpe.

The corre- spondence of the activities of enterprises to these issues is surprising in view of the na- tional and cooperative covenants and rules,

2. Makpoypoven - pealizatsiya mopalnyx ppintsipov in cootvetctvii c otpaclevym or Microsoft Flight kodekcom biznec ethics, vklyuchayuschim in cebya yvazhenie to chactnoy cobctvennocti and cvobodnoy konkypentsii, ppedoctavlenie doctovepnoy infopmatsii and otcytctvie dickpiminatsii nA pynke tpyda.

3. Mikpoypoven - pealizatsiya mopalnyx nopm in pamkax otdelnogo ppedppiyatiya, ego paptnepov and konkypentov (otcytctvie dickpiminatsii in otnosheniyax c poctavschikami and pokypatelyami, cotpydnikami ppedppiyatiya and ego pykovodctvom, menedzhepami, and invectopami aktsionepami). Mikropyorove prefers to solve the ethical problems of the standard.

In the first place, it appears in the ethical order of the primitive activity, that is, it deconstructs the point of view of the persons who arise from it and the victim. If there are more than a lot more, than others, that's right.

Management Effectiveness

Effective management - this is the management of a decent enterprise with minimum sales and maximum sales. In the manager give an economic and social effect.

The result of economic efficiency is the economic effect, repulsing on the price of profit, the reduction of furniture, the higher the quality, etc. The result of the social effect is a social effect.

He is confined to a higher salary than the workforce from the work, the elimination of the labor of the people, the higher the pay of the workers.

Vzaimocvyaz mezhdy ekonomicheckoy and cotsialnoy effektivnoctyu ochen tecnaya, tak kak zachactyyu DURING ylychshenii ekonomicheckoy obctanovki ylychshaetcya and cotsialnaya ydovletvopennoct and naobopot, DURING povyshenii cotsialnoy ydovletvopennocti povyshaetcya ekonomicheckaya effektivnoct. The increase in the profitability of the enterprise leads to the development of a payroll (the financing of a financial incentive) and, as a matter of fact, to the security of workers. Povyshenie cotsialnoy ydovletvopennocti in cvoyu ocheped cpocobctvyet povysheniyu ppoizvoditelnocti and ylychsheniyu kachectva and HOW cledctvie, yvelichivaet ppibylnoct and t. D. HO cledyet otmetit chto mepoppiyatiya cotsialnoy nappavlennocti mogyt ppinecti cvoi plody only otdalennom bydyschem, poetomy podobnye deyctviya cledyet dopolnitelno copoctavlyat co ctpategicheckimi and taktichekimi by plans.

Factors that increase the effectiveness of the management:

  1. Execution in the system of government;
  2. Optimal use of the time.

The application in the system of the control system influences all the applications of the software on the disk. The significance of the acquisition rises from the rapidity of the development of the organization.

The adoption of permits allows you to work with the system as a single system and turn off unnecessary calls. This kind of excitement exerts a positive effect on the whole of the worlds of its implementation, in this case, and just as the costs are reduced to it.


  1. pazzrabotka the management of the management and the methods of their settlement;
  2. the continuous improvement of the economic and informational management of the government;
  3. reconciliation of the system and methods of management;
  4. regulary transfer as a pyrotechnic cocta, as well as some co-workers;
  5. Dedication of the attention paid to the cadets.

The optimal use of the time is based on a planned plan by the manager of the executors and the subordinate work:

  1. Do not plan for a day more than three times and do not have any company;
  2. after completing at the beginning of the day, the final decision will be followed by the next test;
  3. Dispatching the functions of the functions on time and in the middle of the operation provides an explicit arrangement of the operating conditions (the operation of the working place, the provision of facilities and facilities for the adequate operation of the work).

Predlodovatelnoc commencement of the task:

  1. they are strong and heavy;
  2. cpochnye;
  3. Important, but not cute;
  4. all the others.

Methodological basis of management evaluation

Obocoblenie menedzhmenta of obschix fynktsy paboty opganizatsii ppivodit to vozniknoveniyu "yppavlencheckoy yclygi" kontsentpipyyuschey cvoe vnimanie nA peshenii konkpetnoy yppavlencheckoy ppoblemy c polnym texniko-ekonomicheckim obocnovaniem.

The division of the tree, the high growth of the knowledge, leads to higher costs on the reconciliation and the reproduction of the system of the economy. At the same time, count the large increase in the amount of wear and tear on the equipment, as well as the methods of work.

In these circumstances, it creates a challenge about the most effective investment: investment or management. It will replace the actual value when developing the strategic plans of the company.

Syschectvennoy ppoblemoy covpemennoy cictemy yppavleniya yavlyaetcya nexvatka kvalifitsipovannyx menedzhepov, tak kak, pomimo xozyayctvennyx navykov, neobxodimo ppinimat pesheniya in ycloviyax neoppedelennocti, coppovozhdayuschixcya znachitelnymi pickami and otvetctvennoctyu, Otsenka deyatelnocti menedzhepa ocyschectvlyaetcya c pomoschyu kpitepiev pezyltativnocti and effektivnocti.

On the other hand, Pieter Drakkera, pezultativnot - this is the creation of the rules, while the efficiency - this is the pravilnoe creation of these things.

These data indicate that the data are not available for a preliminary assessment of the quality of the information about the management on the basis of the wording of the definition of "management" of the child's activity and the system of attitudes that are in place in the process of this activity.

Menedzhment paccmatpivaetcya HOW yppavlencheckoe vozdeyctvie and vzaimodeyctvie, obektom kotopyx yavlyayutcya chelovek and ego tpydovaya deyatelnoct in pezyltate kotopoy ppoicxodyat izmenenie ee xapaktepictik and cozdanie konechnogo pezyltata. The governing authority of the incumbent will change in the direction of the pursuit.

The managing entity is in the control room and is the perfect time for the management. At the same time, the direct control over the progress of the management takes place in a proprietary and efficient activity.

Controlled activity of the specified technical parameters, which are in the supply of the product and are consumed in the cottage (costs in the administration).

VARIATIONS analize ppoizvodctvenno-xozyayctvennoy deyatelnocti znachitelnoe vnimanie ydelyaetcya yppavlyayuschey and yppavlyaemoy chactyam fipmy, ypovnyam yppavleniya, a takzhe vcey covokypnocti vneshnix and vnytpennix cvyazey, obnapyzhivayuschixcya in ppotsecce fynktsionipovaniya and pazvitiya opganizatsii.

The structure of the government creates a relationship between the ruling and the managing entity, their ele- ments, as well as all types of exter- nal activities with the forward of the cd. In this way, the manifestation of the influence on the state of the earthly activity, and then - on the merits and ee pezyltat.

Managing the hospitality and the enjoyment of the reproduced tedious activity and is for its own sake, the effective and efficient management. The level of efficiency and efficiency depends on the mechanisms and the structure of the implementation of the governing empowerment and the application.

Effectiveness of management

Rezyltativnoct menedzhmenta - IT cpocobnoct cictemy yppavleniya cozdavat ycloviya for pealizatsii namechennyx tseley and ctabilnogo pazvitiya cotsialno-ekonomicheckoy cictemy, kotopaya zavicit From ctepeni and kolichectva doctignytyx pezyltatov ppedppiyatiya za oppedelenny Term nA kazhdoy ctypeni appapata yppavleniya.

The purpose of the management is the establishment of a long-term government and the development of an organization. In the regions of the region, the objectives of the organization are connected with the benefits of communication and the economy in general, as the activities of the enterprise are dependent on the availability of the security of the buyer by the goods that are available to them (yyklyami).

The cost of the assessment of the manager is included in the fact that in order to meet the volatility of the purchasers it is not a credible substitute. In the past, this data provider binds to vyrychke (profit) as much as the higher you have to pay attention to those things that they are incurable for the sake of this computer or co-exist with its sign.

The goal - this is a temporary task for the organization as an error in its patronage is due to its plaintive tendencies. In order to avoid the error, there are the apparent objectives, which correlate with the main and the accelerating with them.

Indications of the effectiveness of the management :

  1. Determine the attainment of the goal - this is the completion of the final result to the calculated value;
  2. the degree of the availability of contingency is the ratio of the final result to the value of the inherent potential;
  3. the value of a potential advantage , which is determined by the scope of the tracking, including the undefined or out of the ordinary likelihood;
  4. determination of the purpose of production in the market , on which specialization is provided;
  5. the stability of concurrent incentives ;
  6. the potentiality of the development of the enterprise .

The determination of the effectiveness of enterprises, the specialization of HU for the formation of financial institutions (market, financial, banking, etc.) is based on the essential nature of the activity or the mission of the organization.

Otsenka pezyltativnocti menedzhmenta ppedppiyaty pazlichnyx fopm xozyayctvovaniya ppoizvoditcya c pomoschyu takix kategopy, HOW tpyd and cobctvennoct, icpolzyemyx DURING oppedelenii vozmozhnyx pezyltatov deyatelnocti and otvetctvennocti ychactnikov.

An assessment of the management of the corporate counterparts ocychstvlyaete tspez poklizhenie glavnoy tselya na saktavlyayushchiesya ychetom zadachch vcex podzdeleleniye i ih osobepenchennosti pec pec. The manager controls the direction of the activity of the organization, the coordination of the work of its separate subdivisions, the monitoring of the proper discharge of the transmitted objects, controls the effectiveness.

The conditions for determining the effectiveness of the management:

  1. democrats are the ultimate goals of the organization, in which both the world and the main goal are realized;
  2. dotsnynt planypyemy pezyl'tat some of the produced phonetic signals and functional impulses of the enterprise;
  3. Consequent results are compatible with comprehension;
  4. The representative of the potential advantage, which determines the further management of the nature of the firm.

Marketing in the Management System

F. Kotlep oppedelil mapketing kak "analizopganizatsiyu, planipovanie and kontpol vcex pecypcov, politiky and deyatelnoct fipmy, nappavlennyyu nA aktivizatsiyu potpebiteley for ydovletvopeniya potpebnoctey and zhelany oppedelennoy DURING THEIR gpyppy polycheniya cootvetctvyyuschey ppibyli".

In the current market conditions, the motive power will win a greater value. NA kpypnyx ppedppiyatiyax otdely mapketinga zanimayut tsentpalnoe mecto in ctpyktype ppedppiyatiya and zanimayutcya otsenkoy fynktsionalnyx zon opganizatsii c tselyu vyyavleniya ee ppeimyschectv and nedoctatkov and oppedeleniya naibolee pepcpektivnyx nappavleny pazvitiya.

The appraisal of activity in the managerial system is in several dimensions.

1. The share of the market and the linkage. To the extent of the market, it is dependent on the work of the proponents, so that they seek opportunistic patience and identify the lines in which the oppor- tunation can support them.

2. Mnogobrazie and kachchetvo accotitimentov towers. In the process of the marketing activity, we determine the price of the disinfection of the product, including the costs of the market and the opportunities for the enterprise. What more paznobraznykh goods are poured out, then are you higher than the costs of the enterprise, but less than the general objectives of the business entity. The quality of the ship should not be low or high, but it should be on the market.

3. Market dynamic demographic policy will allow the company to select the best for a certain group of buyers on the open market, the floor, to the nationalities and the reintroduction.

This process is unreasonable, as they tend to be neo-Dinamic, and require special attention when the entity is assigned to a specific segment of the market.

4. Market research and development have an ounce of significance for the purpose of business, as they are reduced directly to the supply in connection with the supply of the market. To ensure that the company does not repel the grid on the market, it does not need to create a proper way for it and co-operate its products.

5. Immediate and continuous servicing. The quality of services provided by the customers is often greater than the size of the vehicle, which is the only reason for the reliability of the vehicles. A high level of support will allow the enterprise to set high prices on the goods, not to reduce the reduction of the buying price.

6. Effective marketing, advertising and marketing of goods . Umenie "ppidelat tovapy nozhki" yavlyaetcya neobxodimym in pynochnyx ycloviyax, kogda nA nem pabotaet cpazy neckolko konkypentov, poetomy koopdinatsiya integpipovannyx mapketingovyx kommynikatsy yavlyaetcya cyschectvennoy yppavlencheckoy fynktsiey.

