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Strategic management



Below is a list of materials published in the "Strategic Management":

  1. General characteristics of strategic management
  2. Methodological bases of strategic management
  3. A systematic approach to strategic management
  4. Strategic Management Principles
  5. Strategic Management System
  6. Strategic characteristics of the provisions of the formation of a strategy
  7. Evolution of Management Systems
  8. Long-term strategic planning and
  9. Styles of Conduct
  10. Strategic and operational management
  11. Strategic planning
  12. potential organizations
  13. Requirements to the manager in charge of the strategic management
  14. Corporate strategy
  15. Vertical integration
  16. Business strategy
  17. Functional strategy
  18. Organizational changes
  19. Organizational Culture
  20. The strategic planning process
  21. The mission of the organization
  22. Strategic goals
  23. Analysis of the external environment
  24. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the organization
  25. The method of the SWOT-analysis
  26. The use of future scenarios in strategic management
  27. The process of election management strategy stategicheskom
  28. The basic development strategy
  29. Methods of strategic analysis
  30. BCG Matrix in strategic management
  31. Selecting an assessment strategy
  32. Strategic changes in the organization
  33. The system plans the organization in strategic management





General characteristics of strategic management

Strategic management - it is management of the organization, which upiratetsya on human potential as it is based, directs production activities to customer needs, providing flexible regulation and timely changes in the organization, adequate exposure of the environment also allows to achieve competitive advantage that ultimately, It promotes the survival of the organization and the achievement of its long-term goals.

Strategic Management (SM) has a system different from the operational (OM):

  • Organization Mission in the SM - the survival of the organization in the long term by establishing a dynamic balance with the environment, in the OM - the production of goods and services for profit;
  • in SM concern focuses preferably on the problems of the external environment on the lookout for new opportunities in the competition, adapting to changes in the environment;
  • in the OM - on the problems that arise in undertaking related to a more efficient use of resources:
  • SM is focused on the long term, however, OM - short- and medium-term;
  • T he primary factors of the control system for the CM are the people, the system of information support and bazaar for OM - the organizational structures, equipment and technology;
  • the management personnel of CM treats workers as if the essence of an organization source of well-being, OM - as if the resources of the organization, implementing operations;
  • the efficiency of the SM is expressed in how timely and accurate organization able to respond to new demands from the market will also change depending on changes in the environment, in the OM - profit maximization, rational use of productive capacity.

Strategic management is generally regarded as a set of five interrelated processes: the analysis of the environment (external and internal), the definition of the mission and objectives, analysis of the election of the strategy, implementation of the strategy, evaluation and control of the implementation strategy.

What is the difference Intermedia strategic planning and strategic management?

Strategic planning is focused on making the best strategic decisions, it is time like strategic management is linked to the achievement of strategic results: new markets, new products and (or) new technologies. To paraphrase Peter Drucker, strategic planning - plans for management, but strategic management - managing for results. Strategic planning - the analytical process, but strategic management - organizational.

The strategic planning process also uses economic variables. In strategic management, in addition to being taken into account to the same psychological, sociological and political factors. Thus, strategic planning provides an answer to the problem "that act?", Strategic Management - the questions of "how" and "who it will work?".

Strategic management consists of:

  • formulation of strategies;
  • the development of business skills of the company;
  • manage the implementation of strategies and the development of abilities.


Methodological bases of strategic management

Gipoteza clychaynocti. Edinogo petsepta optimalnogo yppavleniya kompaniey ne cyschectvyet. Inogda gipotezy o clychaynocti tpaktyyut cledyyuschim obpazom: paz ynivepcalnoe peshenie otcytctvyet, znachit kazhdaya kompaniya ynikalna Po cvoey ppipode also dolzhna ickat cvoy cobctvenny pyt. Odnako in nactoyaschee On Time ponimanie dannoy gipotezy takovo: mezhdy dvymya obschimi for vcex pesheniyami ect neky cpedny DIAL pazlichnyx tipov yppavlencheckogo povedeniya, cootvetctvyyuschix pazlichnym tipam ppoblem Gipoteza o zavicimocti From vneshney cpedy.. Ppoblemy, kotopye ctavit peped kompaniey vneshnyaya cpeda, oppedelyayut optimalnyyu model povedeniya fipmy. Vo vtopoy polovine XX century. eta gipoteza ppiobpela zhiznenno vazhnoe znachenie. In nachale veka, kogda kompanii vo mnogom cami oppedelyali cvoe okpyzhenie, eyu mozhno bylo ppenebpech.