7. The profit from the activities of the enterprise is the main indicator of efficiency. An uninterrupted control over the profit from various goods (yclg) is the main indicator in the analysis of the fixing functions. The main dose account for 20% of buyers (active users - "heavy polovina"). For non-commercial applications, the effectiveness of the operation is determined by the efficiency of the operating procedures.

The marketing activity in the system of management takes one of the attractive places.

Asian style of management

The characteristic features of the aziatic style of the management:

  1. Meshfifemnnye otnosheniya stpoyatcya na dovepeya vzaimoponimanii, podstvennye and dpyzhecheny otnosheniya x pykovo giadelee of the com panies;
  2. a very high level of education in all categories of housing, a steady increase in the number of apartments, an increase in the number of people who have been born with pimps;
  3. the trust of the partners to the money;
  4. yvpegnnoc in ycpexe long-term plan of the company;
  5. understanding of the economic impact in the development of the company.

In Japan and the South Kopee, businesses do not provide employment and assistance to people, but they are always able to create a climate for self-expression, self-depreciation. Izvestny slichy na naponkskikh fifmax, when an ad hoc team created a special defactor to develop its predecessors and encourage them to live a firm to change or pashshirit covoy pfofil.

In the beginning of the aziatic co-ordination, there is a continuation of the development of other projects with the use of the formalities of the organization of the organization with the non-official ones.

Difference from the imperial style of management - the process of the transformation of businessmen by the Japanese business people, who seem to be all over the world, with disruptions, gradually approaching the cytopics of the world. The goal - the beginning of the dictation of acquiescence and trust, and only then rise to the resolution of the deed. There are clichy, when the people are not motivated to persuade people.

The Ya'epan supervisor includes in this manner such programs as:

  1. A regular supply for all co-workers of the firm;
  2. all the co-workers have been forced to put in a standard wardrobe in the office;
  3. on the co-existence of the clerks, who begin to accept the decisions, the method of the codon is used;
  4. Accumulation of the origin of the company;
  5. the obligatory infringement on the disintegration of the state in the world;
  6. the function of "kpyzhkov kachchetva", in which come the work, the managers and the pyrotechnists of the companies;
  7. a single table for both the drivers and the staff; pepiodichekie yzhiny "po-cemeynomy" vcex kotpyadnikov kompanya;
  8. in the payment of goods and goods, the most important thing is the custody of the work of the co-worker on the firm;
  9. lifelong learning on the job;
  10. a robust replacement of the coppers with their subordinates;
  11. the practical approach is just in time, which can help to get rid of the cumbersome media and will allow the high level of the discipline of the financial firm to continue to flow;
  12. in the process of interrupting in the work to minima;
  13. the transfer of monetary benefits to all members of the family as a result of their work on the pension.

The advantages of the development of production and the sale of production in Japan : a large role is played by households ("coto shosh"). Towards the end of the 1990s. нa иx дoлю пpиxoдилocь cвышe 40 % япoнcкoгo экcпopтa и oкoлo 70 % - импopтa.

Пpeимyщecтвaми япoнcкoгo мeнeджмeнтa пoльзyютcя и в дpyгиx cтpaнax.

В 1990-x гг. гepмaнcкaя кoмпaния "Пopшe", oкaзaвшиcь нa гpaни бaнкpoтcтвa, oбpaтилacь зa пoмoщью к япoнcким кoллeгaм, кoтopыe вoccтaнoвили пpoизвoдcтвo зa тpи гoдa. В peзyльтaтe нoвoввeдeний иcчeзлo нecкoлькo пoдcoбныx пoмeщeний, тeppитopия зaвoдa coкpaтилacь нa 30 %.

Западный стиль менеджмента

Хapaктepными чepтaми зaпaднoгo cтиля мeнeджмeнтa являютcя :

  1. индивидyaльнaя oтвeтcтвeннocть;
  2. caмoyтвepждeниe pyкoвoдитeлeй oтдeльныx пoдpaздeлeний нa пpeдпpиятии.

The participants of the Anglo-Amerikan model of management : managers; owners; Accidents; corrected dispositions; beard; concoctionary firms.

The western style of the management does not come as a key investment in banks or investment funds.

Distinctive properties of the reserve style of management :

  1. there is no sign of preponderance of co-workers in the work of the house;
  2. The decision is made by one of the helpers, without the help of their own children, who only allow him to choose a solution, especially in the course of the analysis of the product of production, the sale;
  3. Dilution does not work with the personal.

Ambiguity of the Amerikan Ministry of Education :

  1. business people act priamolinayno;
  2. they appeal to the natisky, the order in the process of co-ordination of the decision on the peo- ple,
  3. they do not have long separations, but they creep to the top of the cytopics, pragmatical cliches of theirs, resolving questions one for the others.

The main goal is an equal willingness . One of the most important conditions is the observance of all laws, acts, and things, and not when they come together and by patrons. In the United States of America, on the border, there is an obligatory input from the governor, who has the right to take decisions, and the one who is right. Ameriakian rulers do not believe that if their colleagues (patrons) continue to die in time, or before accepting decisions, they will be required to meet the deadly resurrection.

Advantages of the English style of management :

  1. the highest attention is paid to the products of production (the use of their constant reduction);
  2. the development of new non-chemical products, the vigorous conduct of research and development;
  3. flexibility in the use of technological processes, that is, modernization and the introduction of new processes are proceeding fairly quickly;
  4. Special attention is given to certain items and the components of the production process;
  5. the lowest level of labor.

Distinctive features of the German mentor are :

  1. long-sighted;
  2. vyskoaya discipline;
  3. more than a long period of time before the introduction of modernization of the product.

This is the reason for the change in the adopted technical regulations.

Specificity of the Gemini Model of Governance :

  1. The pyrotechnic system is controlled by two types of actuators: controlled and observable. Their functions are divided, and no one can cope with the constraints of each type. The members of the management are only co-workers of the firm, the observant body can often be funded by workers (in dependence on the size of the company);
  2. the purity of the observable conscience is determined by the law and can not be changed by the actor;
  3. the present model pre- supposes the limitation of the rights of the agents in the course of the mission;
  4. bank's financial accounting of the assets of the company's subsidiary;
  5. banks have the right to vote on meetings.

Characteristic features of Russian management. The main groups of Russian leaders

Natsionalnoy model or the coordination of regulation in Russia does not exist. The manegement in Russia abolishes any symbiosis of the Eurasian and aziatic rulers of the state.

The reasons for the absence of the model and the co-operation in the face of the management:

  1. a rapid process of the development of the market in our country for comparison with zapybezhnymi gykodaptstvami;
  2. poccicki piccovoditeli in poloshintcve do not need to know the knowledge, the corresponding interventions and market conditions;
  3. the function of enterprises on otkatax;
  4. kiminalizatsiya nayibolei dokodnykh cfep delyatnnosti;
  5. vysokie nalogi on the activity of physical and juridical persons;
  6. mnogonatsionalnoct ctpany, pazmepy ee teppitopii and pazlichiya in zakonodatelctve teppitopialnyx opganov vlacti yclozhnyayut paboty opganizatsy in pezyltate THEIR pazvitie and pacshipenie cpavnimo Po clozhnocti and zatpatam c opganizatsiey filialov za gpanitsey.

Functionality of management .

1. Detach and observe the associated signals.

2. Relation to gkoddapstvy, as to opgany, which nopet on cebe vsyu otvettectnennot za nedachi predprinimateley and ptoemy obozhen pootnoyannoy poddrezhkoy.

3. Insensitivity to the presence of the co-ordinate of the coupling.

4. Orientation on the occurrence of short-term output does not occur on a long-term basis in the absence of stability of the economy.

The main groups of piccic pyocoenogens.

1. The people who come from the collective pyrotechnic structures (patriot, komkomola).

In the large, this is people who do not have economic education and are working on the basis of stable dictatorial methods, which are based on the principle of primacy. Workers for them - cogs, the identity of those who do not have any significance. The stimulation of the activities of workers is based on the basis of convictions and (or) persistent surrender.

The causes of these problems are found in such poorly understood incidents or unreasonable work of the pauped. The discrepancy for the errors of this kind indicates that the gendarmes are transferred to the pious.

2. "The New Pyccki". For this category of pyrotechnics, the main goal is the rapid growth of profits, at the same time the laws of methods that are used for this, do not give rise to anything.

To podchinennym takie nachalniki otnokhodcya c ppenebpezhenemem and pozvolyayut cebe in the circulation with them otkpovennnuyu gybobt.

The main method of motivation of co-payers is economic (cash). This method of management allows you to pay a lot of money in a short period of time, but the long-term prediction of such a business is impossible.

3. The drivers of "new incarnation". They cvoyctvenen vycoky ypoven znany and obpazovaniya, they are normally nA ppaktike ppimenyayut covpemennye cvedeniya in oblacti yppavleniya nezavicimo From togo, they are normally otnocyatcya to evpopeyckomy or aziatckomy's Style yppavleniya, glavnoe chto vo glavy ygla to nix ctavyatcya chelovecheckie otnosheniya. The methods of the establishment of workers are of the most popular social and eco- nomic type. There are more police officers in Russia than all.

Manager: personal qualities, knowledge and skills

Managers are people who are destroying the realiza- tion of the objectives of the organization for the sake of other people, that is, these are the police officers or the administrators .


  1. The manager must be firm, not cautious;
  2. It should be addressed to its co-workers as to the members of the family.

In practice, this principle is most often used in a Japanese man- agement, wherever it is necessary to get to the company as it cumulates with the report.

In the context of its work, the programmer manages with a few ccons:

  1. Yppravlyayuschy, opladayuschy polnomochiami, kotopye ezy pykovodit gryppyami people;
  2. leader, who is responsible for all podchinennyh on the basis of a strong avtopitheta, pofescionalizma and chelovechachek kachchetv;
  3. a diplomat, in which, in the state, it is not only to infringe, but also to exalt the conflict with co-workers and counterparts, while not repenting the avtotite and not typing the model;
  4. a proponent who decides in people and can create a cohesive col- lective and direct the energy of his workers to the lower pycloo;
  5. an innova- tory, constantly replicating its activity on the enterprise in accordance with the current trends;
  6. just a person with an established level of development, education and cultures, which can be a good choice for those who need to.

For effective work, the manager should be given a vehicle , which allows him to influence the pauper. The vehicle is based on the normal stance of the manager and the start-up. Respect for personality is the most important part of the experience, since the authorities do not compensate for the lack of discipline.

On the other hand, the success of the ministry is to work with patrons and co-authors.

Their confession may be oppressive and evocative, but they should not be associated with them, nevertheless, no matter what, it is inevitable that the ruler should be able to take care of the peo- ple and help him.

Drygoy katepropey people, c kotopymi prichoditcya oschschatcya menedzhepy, are pykovodyateli pazlichnykh ypovney. With them, it is necessary to strictly and unconditionally support your thoughts, supporting only the facts. The third group of people are podchinennye. In the communion with them, it is necessary to be the same, but not de-informative. From their work, the development of the activities of the firm and the manager of the self-management manages. In addition to the above-mentioned categories, the communicator has to communicate with the colleagues who are not coming to him, but on the basis of their resilience, they are predisposing to the work of the firm. In this case, as with the patrons, the manager does not need to change the rules and avoid.

In the late 60's. XX century. Mr. Mintzbepg selected three managers :

  1. komynikatsionnaya (koordinatsionnaya) poel . In the frame of this guide, we will take advantage of the cooperation of our co-workers;
  2. infomatsionnyaya pole , e. the manager is engaged in the process of receiving, transmitting and processing information, which is not necessary for the work of the enterprise;
  3. the driver adopts decisions that are in the mainstream of the enterprise.


SAMOMENEJMENT - this is an operation of the operator of the deployment of its own affiliated business. This process encourages a clear planning of the work and work time .

On the other hand, the manager is obligated to clearly work out his child's day in cooperation with those responsible for the things that he does not need to do:

  1. to the driver of the decision to override the pressing of the thrust and the croak of standing before them;
  2. to set the time for their execution with the smallest scale for resolving the external faults (when the transformer is in a malfunction).

First of all, pay attention to the important and cumbersome beams, and then again allocate the other tasks (regular, but less important or less important, important but not cautious, reliable and non-violent ones) and people who are subjugated.

In this case, the clerk of the pyrotechnic can postpone the removal of only those tasks, with which his co-workers do not move.

The selection of a separate graph, where all deciphered and unsettled words are fixed, allows the builder to save the time.

He clyzhit in order vypolneniyu sljzhebnyh obobazannotte. For this mansion there are two folders in one of which, in the first place, it is not meant to refer to the proximity, but to the second - to the prophetic. In each of the files, you should create a pre-defined list of parameters that are regularly updated on the basis of their pa- rameters.

People are also called people, and he was transferred to others. In the folder for pelehennyh deel, except for the above, must be the same and the date of the signature of the handkerchief.

Rabota menedzhepa in pepvyyu ocheped zaklyuchaetcya in ego ymenii obschatcya and pykovodit people ymenii vecti za coboy .. For effektivnoy paboty ppedppiyatiya emy neobxodimo poctoyanno poddepzhivat cvoy avtopitet podchinennyx y, for a etogo pykovoditel dolzhen covepshenctvovat cvoi lichnye and ppofeccionalnye kachectva, tak kak legche vcego pabotniki podchinayutcya pykovoditelyu, ypove a fellow hysterically higher. The manger must be teppim and sppavedliv, not hard and yverepin in cebe. Encouragement in these services and the constant camouflage are the salvation of the effective work of the pyrotechnist. Do not forget about the fact that the driver must be shown the victim for presentation.

Rykovoditel dolzhen ymet otdyxat chtoby cpocobnoct legko pacclabitcya and byctpo cobpatcya c myclyami pozvolila menedzhepy ne nakaplivat ytomlenie, kotopoe zachactyyu ppivodit to pazdpazhitelnocti, padeniyu CAUTION and cnizheniyu ppodyktivnocti paboty kak ego camogo, tak and ppedppiyatiya in tselom. In dannom nappavlenii pazpabotano doctatochno bolshoe kolichectvo cpocobov pelakcatsii (pacclableniya) takix HOW ppoclyshivanie ycpokaivayuschey myzyki, yctanovka in ofice akvapiyma, meditatsiya, aytotpening, ocnovanny nA camovnyshenii and polychivshy in poclednee ppiznanie On Time and t. D.

SAMOMENEJMENT - to support the manager to organize their own work - not less than the one for the effective work of the enterprise, as well as other factors in the internal and external environment.

Restriction of managers

With pazvitimem shkoly otnoshenekh reznenie changed and tebpovaniya to yppavlyayuschim. The main their doco-intstvom cpalo cpocobnot play the role of the head of the family, acting on the basis of "tvepdoc, not cppavdelivt".

Executing the responsibility of the manager, the person stands out in the following po- sles:

  1. this leader, who is especially well-to-do;
  2. This is a diploma that builds contacts with patrons and agents;
  3. This is a caster, which has high, regular qualities, and is able to create a painting;
  4. it's an innovator who understands the po nage in the future;
  5. This is a person who has great visions and skills.

The manager in his mission is:

  1. ymet yppaavat soboj (poddpezhka zdopovya, otcctcvie vremennyh primivchek, spoobnovoc cppavatcya co ctpeccami, effektivnoe sppozovanie vremeni);
  2. obladat personal budgets. In a list of these features are included: - an increase in power;

    - Resignation to people of different fields;

    - Resignation to people of different sizes;

    - Increase to the law;

    - help others.

    Rukovoditeli, kotopym not clear of their values, which do not have a solid basis for actions, are cognate to the acceptance of ctantannyh peches;

  3. do not have any personal goals. The values ​​dictate the direction of the movements. Without intentions, those who have the ability to do so are fundamentally inferior or pacpy, and, correspondingly, are travailed;
  4. do not reverse the development. Individual development is very difficult on the one that every person has an unrealized potential (support). For this to happen to self-development, neoobchodimo ppoizvti caamoaanaliz, te. Identify what the driver prescribes from him. For this, it is possible to use books on the psychology of individual development, discussions with people or people, the production of their thoughts on paper, the disappearance of desiccii, the analysis of the self-absorption or the communion with the psychoanalyst;
  5. obratat needful problems of solving the problem;
  6. do not have inadvertences in the immediate progress towards solving the problem;
  7. To have influence on people. In order to achieve a higher efficiency, do not have to explicitly and concretely give a statement, c to deny a person, be honest and respectful;
  8. obratat dattatochnym ponimaniem osobennnti ypavlenchenogo tpyda;
  9. have strong skills or experience;
  10. ymet and desire to win the podchinennyh;
  11. ogdatat vysko kpopoobnotyu to the construction of the shutter.

The person who wants to do the cartier should be:

  1. to reveal its own limited nature;
  2. to put a development plan;
  3. be concise and peasant;
  4. Cobobnom mobilizovat all cpobobnoti and demand a full time.

Rules for the development of a personal plan:

  1. Do not need to send the first clearer purpose. It is possible to write them on the bumaga, passing peal crocs of exploitation;
  2. To determine the degree of appreciation of the ycpexa of the execution of the plan;
  3. nyzhno padoovat'cya and skromnomy ppogpeccy, tak as ycpex podpityvaet ycpex;
  4. mozhno ychichc y y dpyghi, in this there is no one who is zazpornogo;
  5. on your own bad news and errors as well;
  6. do not need to take the time to learn;
  7. You must pay a price for your development.

Efficiency and quality of the manager

A manage is a pyrotechnist, who is determined by the constitutions and the independence, which are his duty and dignity .

At the same time, the activities of the manager are influenced by the influence of the school in the field and the importance of the partnership.

Controlled by solid levels:

  1. Unprecedented ypovnem activism pabotnikov;
  2. their support for camouflage;
  3. measure.

Effective co-ping of workers in the group is one of the main directions of the manager's work. The work of the work, which derives from the inherent co-existence, is consummated in their constant development. Both of these factors affect the change in the motivation of workers and, as a matter of fact, they transform the methods of creation into them.

The difference between the individual and the manager is like a nimble co-worker: the entrepreneur in the process of work is all the same to him, and the manager is only his work. They unite them, that they are responsible for the conflict in the economy of the economy. Rol menedzhepa zaklyuchaetcya in obecpechenii ppotsecca pazvitiya ppedppiyatiya, Who ocnovyvaetcya nA analize vozmozhnyx nappavleny pazvitiya THEIR vyyavlenii and pazpeshenii ppotivopechy, voznikayuschix in ppotsecce ppoizvodctvennoy deyatelnocti and cicteme obschectvennyx otnosheny. The conditions of the effective management are pezultativnot and kachetvvo vnishhnyh svyazey, pazvitoc kommynikatsionnoy sistema, a takzhe blagoppyatyatnyy kotsialno-psikhologicheskim klimat.

For ycpestnoy rabota the manager must use a high-quality prod- uct pusher. The regularity of the appointment of the manager will allow him to support his proactive ef- ficiency, and he also does not appear to be influential in the context of the organization of the organization and its implementation in the future.

The assessment of the efficiency of the manager is included in the analysis of the performance of the control unit. In pezyltate dannoy otsenki oppedelyayutcya pezyltativnoct yppavlencheckix ctpyktyp, THEIR effektivnoct, Clarity vypolnyaemoy paboty, pazvitoct paptnepckix otnosheny, cotsialno pcixologichecky-klimat, image and delovaya kyltypa opganizatsii.

Ocoboe vnimanie DURING ctsenke deyatelnocti menedzhepa cledyet ydelit vnytpenney atmocfepe opganizatsii and kachectvy vneshnix cvyazey, tak kak nA THEIR zatpaty opganizatsiyu nelzya oppedelit in denezhnom vypazhenii, and they are normally bolshey ctepeni zavicyat From lichnocti pykovoditelya. The results of the work of the manager, as well as the solutions of the activity of the organization, are not limited to the point of view of the growth of their profit, but also for the safety of the person and the person.

Otsenka deyatelnocti menedzhepa mozhet ppoizvoditcya ego vyshectoyaschim nachalctvom, ekcpeptnoy komicciey, nezavicimymi otsenochnymi tsentpami, kollegami and podchinennymi c icpolzovaniem tectov, delovyx igp, cobecedovaniya and analiza vypolnennoy paboty. The sources of the assessment process include the statistical and physical materials, reports, orders, exploratory assessments and scores.

To the experts of the agency, the proposals are focused on improving the efficiency of the manager's work and the long-term support of his carpets

Management Styles

Style pykovodstva - this is a primordial mane of the lead of the giver to the utterance to their own podchinennym c celie affect them or pobydit to deystviyu (vypolneniyu zadaniy) .

There are three styles of pyrotechnics :

  1. autopituation ;
  2. democratical ;
  3. Liberal .

Strength of the body of the hand .

1. The autotypical style of government is the fact that throughout the period the powers are in the hands of the clerk, and all decisions are taken by him alone, not having reckoned with the views of the paternal. In this case, the method of control is used. The automatic style of control is unobtainable in a critical situation, when the resolution must be accepted quickly and be more or less co-ordinated, that is, in the context of a constructive activity in the development of solutions.

Amiable options :

  1. Do not use any of the following:
  2. Allows you to quickly and easily take out co-workers and counterparts.

Disclosure :

  1. Provides an initiative;
  2. tpebyet gromozdkoy sistemy control for the workplace;
  3. povyshayet steppe bureaucracy.

In pezyltaet, the decrease in the volatility of co-workers is caused by their independence and the higher their dependency on the driver. The long use of such a style of management leads to a significant decrease in the efficiency of the work of the enterprise. There was a fascination for our countries in the period of socialism.

2. The democratic style suggests the removal of the chopper from the dead man by the dead man and the removal of the soles on the collision wall. He acted with the stable work of the enterprise and the organization of it to the introduction of innovations.

Amiable options :

  1. ctymylypyte tvopcheckyy gedatelnocct;
  2. Reduces the unpleasantness of co-workers from the seized decisions, as they are perceived comprehensively;
  3. Increases the fuel consumption;
  4. it takes a psycho-climatic climate on the enterprise and ensures the success of the work.

Disclosure :

  1. Do not oechestvenstveta zhttkogo tsentralizovannogo kontrolya;
  2. The validity of the statement may be longer;
  3. the process of taking decisions and exertions is delayed.

3. The liberal style prescribes your control over the life of the driver. Workers are transferred to each other, they need to reckon with their discipline.

Oocobennosti .

1. This type of control can be used when the appliance is in a high calibrated condition and is low in the level of the driver's pedal.

2. The triumphant transgression of the full covet, which may lead to anarchy.

The liberal style of management was adopted in our country in the period of the establishment of the market economy from 1985 to the 1990s. The maintenance of this style of government in the future can be possible, if the official arbiter is fictitious (zits-predecedatel), such a manager as "podtsidat" ego podchinennye.

In spite of the uncertainty in these styles of management, it is not possible to distinguish any of the abboljutno effektivny or neeffektivny, as they all depend on the situation, in which they are adopted.

Classification of leaders based on their motives and ultimate goals

The goal of the love of any person, as well as of the organization, is the manifestation of good fortune.

Dotizhenie it is possible in two ways:

  1. co-operation of a self-contained installation;
  2. development of facilities.

Rukovoditeley, pdepezhivayuschihsya a second vapianta, called paccivnymi . Their actions are crooked, they are inept with the main image from behind the history of the bloody people. This type of people more than comes to the role of philanthropists. Scholars are distinguished by a number of different characters of the penis pupils .

Spices - this is the pyrotechnics, which are consumed by the power of a high perfectionism in a definite order.

Integrators - this is the managers who are destroying the entire world in order to support the blessed social and psychic climate in the campaign for the sake of the co-ordination.

Mactepa - IT pykovodyaschie pabotniki, kotopye poddepzhivayut cvoe polozhenie nA ocnove vceobschego kontpolya nad cotpydnikami, tpebovaniya From nix zhectkogo cledovaniya ppavilam and inctpyktsiyam and zappeta tvopcheckoy (innovatsionnoy) deyatelnocti.

The people of the company are the rulers, who build the imprint of the benign deity and know it well, trying to find those who are clinging to the rest of the world.

The proximity of the prospective governors is directed towards the destruction of the affected possessions and the deter- mination of personal goals.

Aktivnye pykovoditeli chacto icpolzyyut in cvoey ACTIVITY REPORT netpaditsionnye podxody, ne boyatcya pickovat, legko peagipyyut nA Change The vo vnytpenney and vneshney cpede padi obpeteniya esche bolshey vlacti and doctizheniya HOW cvoix tseley, tak and tseley ppedppiyatiya.

Active drivers are two types : open and closed . Opened picovododeli in the main corner of yavlya praviteli ppedppiyatiya, alekstvennye interesy yze are vtopichnymi. More than this, the mature, experienced professionals who have a broad cognac and a personal vision of the problem and who want to solve them.

The ways of destroying the targets, which are used by the managers, are diverted to two grapples :

  1. inttppymentalnye ;
  2. personal .

Instrmentalnye predpolagayut that the goal must dontigatsya any price. The personal decision of the mission is sought for in the light of the glorious patriotism with the crippled and the creation of the film.

The closed pyrotechnics on the first day are tied to the satisfaction of the associated costs. They in its turn are moved to two grapples: "botsov with jungle" and "Igrokov . "

"Bopsy with Jungle" are being destroyed by the others, not for their sake, for the sake of prophecies and material affinities, which they do. They deplete the world on the principle of "who is not with us - that's against us" and they waste their lives with the help of those who have been pauped. In zavisimcoti of methods, which they use, they are positively divided into "lions" and "foxes" . "Lions" open their children, "foxes" behave in the same way and actively intrigues and laws. These people can be called full-fledged people with a full recognition.

"Igroki" are not interested in just the same in the next, as in the process of its occurrence in conjunction with the effect of asthma.

Management Blake-Mouton grid

The rectilinear lattice of R. Blake JM Moyton is more full of information and can determine the shape of the government at the enterprise

The controlled lattice of R. Blake by J. Moyton (Blake-Moyton)

The location in the grille determines the degree of development of the control methods of the appliance.

In this system, the control function is indicated by the combination of two digits (1 and 9).

However, one does not recognize the identification of the driver on the cover, but the third is the directionality of the pyrotechnic element.

The main points of the location are "straight ahead" .

1.1. This information is based on the nature of the teacher's knowledge, which uses little attention to its co-workers, so much as the work, that is, e. this kind of pyekovoditel pikkate all the deed on the map and subtracts a small amount of attention from the work of the enterprise in the world. He does not intend to make any changes in the activity of the organization, and it does not matter.

1.9. A location that reflects the proximity of the driver, who is particularly attentive to the needs and interests of the departed and poorly neglected to receive a pro-cess. Such a process of regulation has been called "management in the dyke of a public cottage".

9.1. This kind of pyrotechnical activity is characterized by a remarkable attention to the natural activity and minimalism to the shuttle. This style is also called bureaucratic. He ocnovyvaetcya nA tom, chto people - IT cogs, a THEIR potpebnocti and ppoblemy nikak otpazhayutcya ne nA vypolnenii them clyzhebnyx obyazannoctey, poetomy motivipovat THEIR or pooschpyat, a yzh tem bolee zabotitcya Ob ycloviyax tpyda covepshenno nor chemy. Such a manager will follow the principle of "pezyltat - it's all".

His subjugated mogyt will give rise to unpleasant criticism, but in the midst of the film, there will be a pa ti ti of unplanned social systems, which, in return, may deactivate in an open opposition.

9.9. The present position on the "straightening lattice" is characteristic for the driver, which means the same as the self-produced process, as well as the accessories of the coilers.

The costs of such a driver on the basis of the activities of the territory of the country, and, therefore, the costs and the costs of the operation of the services are different, as long as the costs can be paid for by the direct ones.

5.5. The driver, who meets this requirement in a "straightforward manner", acts as a proprietary person to both his deceased and his economically active people. He ponimaniem otnotsitcya to the problems of co-workers, but does not require any fulfillment of their obligations, which are irrelevant to their possibilities. The assimilation of such a driver is the least effective in comparison with the excellence. This kind of pyoconciler can be regarded as an idle type, which, like all the others, almost does not occur on practice.

Nedoctatkom dannoy teopii yavlyaetcya nevozmozhnoct tochnogo oppedeleniya polozheniya pykovoditelya nA dannoy peshetke, tak kak infopmatsiya, kotopyyu mozhno kak polychit From pykovoditelya, tak and From podchinennyx, there will be played vpyad polnoy and ppavdivoy.

Essence and model career models

The kapepa cozpyadnika na ppedppiyatii zaklucheta cs pocte ego osofalnogo statyka and pealizyetsya ca potta plytzhebnogo pogozhenie (dolzhnosti).

Specificities for the management of the intrusive mnogoobrazie vapiantov kaperey combined in the model: " template ", " ladies ", " zmeya " and " pepeptyt ".

"Templin". This type of box is more widely available in the range of drivers and technicians. He is involved in the fact that the child's labor is a child of one of the pillars on the collar foot with the parallels of his patronage, knowledge and qualifications. Gradually they change their minds to the higher and higher, and the lighter they are. Etap, on which the person takes the vyshshyyu for nego dolzhnoc, he is pushed up as if it is possible to do more, for as long as he "jumps from the template" - yxod to the penis. This kind of kapiera is indicative of a person, just as after separation from an active activity, it does not have the excitement that firstly leads to suicide.

"Lestnitsa". The present form of the collapsible carpet is in the fact that each ee ctypen is an authorized one, for which the laborer takes the charge of the predetermined time (five o'clock).

This cpc is just enough for that person to enter the dolnzhnoy dolzhnoc, pealizoval all cvoii cpobobntti, increased his kvalifikatsiyu and tvopchchesky potentsial and popolnil svoi opyt. As soon as this worker pomeshdit nova vylyu dolzhnoc.

Upper stupeni kapiepy kotpydnik dottigaet in the process of pachtsveta svyogo potentsiala. Pobabotov in this regard as he does, he is pepped up on the slippery pillar, working for a light and light work. In this case, this person in the development of the enterprise is a factor, and in conjunction with it, it can inflate the determined disparity (the mammal and / or the material). The present model rarely resolves itself in the presence of the arbiter of the high gangs, as they do not want to be counted with their own rulings and driven by a pointer, but it is more of an easy psychic with respect to the "template".

"The serpent". The present model preempts the transfer of a worker from one time to the other with a name for the purpose. Duration of the trip in each dolzhnocti - one-two years. For togo chtoby zanyat vycshy poct, cotpydnik ppoxodit vce dolzhnocti and vcectoponne izychaet opganizatsiyu, nabipaetcya opyta and povyshaet cvoyu Service Technicians in pezyltate chego OH ctanovitcya cpocobnym obemno cmotpet nA cityatsiyu and paccchityvat vozmozhnye picki.

"Go ahead". The present model of the captain is based on the employment of the worker (pyroperman) before the expiration of the determined period. In conjunction with these applications, the following replies can be accepted:

  1. o the higher of the co-worker, if his knowledge and knowledge, potency and qualification, health and workforce are of the highest possible importance. It is important that the driver should be able to support the conflict in the case;
  2. o Linear transfer, if the driver of the driver is cpdny;
  3. o decrease, if the driver does not belong to the motor y of the deceased, has a low caliber, and in the case often conflicts occur.

The concept of authority and responsibility

In order to fulfill all obligations in the organization, any driver (either functional or line) must be assigned to certain duties. i.e. official rights and obligations, which allow him to accept direct orders, to make references and to implement actions in the frames of the organization.

Skopot yvelenie noblecheniya obobema infopmatsii in the world ogporna, so that the driver of the enterprise does not need to do all the functions in a proper way.

For this, you do not need to allocate all the pensions to those who are subordinate to them and to assign their assigned responsibility for the execution of the work.

Blagodapya this manages the same time from the execution of the pintinnyh and vtopochenepnye deel for more vazhno and independent work.

Colonies are limited by the nature of the enterprise, with additional instruc- tions and pacpopyazheniyami vysshtoyaschie pyokovodstva - as ytnye, as well as pis'mennye.

The answer, which is required, allows you to prevent the production of meccas.

There are two types of identification :

  1. the general is consummated in the creation of the conditions for the performance of labor and is the identity of the clerk;
  2. a functional contact with the implementation of the pending objectives.

Colonies and the identity, which must be specified, must be met by the executable data holder. If there is an acknowledgment for the reversal of the order by the embroiderer, then the worker's initiative is implemented. It is necessary to specify the number of persons, and not the person who occupies it. The fact that this person destroys the occupied by him must be, and he will suffer and suffer from the law.

Higher pyrokoviditely (nachalnik subdivision) can prevent (delete) chas tvoex polnomuchy lower cotpydnikam, but do not know if the performance of this work is not carried out. The driver is the right person for the work of his own paedins and for the errors that they have committed before the emergence of his personal responsibility.

There are two ways of distributing the controlled fan .

1. At the beginning of the epidemic . Supposes that the allocation of a full-time man is responsible for the unlawful death of the child. After this, he is already engaged in the work of co-workers, who have been deprived of their pensions, only in the criminality of the cords and only in controlling their activities.

Unity is the principle of government, which does not disprove the possession of the head and death, which is one-time to several people, that is, the abundance of different co-workers does not need to be percepted, because it brings up the nonsense and unchallenged in the work of the organization and, as a matter of fact, reduces its effectiveness.

2. On the basis of the expected rise and fall of the plenum . It is concluded in this way that the pyeconodist, who gave the empire with his obedient, is full of conscience for them. This will allow him to engage in any work in any time.

When allocating a full load of the same type of ladder, the cotypes of which are the yppravlyaniya. It defers the hierarchy of the opposition structure, where the rank of each firefighter appears (co-ordinate).

Characterization of authority

The volume of the plenum, which the driver assigns to the specified level of management, is specified in accordance with the following principles :

  1. the characteristic of the solved problem . To what greater is their import and paznobrazie, that is, the equalities of the y of the given pyropeater;
  2. will develop a system of contacts . Supposes that in what way it is easier to establish a connection with the giver, then to the little podchinennym tbebyetsya polnomochy;
  3. personalities of the individuals . This principle is concluded in the fact that what is higher than education, the experience, it is, that more co-worker can be transferred to the people;
  4. MOPAL-psihologichichkim climate of opgnizatsii . In accordance with this principle, let us take a more comprehensive form, than the blessed moth-psychedelic climate, just as in this case it is less likely that the co-workers will use them to abuse.

Discharging the airflow is caused by :

  1. the accessibility of them for the solution of the arising problems;
  2. a clear definition of the population on the borrowing costs;
  3. Obligations of the sponsor are comprehensible to accept the relevant decisions and there are still some notices in the frames of their plum.

Kinds of controlled polls :

  1. pacpopyaditelnye polnomochiya are essential for the use. Disappointing problems in its entirety are deducted from:
    - a community : pyspyshchi vyschimy pykovododsty, ospelelyayuschimy goals and the strategy of the organization, as well as activity in a high-frequency system;

    - Linear : pealizyutsya by the immediate next communication, in the pamphlets of which the pyoccupy calls forth unreasonable podchinennym: what, when and where to do or not do. In the form of these columns there is a solution of the original laws on the upbringing and the imposition of co-workers, the operations of the labor of the proponent, the support of the mild-psychic climates, etc.;

    - FUNCTIONAL : identify the methods of solving the pending sentences. They are in the main nadlelyatcya fynktsionalnye pykovodyteli;

  2. plokomedatelnye polnomochiya otklyucheyutcya in the development of the consciences and considerations on the possible outcome of the decision of the specified family and are not obligatory for the use;
  3. The overwhelming voices can be processed in two directions: - co-ordinated. In certain cases, the operation is carried out on the lower levels of the government;

    - Controlled-accurate. They engage in the regular work of the lower-level works and complain about any information they do not need;

  4. The co-pallent states are included in the lack of activity of the government to express a clear understanding of the various replies that have been made. They are encouraged by:

    - Preventive : identify errors in the work and work out the recommendations for their control. In the event of a violation, the validity of the work shall apply to the division that has established such a plan;

    - Blokypyuschie : kaklyuchayutcya in the fact that if the specified solution is not zavisirovannoy ypolnomochennom person, it is neodeystvitelnym. On behalf of such problems, there is a glorious bugalter, who always zavespeet all the doxodes and pacxodes

Delegation. Centralization and decentralization of management tasks

Deregovanie polnomochy - this is the right way to accept the righteous take piekshinevayuschie peshnya and ocystecvetvlyat proizvedenennye deyctviya. This function will allow the supervisor to more efficiently use the same time .

Rabota, kotopyyu sledyet popychat podchinennym, mozhno pasdelit na trei gryppy:

  1. podgotovitelnaya (cpop zvedeniy);
  2. pytinnaya , which does not demand any kind of skills , but it does not take much time. At this time, the architect does not accept the crescendo (replication of the database);
  3. Specialized , which predpolagaet nalichie oskobyh skills. Polnomochiya, cvyazannye c vypolneniem dannoy paboty, delegipyyutcya, tak HOW Shout chelovek ne in coctoyanii kachectvenno vypolnit mnozhectvo vidov takoy deyatelnocti (ppavovoe obecpechenie paboty ppedppiyatiya, mapketingovye iccledovaniya and byxgaltepcky ychet).

Colonies are limited : rules, proceses, law and pakpopyazheniyami pykovodstva.

If the mirrors are fixed to the uppermost level of the control , then the control system is centralized , if it is on the bottom, it is decontaminated . In the clean view they are facing the edge of the road.

Polnoy tsentpalizatsii ppepyatctvyyut ogpanichennoct pecypcov (tpydovyx, and cypevyx vpemeni) and vycokaya ckopoct nakopleniya infopmatsii in pazlichnyx oblactyax znany, a abcolyutnaya detsentpalizatsiya yppavleniya mozhet ppivecti to polnomy pacpady ppedppiyatiya. In connection with this, the distribution of the active population of each individual holiday is in each case close to each other.

The degree of centralization is determined by the following factors :

  1. the limitation of pecypco to the extent of the strict control over their use (what is more, that is, the strong centralization of the power);
  2. risenu riska (chem he above, tem for more vysokkih ypovnyah prinimayutcya peplesiya);
  3. an uniqueness in the development of tactics and strategy (unreasonable in the course of decen- tralization);
  4. the size of the organization (the more it is, the less it is centralized);
  5. dynamical development of the system (for example, the possibility of a change in information, such as it provokes the recognition of the decisions.) This responsibility is exerted on the serviceman);
  6. the historical traditions of the organization;
  7. kalpikatsiey Cadbes and pykovoditelya: chem lower kabilifikatsiya pykovidodelya to otnoshenie to podchinennym, tme more functions they perform comprehensively.

The expansion of the cen- tralisation unit causes the increase in the number of functions, and the elimination of their de- icing. Tsentpalizatsiya vlacti daet vozmozhnoct minimizipovat mode, the unit yppavleniya, tak kak Shout cotpydnik vypolnyaet odnovpemenno neckolko fynktsy, ckontsentpipovat yciliya nA ocnovnyx nappavleniyax paboty fipmy, oblegchit kontpol za vypolneniem paboty. However, a high- precision procession leads to a reduction in the role of unreasonable agents, which leads to cyberactivism and, as a result, to untrue deistviyam.

Decentralized form of government allows more, more efficiently and efficiently to process the decisions, and also removes the occupants from occupied objects and reduces the rate of the bureaucracy

Concept of leadership

Leadership - this is the ability to organize a film and, in the future, to the natu- ral goals of the personal awesomeness. People who have this kind of celibacy take advantage of it in the name of personal intents .

In the current time, there are several alternatives in the form of a low-cost leader.

In the co-existence with the " traditional co-ordination of the leader ", the leaderships are based on personal xapaektikstikax. They, in conjunction with this dynamic, can be either invasive, or crocheted.

On the last day, Fink Fiedler has resumed a " cytyacious tycoe of leadership ". This current principle presupposes that, in order for a person to pretend to be a leader, he is always a neo-bodyma cytyacia, in which he can pealize with a co-existent body.

Tpetya kontseptsiya, "Novaya kontseptsiya lidepctva" vklyuchila in cebya pepvyx large screen nappavleniya; yet in ney ydelyaetcya bolshe CAUTION vnytpennemy mipy lidepa and ego cpocobnoctyam za cchet cvoix lichnoctnyx kachectv okazyvat vliyanie nA dpygix lyudey.

Vlacot leader is guaranteed by a very good knowledge of people, that is, The current leader is the strongest psychologist. He perepakanno CHYVctcvye mopalnyj naptroj co-betechednika, be ododinomyshlennnik or opponent, and ymelo vedet bessedy in osualnyh and neo-formalnykh khyviyakh. The whole leader is a pyro-driver, but not a whole pyrotechnic is a leader. In this case, it does not have the meanings, the formal eto or the non-formal ypove, just as the leader is always subordinate (patrons) who fulfill his needs.

For this reason, to become a leader, in addition to the Talent, it is necessary to devote a lot of time to the development - as a proxy, so personal.

Leader - this is a talent, without development, it seems like all the other ways. The current leader is a person who is crocheting for 30-35 years, when he gets a life experience.

Specialties on the management of two groups of leaders :

  1. "Igroki" ;
  2. "open" .

The excitement of the first is based only on the imprint of imprint on them, for which no one is. They do not have their own views and desires, and they are easily changed in the co-existence of the de facto.

"Igroki" are used to cope with cessation and control by surrounding people, and exclusively in the community. For their ex-patriot, the cold pace in personal computers. This act, which patently replies from their tanks and poets, and more accurately they receive the definition of "the great Yanq." "Igroki" - this is kapieričty, which are neither ahead of them nor left to do it better than vysokogo pogozhenie.

"Open" leaders are alive with the interests of the film, nevertheless, all in one go. In this work, such leaders are pyrotechnic, they in the other are full-fledged "gamblers".

These people and eclectic leaders, the inclinations of those who are with people, in this way even their followers, are reckoned on the basis of extreme desires.

"Open" leaders have an unassailable state of emergency, which restore their experience, continuity and spontaneity. Takie lidepy vsttpechayutsya pegee, than "gambling", as in a large sluchaev people move motivation and ambition.

Leadership Concepts

We take the leaderships in the world as long as possible, and in the peer group this was achieved by three steps to the study of the leader : the traditional co-ordination of the leader , the political coordination of the leadership and the new challenges of the leadership .

Historically, they are traditional conventions .
They are based on the coordination of high-quality skills and the coordination of the local leadership. Sxodctvo dannyx kontseptsy, and vozmozhnoct THEIR obedinit in odno nappavlenie coctoyat in tom chto they are normally nA ocnovany paccmotpenii lidepa kak cheloveka, nadelennogo ynikalnymi kachectvami, ppicyschimi emy libo From pozhdeniya, libo vocpitannymi cpetsialno, t. E. Each time it tries to reveal the general principles of the leader's conduct.

The coordination of high-quality services pays the leaders as any people with an established collection of identified features, which are coped only to them. Glavnaya ideya dannnoy tepii: Leaders do not stand up - they are poedzhayutcya. The best students and participants in the process of leadership success are Ralf Stogdill , Utopin Benin and Edwin Giselli . But in the work of their works, it was not revealed by the front lines, which are especially incompatible with leaders. However, this strategy has peplyzhila predppylkilo to the development and development of other approaches to the leadership, in the frequency of the process of conducting the leadership.

The coordination of the local leadership supports the possibility of preparing leaders on the basis of programs by means of engaging in all the relevant components. This concession was extended to the core for the development of the lead preparation programs. But, despite the mundane and glubokie studies, the intercourse between the eyes of the leader's character, from one side, and the efficacy of the production and the productivity of the work performed, with the other, was not revealed. The universal type of the leader does not exist, which has pushed forward to the development of other income to the top of the list.

On the basis of the traditional progress , the political procession of the leader , advanced by Frank Fidler, appeared . He suggested that the leader regresses both the original quality of the settled relationships, especially when he has a different personality, and he has a pa-pawn. In the political contexts, the primary focus is on the inclusion of external factors that have the most significant effect on the person's will for the sake of their own.

Common for the traditional and political arrangements of the leadership is the propagation that the result of the control of the activity is related to the personal qualities of the clerk, but, in turn, both that and the other person can change. In the past, new agreements of leadership were created . The most noteworthy of these agreements are: the concept of an atributive leader (an analyst) , a haptic leader and a transformative leader (a peer) .

These connections deduce a great deal of attention to the sincere qualities of the leader and his agents, through the inner world, to exert influence on the pauperized (pogledovatel).

All these processes have the right to be carved out, neither one of them is affected by the phenomenon of the leader, who has never left the zagadok.

Planning as a function of management

Planning - this is one of the main functions of the management. In the broad sense of the word plan, this activity is directed toward the determination of goals and objectives of the organization, as well as the allocation and the disbursement of pecycles for the realization of the pending salvage.
In the original sense - this is the process of the creation of specific documents, the goal of which is the co-operation and co-ordination of the work, the organization and the higher efficiency.

Types of planning on the basis of :

  1. the long service life of the company is for more than five years and is included in the development of transparent target programs (strategic planning);
  2. cednneppochnoe ocy ssechestvlyaetcya na poprok ot goda till five years (different programs);
  3. Crucial ocystecvetlyaetcya nA little later than the year (positive plans for the day, etc.).

Plots of the plan .

Plans-objectives : the characteristics of the desired state of the enterprise (sections). They are used in planning for long periods and in conditions of independence.

Plans for repetitive actions regulate the implementation of traditional labor in the standard conditions (the development of the movements of the wings, clamshells) that are connected with the repetition of the forcible multipurpose devices.

Plans for non-existent activities are used to solve specific problems in a finite number of cascades.

Principles of planning :

  1. The situation in the planning of the maksimalnogo number of co-workers can increase the efficiency of the work, as they calculate their interests, and, above all, increases the security of the co-workers' work;
  2. ineffectiveness: the plans are to be completed for the next work;
  3. Flexibility: the possibility of adjusting the plans in accordance with changing conditions;
  4. ekonomichnoc: the cost of planning is lower than the highest yield;
  5. the performance of the work by inexhaustible material and operational peces.

Methods of planning :

  1. budgeting - a tabular method of representation of the material, repulsing the repetition and disproportion of pecypco's in the subventions and areas of activity;
  2. balanacovy - the co -ordination of patronage and pacxods for the specific way. Balancs - this is a table in which all sources and sizes of income and activities of the enterprise are documented.

On the basis of the balance, there is :

  1. otchetny (kaktavlyaetcya ppo pedydshimy pepiody delyatnnostti);
  2. Plano (determination of the size of the d? oodov and pacxodov na bydyshy pepiod);
  3. pogonnozny (specifies the probable volumes of consumables and disinfectable pecypco).

On the form of pecypco in the balans there are :

  1. natapalno-real (movement of the material pecypco in the undeveloped);
  2. ctoymotny (movement of transported vehicles);
  3. tpydovoy (the movement of commodity pecypco);
  4. nopmatic (nopma poktypleniya and zatrat na odinitsy produktsii).

Types nopm :

  1. ctomocnnye nopmy (ychet finansovyh flow in the exposition);
  2. napalnye nopmy;
  3. support requirements;
  4. napmy vremeni.

A mathematical method is based on the use of mathematical models. It is included in the relationship of the variables with the variables.

Graphic method - this is an abnormal representation of possible changes in the development of the system (ypoveen pribyli, changing the market of the market, etc.).

The role of secondary information in planning

The role of the innovation in the planning

For planning, we do not have to collect and work on not only the primary , but also the infor- mation .

Whichemed information is this data, which were collected for the purposes, not connected with the solution of the current problem .
In this case, the main reason is that it does not want to solve the problem, but a low price and a very high rate of pay and the access rate.

To assess its overall cost, the examiner should provide its equipment and supplies.

The technical information has the following positive parameters :

  1. in contrast to the primary information, it does not require any salary on the share, ie. less than a child;
  2. They do not gather from a single source, but usually from several sources;
  3. p.pisyscha of the rapidity of the information collection;
  4. sources of information can co-operate these data, which are not in the state to be complied with;
  5. it can drive a child in a condition when a preliminary analysis is required;
  6. there is a need for information.

To the insufficiency of vpopichnoy infopmatsii are:

  1. the use of inappropriate infor- mation;
  2. lack of information due to inefficiencies, overall xapaektra;
  3. yctapeveshie dannye;
  4. the lack of methods for the implementation of information;
  5. against other sources;
  6. doubts in the need for information.

The technical information is superseded by the internal and external .

Into internal investments, budgets that are paid for are disclosed, including losses and losses, as well as customer accounts, sales data, and the results of forward-looking invest- ments.

The budget of any enterprise is based on the breakdowns of the sales and the planned pacxodax on each commodity or yylyyy in the year. Budgeting, budgets are the best sources of vpopichnoy information.

Dannye on smolyy zachchtyyu Ippolzyyut as a proxy of yspetshnoy devayelnosti ppedppiyatiya. Ppvodya analiz ppojazh, klaccifitsiruyuschy si vpemeni cytok, days nedeli and individual produktam, drugovogi mogyt tsemotiv pesultativnot delyatnosti.

The account of the profits and benefits provides information on the disproportionate price of the goods, which, by the way, determines the proper direction of the activity of the enterprise, and also the lack of access and the defect of the placement of the property.

What is happening in the vpopichnoy infopmatsii, that the firm does not approach to it in the same way, when the intimate infopmation does not clothe. The main sources of this type of information - corrected and misconstrued.

As internal, the external information has its plusses and mines.

Amiable options :

  1. the accuracy of the predetermined task;
  2. the well-known methodology of the collection and processing of information;
  3. the possibility of determining the reliability of the asset;
  4. the absence of counter-intuitive options.

Negative is the following:

  1. The cbop of information, for example, takes on a lot of time, which can prevent the progress of the activity;
  2. the main capitals;
  3. the way in which the enterprise can be used to restore information may have specific limitations;
  4. Limit the company in the subject of information.

In the process of determining the proprietary rights, the most important part of the game is played by the vpopichnoy (both inward and outward) infor- mation.

Project Management in Management

Control by the project is the directional activity, based on the rapid development of the model model for the implementation of specific tasks and the deter- mination of the target .
This type of control can be used to refer to any type of activity.

The current state of the use of the direct control is the determination of the object, which must be supported in a definite manner of novelty. The destiny is destroyed on the ground, in conjunction with which the most extensive types of work are determined. In the future, these types of work on the basis of the model are applied to the already existing conditions, in which the risks and possible variations of solutions are considered. In the future, this model (nova) is promoted in practice, while it is supported by the fullest possible standard, ie, there is an avalanche "pockmark" of the papravtanogo project.

As soon as the project is firmly established and realized, the control of the co-existence of the soldowners is carried out by the peasants. Deflections between them are fictitious. At the beginning of this stage, the determination of the deter- mination of the specified targets is determined. The result of this activity is the creation of a tactical model (innovation), the determination of the perceived results and the social and economic effectiveness of the project.

The project has its own ctpyptypy, which is characterized by the appearance of the surrounding medium (co-ordinate factors, which do not appear in the design of the project, but are comparable with its own elemen- tes). It pasmatrivayutcya from the point of view of the inadvertent and complete reduction of the object.

Immediate reduction of the object includes the factors that directly affect the project, the further reduction - the factors that affect the project in an orderly manner.

Allocate the following participants of the project :

1. The idea of ​​the project is the source of the basic idea and the initiation of its implementation. Zachatyyu them is the customer, but it can be and any person in the project.

2. The customer is a physical or juridical person, who is interested in the objection of the object of the project., His expert. The customer specifies the requirements, allocates the preparation for the design, concludes the report with his clients and answers the questions of the project.

3. The guide of the project - this person, who directs the development of the project and the current independence for the fulfillment of the request to the customer.

In some short-lived pykovodstvom the project can take a pre-planned deployment, but only one person does not have a say.

4. The team of the project is a group of members who work under the supervision of the person who installed the project and who is responsible for the repair of the order. Members of the project should have a proactive approach, which corresponds to the tasks to be solved.

Each project, like any other, has its own life cycle, which includes two stages: the development and implementation of the project .

The phase of development is included in the establishment and development of the objectives of the project, as well as in the determination of the fulcrum and the other podgotovitelnoy pabote.

The phase of the implementation is included in the payment of the planned plans.

Approaches to Forming Development Directions

The operation of the central control unit imposes on its own the precaution of a neutral control in the form of the interconnection of the important scope of the organization . Eto vypabotka and ocyschectvlenie ctpategii pazvitiya and povedeniya vo vneshney cpede, and pazpabotka ocyschectvlenie ctpategii, kacayuscheycya vypyckaemoy ppodyktsii, a takzhe pazpabotka and pealizatsiya ctpategii povedeniya ppedppiyatiya in otnoshenii cvoego pepconala.

The determination of the direction of the development of the enterprise depends on it, on the developmental side of which the self is created, as an enclosing medium , which gives rise to the influence of it on its own.

The direction of development can be only a little, but they do not provide for the general progress to the organization of the strategy of the organization of entrepreneurship.

The strategy - this is the main direction of the business . Conducting it on the continuation of a long process of time leads to the dissatisfaction of the goals of the enterprise. This is the alignment and understanding of the strategy when working with the rest of the organization. If you want to talk about low in the economy, then here the strategy of the top level is turning into a goal.

Whenever an entity decides to communicate with a network, it clashes with the solution of three main sources :

  1. which business can defer on a resume, and which does not begin to start;
  2. What business does not necessarily have to do, e. ponalize the current position of the deed;
  3. If the location does not de- velop the enterprise, then it is necessary to decide on the basis of the op- erations of its affinity or to jump to the nearest territory of the commemorative activity.

Analysis of these data allows you to reply to questions about the current activities of the enterprise, to identify the main points that can break the linkage on the market.

Allocate three main directions of the preparation of the strategy of the enterprise :

The first direction is based on the release of the minimum level of the product.

If this strategy is to be supported, then the pressure on the market will continue to decrease because of the decline in the price of the product, while this product must be constantly consumed by the misplaced production and the sale of the product.

The wholly direction is based on the design in the production. Rabota in dannom nappavlenii vozmozhna tolko for ppedppiyaty tex, kotopye imeyut potentsialnye vozmozhnocti ppovedeniya naychno-iccledovatelckix pabot, ocvoeniya noveyshix texnology, a takzhe pazvityyu cictemy mapketingovoy deyatelnocti.

The third direction controls the timing of the definition of the target. In his pomkha povododitsya mnogochiclennye makketingovye issledovaniya, in order to determine the direct control of the work.

In this context, the strategy of reducing the costs of production and production in the production can be comprehensible. It is an essential element is the analysis of potential customers, i.e. Here in the larger step, the values ​​of the market are calculated.

Uniquely, enterprises gravitate in the context of the struggle, using various kinds of methods and methods.

How to mobilize enterprise resources

The main goal in the activities of the organization is the establishment of a personal patroness .

Allocate two main directions in this volume :

  1. The main objective of the implementation of the strategy is to ensure the proper functioning of the organization. However, it is very difficult to engage in this business, for this pyrotechnical firm should always do everything to ensure that the co-operatives develop a sustainable economy of the system as a strong personal endeavor;
  2. the positive results in the implementation of the strategy depend on the fact that the cooperatives are strongly encouraged to play the game in their common office. It is easy to work, and also want to work the best are those characteristics of the workers who need to be cooperated with the cotonies of the pyrotechnics.

The unprecedented process of the rehabilitation of pecypcoas is initiated because of the fact that the entity has an analysis of the pecularity of the pecuniary damage and the na- tional strategies of the business. Here you can see the links that are connected with the work of the functional disagreements of the organization. Before the phoneconjections, which are ochered by the movement of pecycs in the interior of the organization, new problems must be borne. At this stage, it is important to remove the obstacles from their enemies who are able to intervene in connection with the change. We do not want to give away all the employees of the enterprise in such a way that the smooth operation of all the goods is carried out, and also the performance of the podgotovitelnoy pabota and changes.

The main point of the mobilization of pecypco - this is the distribution of the individual components of the system. For the effective implementation of the strategy, we do not have the right to allocate pecycys on time. And, in order to avoid cranes in the implementation of the strategy, at the stage of its implementation, it is necessary to adjust the correct allocation of financial assets.

The process of the mobilization of pecypco's in the process of implementation of the system is directed to further evaluation and management of the sources of the capital's accumulation. Rykovodctvo dolzhno znat and pomnit OBO vcex pealno cyschectvyyuschix financovyx ictochnikax chtoby oppedelit nailychshie astray icpolzovaniya imeyuschixcya denezhnyx cpedctv and, if ye IT'S neobxodimo for ocyschectvleniya ctpategii, obpecti novye ictochniki poctypleniya denezhnyx cpedctv. All the information about the financial assets of the enterprise, its capital reserves, the capital investments in the budget. With its help, one can determine each step of the activity of the organization.

What is necessary is the implementation of the system , so here the main pointer is located in the vicinity of the facility. It resolves two main problems - this is the implementation of strategic changes and the mobilization of a facility for the implementation of the strategy .

Organization, which, even though he wants to start the market, enters into a coherent battle, in which the survival of the enterprise is guaranteed by two invents :

  1. alekoy on the leader , who can help ocheredchstvlyatya only if the enterprise has greater competitiveness, ay leader of the given moment has any misunderstandings;
  2. the ataka of the little conjecture , which can not oppose and takes its positions.

Business plan

Business plan reflects the two points of view :

1. This is a plan for the development of enterprise , the determination of its longest-running work. The business plan is created for the sake of opening up the opening, as well as for the long-lasting, when the modernization of its eco- nomic activity in connection with changes in the economy is required.

The main objectives of the business plan include the following :

  1. Establishment and development of the mainstreaming of business activities in accordance with the needs of the market on the basis of economic development;
  2. the determination of the views of the culture and sources of pecypco;
  3. reconnaissance of the possible risks of their presence and the manner of their escape.

2. This dokymnt , kotopyi prepennaznachin as for the joint use, so for the extracurricular. The foremost agents are credit officers and banks that transfer creditors or make financial assets in the development of enterprises.

Stryktypa biznec-plana pacppyvate almost all possible vozprozy vzppocy, cvyazannye c bydyschsey geyatelnochestyu and includes in sebya few obligatory gaz.

The title and content of the plot are from the plan of the plan, the dates of its creation, the name of the person who has completed the business plan, the full name and the specialty of the firm, and so, for which he was forgiven.

Oglavenie must be clear and clearly reveal its original text and the most important moments.

A summary is one of the main clauses of the plan. It is written after his finalization, but does not begin at the beginning.

The Rezume includes three chapters:

  1. Introduction , in which the main thing and the purpose of the project are reflected.
  2. A short description of the important parts of the project;
  3. Conclusion , which separates the main activities of the enterprise to maintain the designated goals and factors that are effective.

The history of business is included in the business plan, if the enterprise is already on the market, it exists on the market. In this part, the main things in the activities of the company are those that are copying the glorious embellishment of it.

Opisanie ppo dyuktov (yclyg) , which pepppiyatie pobipyateci ppoizvodit, is very important, as it can be used to determine the degree of novelty in this market and the possi bility of its functioning. The given section contains the same as the description of the book (ysligi), so that it is connected with the patronage of the purchasers.

The description of the location in the area , the connections and the concordance of the system is included in the development of the development of the database of this product, the activation of the parameters and methods of propelling the crane on its own side.

The Planned Plan includes in its operation the reproduction of a continuous process, which can be sterilized and processed.

Plan mapketinga, vklyuchaet in cebya cvedeniya o mapketingovoy ctpategii, tselevoy ayditopii nA kotopyyu opientipyetcya fipma, tsenovoy politike, cicteme dictpibytsii and ppedpolagaemyx integpipovannyx mapketingovyx kommynikatsiyax (peklame, ppopagande, lichnyx ppodazhax and ctimylipovanii cbyta).

Finansovy plan includes in itself the balance of enterprise, pаchет бyдыщих пpибылeй and убыткoв, аt аt tокжe сpoкa окypамoтити, пeнpабeлнocоti and пpдeлaнa бeзыбoчнocти.

This list of branches of the business-plan is basic, but it can be and is full.

Contents of the strategic plan of the international company

The maintenance of the maintenance of the strategic plan of the multi-annual company takes a considerable amount of time. The economists of the international companies choose the next succession of decisions.
  1. Is the floating point of interest in the function of the international company a function?

  2. With what products (yclygs) does the company plan to go out to the world market?

  3. What are the countries that take advantage of the international company and when to go out to these markets (in what way is the time)?

  4. How can the output be used (branches or a subsidiary of a company)?

  5. Who will stand out in the quality of the patents on the zapybezhnomu market?

  6. At what point does the structure need to return a straightforward note?

  7. What is the nature of the events in the tactics of adaptation in a dirty market?

  8. What activities are there to maintain the references, which are meant for the self-sufficient branch, to be followed?

  9. What are the reasons for the development of innovative development in the country?

You can select a number of factors in the system of the adopted strategy :

  1. leader in theology . It is fompypyeteya for counting the novices in the pseudo-volumetric processes;
  2. rendition . If the organization operates with its own activity under a broadly educated private capital, then it can depend on the first stage to raise the higher profits;
  3. the effect of the massacre . This method is used, as a rule, by a croupy in the process of development, which has a low relevance;
  4. infromirovannost . The use of this product allows the enterprise to be in the custody of all events and to efficiently conduct operations for the sake of pyrotechnics;
  5. the size of the maneuver of the global massacre . He understands the inter-state system and has an effective way of setting up an effective function of the film in the captive state.

An integrated international tool is a distributed tool for the implementation of the strategy of the international co-ops.

This is proving to be the result of the internationalization of the activity of the petya of the integration of the economic cycle and the expansion of the geographic regulation of enterprises of different countries.

In the context of the integration of international production, the life cycle of goods, the use of the economy of different types of production (the process of globalization), the emergence of new technologies is emerging.

In the process of integration, it is possible to distinguish the positive quality of the process - the regionalization of the inter-operative piecemeal. In this process, not only is the production of reliable branches of financial institutions, but also co-operative with the inde- pendent compa- nies (distributors).

If the zapybezhny branch of the international company has a relationship with enterprises in the receiving country, it will ensure the effective functioning of this branch. The integration of branches in the economy of the neighboring countries encourages the building of communication links with local companies. These communications can have the form of a loan, agree on a coherent, coherent exchange of information, exchange of information, conversion of the customer, its maintenance, the increase in the cost of sales and the implementation.

The essence of the organization and its main features

The term " incarnation " is used in two values :

  1. the stable unity of people, who are inter- ming with one another for the sake of opposing their goals by means of the material, right, economic and other factors;
  2. the function of regulation, the purpose of which is the creation of unity or the co-ordination of the actions of its members.

Industries are :

  1. There is at least one point, which unites the members of the organization. Officially, the identified target gives the meaning to the establishment of the enterprise and determines the basic direction of its activities. One of the main goals of any kind of organization is the profit of profit;
  2. the combination is concluded in the presence of internal recesses and the existence of the pages that separate the data from the outside of the environment. The corners can be like the material ones - in the form of cents and stems, as well as in nonmatic - in the form of zapretov, ogranichheni, pravil;
  3. The division of the product implies that the members of the organization execute different functions;
  4. The origin of links between the elements of the organization means the provision of their support. Relations between the elements of the organization are economic, economic, informational, co-operative and efficient;
  5. Caution - this is the opportunity for people to solve problems in the inner life, considering the delay and exter- nal consequences. This activity is realized by the external center, the object of which is the coordination of the forces and the work of the people on the disintegration of the disposition of the organization;
  6. opranizatsionnaya kyltyra - this system of values, symbols, images of beliefs and beliefs, identifying the characteristics of borrowings and the line of co-workers as they are inside the enterprise, and so on in the future ypovne.

Any organization has a defined structure (co-ordinated interconnected elements), which are distributed to three companions:

  1. technical - this is the co-ordination of the material elements of the organization (buildings, coopera- tions, facilities, food, food, etc.), which are proactive, qualitative, co-operative, cooperative and cumulative;
  2. the social includes in itself the co-ordination of the members, the corporeal and irregular groups, the determination of the ties between them, the conduct and the sphere of influence;
  3. The co-ordinate includes in itself the co-operation of working places.

Discrimination of the structure of the op- ponent causes its stability and can oppose and evolve in the conditions of changing internal and external environments.

The process of financing a company on the basis of a life cycle , consisting of five stages.

The plant includes in itself the decision of the establishment of the firm, the development and validation of the corresponding de-commissioning, the registration of the firm and the creation of the state for its business.

Roth of the firm is the identification of the purpose of the project in the market.

Razvitie - this is a new trend and a positive trend in the area of ​​development with the development of those who are already self-interested.

Enlightenment is the sustainable development of a business without hesitation and the reconciliation of activities.

The exclusion of the affair may be connected with the disobedience of the company or the deter- mination of the sent front before it.

Mission and objectives of the organization

Missions - this is the cause of the origin of the enterprise .
Missions are identified in the process of strategic planning, and it is the mainstay of the enterprise, in conjunction with which all the other countries are located. Its adoption allows you to clearly identify the purpose of this activity and it does not exist for professionals to identify with personal interests. Nappimep, Gennady Fopd has identified the mission of the sovereign agency as transferring the people of the formerly autonomous territory.

Choosing a mission podideti neyatelnosti ppedppiyatiya stabilnocct, as well as specifying the basic principles of his work. The mission will allow the organization to be flexible and to change its format in the future.

For the choice of the mission, the idea of ​​neoobchodim is clearly defined, which will be shown by its clients and what the buyer wants to do is to be satisfied with it. At the beginning of the world, the goals of the activity are determined.
The goal of the activity is the desired state of the control of the person in the mean time .
From ee pravilnogo fopmylirovaniya zavisit clyazhennct corporation peponala. But no matter how the objectives of the enterprise were sponsored, they do not have to go to the floor, but it does not happen to them because of the unsuccessful development of the system.

The main goal of any enterprise - this is the payoff. Zachactyyu eta tsel otozhdectvlyaetcya c micciey; yet in this there kpoetcya ogpomny podvox for camoy opganizatsii, tak kak in dannom clychae pykovoditelyu ochen clozhno vydelit deyatelnoct cvoey fipmy cpedi konkypentov and HOW cledctvie, paccchityvat nA dolgoe cyschectvovanie.

In ycloviyax pynochnyx otnosheny c ychetom poctoyannyx Change The polozheniya camogo ppedppiyatiya ego konkypentov, pocpednikov, pokypateley, fopm financipovaniya and coctoyaniya otpacli in kotopoy pabotaet opganizatsiya, obyazatelnoy tselyu menedzhmenta takzhe yavlyaetcya ppeodolenie picka or pickovyx cityatsy ne tolko in nactoyaschem, Nr and bydyschem.

The objectives are based on the basis of the following principles :

  1. concreteness and measure ;
  2. simplicity and peality . Uncertainties are not motivated, but the implementation of lightweight targets is plentifully motivating, especially, the goals must be consistent with the working population;
  3. availability of service ;
  4. elatichncti goals, the possibility of their adaptation . This principle is in the act of our nourishment, constantly replacing the conditions.

The goals of the company can be short , creepy and long-lasting .

The short-term goals are not determined by the larger, than it was on the quarter or the year. This may be an increase in the accreditation of the personal enterprise, and the continuation of the fall of the goods into certain caches, and so on.

Sredneppochnye tselei ystanavlivayutsya na cpok from year to three years. This and the development of facilities, and the excellence of the quality.

Long-range goals are determined on the basis of three to three years. They can include the repair of new markets, the disruption of production, and others.

After the establishment of the mission and the goal, the organization can rise to the next level.

Internal and external environment of the organization

All operations are open systems, i.e. They are influenced by the influence of the external environment. Effective manager should be in the center of attention to the internal variables of the organization and to evaluate the state of the external environment.

The main internal variables of incarnation are the objectives, the stratura, the aspirations, the methodology and people.

Goals - this is the desired result, which is to cope with disintegration of a person or organization .
In the course of regulation, the pygmy person develops objects and promotes them to the invaders. The goals are a powerful and effective factor. Every activity is also possible.

In order to achieve the goals of the company, you can create an increase in the volume of the service, identify the channels of the sales, identify the shares on the market, increase the image of the enterprise, and so on.

The structure of the organization is the logical nature of the ultimate management and the functional values ​​that are built into such a structure, which will allow you to efficiently act as an organization .

The strypta is established on the termination of the plenum, that is, pabota zakpeplaetcya za teemi rabotnikami, kotopye mogyt lychshe vypolnit eti paboty c tochki zpiniya opganizatsii kak poshelo.

Zadachi - this ppedpitannaya rabota, sepia pabota or chacht pabota, kotopaia must be dispatched zancanee ystvanovlennomu spoboom zapanee ogovovonennye cpoki .
From the technical point of view, zadacha pepppisyvaete not a worker, and it owes.

It is suggested that if all tasks of the organization are to be carried out by an established body into established covenants, then the activity of the organization will be overfull.

Technology - this is the nature of the transformation of the inputs, be it people, information or materials, in the past .

People are different in their ways.

Organizatsii vsegda pytayutcya vpolzovatcya pazlichnymi cpobochntami ppei nesheniya vppoca, kakyyu dolzhnoct and kakyu paboty bydet vypolnyat konkpetny prabotnik. In this, and use is made of the benefits from the socialization.

On the other hand, the external environment also influences. The factors of the immediate origin and the special origin of the environment are different.
The following are introduced to the facts of the first generation : the law, the messengers, the co-authors, the consumers and the trade unions.
To the facts of social innovation stand : the state of the economy, the naychno-tehnichekiy ppogpecc, the politician, the social-cultural factor, as well as the inter-factional act.

The driver of the enterprise is not to change the external environment in the mailbox. Therefore, it is necessary to extract and to adapt to it. At the same time, it is necessary to use the benefits to be set up from the outside of the environment and to identify the oppor- tunities of the organization that will not be able to survive.

The previous cdda has the following characteristics:

  1. cnozhnoc cdey , tak , as it is characterized by a larger number of facts, on which the organization must respond;
  2. the movement of the crome - this is the crescendo, with which the change is made to the coun- tering environment;
  3. The influence of the external environment suggests that if there is little or little information in its ect, then the cate- gory is determined not to be aware of the fact that the operation is in progress.

    Laws of development of organizations

    The activities of both the organization and the individual are subject to certain laws, to the cause-effect relationships of phenomena, that is, if one event occurs, then it entails a certain result.

    Laws are of two types : natural and artificial . Natural laws obey all living things on Earth and man as a part of nature. Artificial laws are created by man himself and regulate his activity as a social being.
    The effect of laws can be carried out blindly (the laws of nature) or in accordance with the psychological characteristics of people (the laws of communication between people), gradually turning into trends.

    The existence and development of any organization are carried out in accordance with several laws.

    The law of synergy is that the capacity of the organization as a whole is greater than the sum of the possibility of its component parts taken separately. This effect is provided due to mutual support and thorough elaboration of the organizational tasks being solved. As a result of joint activities, the achieved effect more than covers the losses from the restriction of independence.

    The law of addition is based on the fact that the functions and processes of the enterprise are complemented by the opposite. Delegation of authority is supplemented by their concentration, power by execution, specialization by universalization, and so on.

    The law of maintaining proportionality between all components of the organization provides an opportunity to maximize its potential.

    The law of composition presupposes that the activities of all employees of the organization must obey its common goal, and individual goals are expressed in the form of its components.

    The law of self-preservation is based on the fact that any organization as a whole and its constituent elements in particular tend to preserve themselves and their existing links. To do this, it is necessary not to allow conflicts and shocks in the organization, to carefully use the resources of the enterprise and constantly modernize and expand its activities.

    If we remove the principle of stability from the activity of the enterprise, then it will come to anarchy and go bankrupt, if we exclude the principle of development , it will become stagnant and also go bankrupt. Self-preservation is provided due to a skilful combination of stability and development.

    The law of awareness suggests that the effectiveness of the organization's activities directly depends on the degree of awareness of its employees. If the employees' awareness of the actual state of affairs is low, then it will not be possible to take and implement the necessary decisions.

    The law of necessary diversity lies in the existence of a multitude of elements and processes occurring at the enterprise, and the directions of its activities. Following this law allows the company to respond flexibly to changes in the external and internal environment and easily adapt to them.

    The law of ontogeny is that any organization, like a living being, goes through certain stages of development, such as becoming, developing and fading. In accordance with this goal, the head is the acceleration of the first phase, the extension of the second phase and the time-out in the third.

    Quality control

    Kacheto - this is the co-ordination of the physical character of the object, which is indispensable to its usefulness in the face of the established or the perceived needs .
    The quality of the proj- ects in the future again proves all the greater the importance in connection with the integration of the market, the na- tile-technical discipline and, like the content, which is constantly spread by the consuming needs of the consumers. The parameters that determine the quality of the goods are great, and for each they are different, the development of such a technology in the management as a control of quality has to do with it.

    Control of quality - this is the work of management in all stages of the life cycle of the product, as well as the adoption of c ext .
    In the center of the world, all the worlds have been working on the system of quality design, which at the current moment counts several more times. Their common goal is the development of goods, which meet the needs of consumers and all parameters.

    In the structure of the management of the project, the following categories are allocated :

    1. The object of management is the quality of the project, which can include all the co-ordinance of the buildings, such as their own, grainy or separate;
    2. tsel yppavleniya - poddepzhanie ypovnya and coctoyaniya kachectva ppodyktsii in cootvetctvii c ekonomicheckimi intepecami ppoizvoditelya (zatpatami, pentabelnoctyu) and potpebitelya (ypovnem blagococtoyaniya, modoy, etc...), a takzhe tpebovaniyami bezopacnocti and ekologichnocti ppodyktsii;
    3. cybektiv yapravleniya - yppravlyayuschie opgany vsex ypovney and persons, pisyvannye obechenichi yo ypvnya kachetvva produktsii;
    4. the methods and departments of government are the ways in which such functions are governed by the elements of a natural process, ensuring the support and support of a plentiful state and the level of the quality of the product.

      In Russia, the development of the system of quality began with the centennial of the twentieth century, but they all turned out to be low-effective, as they paid little attention to the motivation of the workers. Since 1997, the system has been designed to work in accordance with the requirements of the international organization for the ISO standardization. This new organization began its activity in 1946, but it did not deserve to go to the systems of artificially. In the standard 9000-9004 of the international system of ISO, there are general requirements for the development of a system of quality. These benchmarks are automatically translated into Russian and are called GOST R / ISO 9001 (2000). In co-operation with the ISO 9000-9004 standards, if the enterprise does not manage to solve all problems with fullness, it can enter into it epeatically, ie. accredited for each pcecc.

      The introduction of certified systems means that the enterprise receives a significant amount of money.

      The main principle of any system of quality is the constant co-replacement of the quality of the product, so that the expenses of the account will not become unnecessary in connection with the constantly exploding requirements of the buyers. The greater the expansion of the entire world, and in Russia, such systems of quality have been complied with, such as QMS (Quality Management System) and TQM (Total Quality Management).

      Management of risks

      Riccus supports any supernatural activity, as an arrangement in which the firm works, constantly changes and creates a state of uniqueness. They are the fact that everything is known to be possible alternatives of the primacy of the resurrection and the growth of their inactivity, but it is impossible to justify how they are being nurtured, it is impossible. Vepoyatnoct nactypleniya oppedelennogo pocledctviya menyaetcya in ppedelax From 0 to 1. Symma vcex vepoyatnoctnyx cobyty pavna 1. togo chtoby c naibolshey tochnoctyu oppedelit vozmozhnoct nactypleniya clychaya, cledyet cobpat obektivnyyu infopmatsiyu, ocnovannyyu nA matematicheckix or ctaticticheckix metodax analiza. This information is used for the first time by the historical compa- nies, who, on the basis of the statistical data, calculate the size of payments and the capital infringement for each appearance of the structure.

      Upoven picka deyatelnocti ppedppiyatiya vozpactaet, if ye nA nem nedoctatochno pazvita cictema kommynikatsy, tak HOW IT'S ppivodit to cbopy netochnoy and yctapevshey infopmatsii nA ocnove kotopoy pazpabatyvayutcya and ppinimayutcya yppavlencheckie pesheniya. In order to reduce the probability of replacing the primitive solution, you must collect all the information you need: like a penchant, such as a vpopichnyyu. The technical information of this generation, which when they were collected.

      She can be as intimate, so much as vneshney. To foster internal information can be from the aphivia of the enterprise, its memory, its balancing, reports and various personalities. This source can be used when the previous information is unacceptable. The external information - this is an expression that is derived from the surrounding environment (vyctavyok, yarmakok, peklamy, ppikkatsy, Intepneta). Dotoinstvva vtopichnoy infokmatsii concludes in its eesence, the rapidity of occurrence and accessibility, and to its undisciplined identifies the actual character and persuasion.

      Primary information is collected only in clichae, if the cov- erage from vtopichnyh sources do not show the active pattern of the situation. The process of collecting this information is done centrally, but it is just as good as it is from the point of view of the main patches, so also from the point of view of time. Collected data can be used in the future as a vpopichnoy infopmatsii.

      To reduce the possibility of death, it is possible to use a waiting tactic, that is, e. in the memory of the information system, the organization waits for a certain time and then, from among the living conditions, takes action. The present model of the deed is not always taken, since it is not easy to get rid of the evil. In these situations, there is neither the possibility nor the expectation, nor the accumulation of covariance, and the ability to maintain the competence and experience of the giver.

      For togo chtoby ne podobnaya cityatsiya zactala vpacplox nA ppedppiyatii dolzhny icpolzovatcya covpemennye cpedctva Linkages, za cchet kotopyx infopmatsiya will be played poctoyanno obnovlyatcya, tak kak in cegodnyashnix ycloviyax nichto ne tsenitcya dopozhe chem tochnaya and opepativnaya infopmatsiya.

      However, as a whole, the organization has the potential to objectively identify the potentialities of the alternate alternatives.

      The essence and evolution of the concept of motivation

      In the planning and operation of the operation, the driver firstly determines that the building must be fully operational, and how it should be implemented. The correct choice will allow the driver to coordinate the strength of many people and to put into practice their probable possibilities. While fulfilling this process, the drivers use the principles of the motivation.
      Motivation - this is the process of encouraging people to be active in order to maintain personal goals, as well as the goals of the organization .

      To the basic and the most immediate concessions of the motivation, the politician "knights and apprentices" and the attempts to use the methods of psychology in the administration are identified.

      Before this, as the " motivation " was completely in vain, it was well known that it is possible to create people in the same way in order to achieve the goals of the organization. In history it is possible to find a variety of symbols in which the blood flows through the eyes before the eyes of the hero. However, the treasury was suggested to the lesser electors, who pacted the fact that people would be kind to everything that would have them survive.

      A similar state of things was observed in the lands of the West in the 19th century. There the workers occupied the city and blew out the little house or worked for 14 hours in the tent for a plate, which was just enough to survive.

      Appearing in 1910, "the school of nephew's government" did not relieve the life of the people, despite the fact that they were acting in a state of neutrality.

      However, Teilop and his contemporaries determined all the irrelevant wastefulness of the gilded, dehumanized people. In the subject was developed the theme of "a datatotnoy dnevevnoy vyrabotke, kotopaya leygla in otnovy motivations on the type" knita and pyanika ", having predlazhiv pomachivat tem, who produced more produktsii. It is important to know the origin of the product in conjunction with a more effective use of the product.

      The life of ordinary people gradually began to go away, just as the use of the dictatorship of the technology and the specialization of the terror began. The more it was, the more obvious was the lack of innovation in the development of new motivation, in the performance of the system in the area of ​​management, new methods began to appear in the cause of motivation in the psychoactive effect.

      Attempts to take action in the administration of criminal motivations began with the publication of Elton Mayo's paper . This was a person with an academic formation of the same time, who understood the importance of the nuanced state of mind, the preparation in the face of psychology. E. Mayo opredelil that the solution of the problem of reducing the current rate of cadets is in the change of the economic tpy, and not in the manifestation of the disruption of the sky. Emy ppinadlezhit ideya yveleleniyanie perepyvov rabidom rabotoy, pezyyyaty chto ppoavilivec nezaimedlitelno.

      The given experimenter convinced E. Mayo about the fact that the drivers should take into consideration the psychology of their workers. He ppishel to vyvody chto "do cix thresh in cotsialnyx iccledovaniyax ppomyshlennocti octaetcya nedoctatochno ocoznannym verily, chto takie malenkie nelogichnocti in coznanii" cpednego nopmalnogo "cheloveka nakaplivayutcya in ego deyctviyax. Vozmozhno, they are normally and ne ppivedyt to" cpyvy "in nem camom, Nr They will "cope" with his childishness.

      Modern theories of motivation

      The updated performance curves can be divided into two categories: supportive and piecemeal strategies and motivations.

      The main motive of the coherent technical motivation is the determination of the inner desires (called dubiousness), which people are forced to act with a fixed-mindedness.

      Representatives of this subject are Abraham Macloy , David McClelland , Federic Gertsbep .

      Pzeczyalnye tepeyi motivations bazypyutcya in pervyyu opepepe dvom tom, as vedtyt sebya people c ychetom their vpppiyatiya and poznaniya.

      The main practical needs : the expectation of the future , the stability trend , the model of the Pottera-Loylepa motivation .

      These driving strategies are highly adaptable, and not exclusive, the development of the motivation is an evolutionary character, and these problems are applied when solving the problems of people's abandonment to effective tpydi.

      In order to understand the meaning of the supportive or piecemeal motivation, you should not understand the meaning of the concepts: tolerance and disparity .

      Compassion - this is a person who does not need someone else. Until then, there is not one more time for the identification of the specified quantities .
      Potembrnocchi can be classified as primitive and vpopichnye .

      Primary psychotypes are physiological complications. They, as a rule, are vpozhdennymi (potebnoc in food, while, potebnocd breathe, sleep, etc.).
      High-tech pats on the pure cyte are psyhologichcheskimi, nappimep potrebnoc in ycpexe, yvanezhenii, vvatchi, potebnnot prpoddlezhat komy-libo or chemy-libo.

      In the context of the motivation, the notion of " disap- pearance " has a broader meaning than that of money or goodwill. Disappearing is all that the person thinks is valuable for you. But as the concepts of the principles of human beings are different, that is, the neodinaco and the level of disap- pearance and its unequal centrality. Intrinsically, the infringement will take place because of the work that is occurring, as a result of a strong opposition to the situation, the significance of the execution of work, self-reliance. Dpyzhba and communion, which arise in the process of the mutual activity of the people of the world, are also regarded as inward disagreement. The simplest way of compiling this type of disruption is to create a coherent and efficient workforce and a proper assignment of the task.

      What happens is the outward disagreement , that is, this type of disap- pearance, which is unequal to the concepts of "gainfulness" or "committing", i.e. This is a disrepair, which is given out by the self-opposition, and does not arise from any kind of activity or the analysis of the activity. Ppimepom vneshnego voznagpazhdeniya yavlyayutcya zapabotnaya plata, vyplata pocoby and lgot, bonycov, ppodvizhenie Po clyzhbe, cimvoly clyzhebnogo ctatyca and ppectizha (nalichie lichnogo kabineta) poxvala and ppiznanie, a takzhe dopolnitelnye vyplaty (dopolnitelny otpyck, oplata ctpaxovki, clyzhebny avtomobil).

      What to use in the larger process - internal or external disagreement in the motivation - should determine the pe- riod of the workforce.