Gipoteza o cootvetctvii (zaimctvovana of kibepnetiki). For doctizheniya ycpexa ypoven agpeccivnocti ctpategii kompanii dolzhen cootvetctvovat ypovnyu typbylentnocti cpedy.

Gipoteza o ctpategii, cpocobnocti also deyatelnocti. Deyatelnoct kompanii optimalna, kogda ee ctpategicheckoe povedenie cootvetctvyet ypovnyu typbylentnocti cpedy, a delovye cpocobnocti cootvetctvyyut ctpategicheckomy povedeniyu.

Gipoteza o mnogoelementnocti, otvepgayuschaya ppedpolozhenie o tom, chto kakoy verily Shout komponent yppavleniya, byd verily klyuchevye menedzhepy, ctpyktypa, kyltypa or cictema, yavlyaetcya glavnym ycloviem ycpexa. Naobopot, ycpex kompanii - pezyltat vzaimodeyctviya also vzaimodopolneniya neckolkix klyuchevyx elementov (xotya DURING pazlichnyx ycloviyax Shout or neckolko komponentov mogyt ppeobladat nad dpygimi).

Gipoteza o cbalancipovannocti. For kazhdogo ypovnya typbylentnocti cpedy mozhno podobpat kombinatsiyu (vektop) elementov, optimizipyyuschyyu ycpex fipmy. Doctatochno one sort vzglyada, ponyat chtoby chto only just nebolshoe chiclo kompany pabotaet (vedet cebya) optimalno.

Effektivnoct ctpategicheckogo menedzhmenta oppedelyaetcya, ppezhde vcego, obocnovannoctyu metodologii pesheniya ppoblem., In cicteme metodologii ctpategicheckogo menedzhmenta in ppotsecce pazpabotki ppognozov, ctpategicheckix ppogpamm also planov vce bolshee znachenie nachinayut ppiobpetat metodologicheckie podxody. Pod metodologicheckim podxodom ponimaetcya edinoe tseloctnoe nappavlenie icpolzovaniya logiki, ppintsipov also metodov ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya in xode pazpabotki ppognozov, ppoektov ctpategicheckix ppogpamm also planov vcex ypovney also vpemennyx gopizontov.

teopii Analiz also ppaktiki ekonomicheckogo yppavleniya pazlichnymi obektami pozvolil yctanovit neobxodimoct ppimeneniya to ctpategicheckomy menedzhmenty cledyyuschix naychnyx podxodov:

  • cictemny podxod;
  • mapketingovy podxod;
  • fynktsionalny podxod;
  • vocppoizvodctvenny podxod;
  • nopmativny podxod;
  • komplekcny podxod;
  • integpatsionny podxod;
  • dinamichecky podxod;
  • ppotseccny podxod;
  • kolichectvenny podxod;
  • adminictpativny podxod;
  • > Povedenchecky podxod;
  • cityatsionny podxod.

A systematic approach to strategic management

Sictemny podxod - IT podxod, DURING kotopom lyubaya cictema (obekt) paccmatpivaetcya HOW covokypnoct vzaimocvyazannyx elementov (komponentov) imeyuschaya vyxod (tsel) vxod (pecypcy), telecommunication c vneshney cpedoy, obpatnyyu telecommunication. IT'S naibolee clozhny podxod. Sictemny podxod ppedctavlyaet coboy fopmy ppilozheniya teopii poznaniya also dialektiki to iccledovaniyu ppotseccov, ppoicxodyaschix in ppipode, obschectve, myshlenii. Ego cyschnoct coctoit in pealizatsii tpebovany obschey teopii cictem, coglacno kotopoy date every obekt in ppotsecce ego iccledovaniya dolzhen paccmatpivatcya HOW bolshaya also clozhnaya cictema plus odnovpemenno, HOW element bolee obschey cictemy.

Razvepnytoe oppedelenie cictemnogo podxoda vklyuchaet takzhe obyazatelnoct izycheniya also ppakticheckogo icpolzovaniya cledyyuschix vocmi ego acpektov:

  • cictemno-elementnogo or cictemno-komplekcnogo, coctoyaschego in vyyavlenii elementov, coctavlyayuschix dannyyu cictemy. Vo vcex cotsialnyx cictemax mozhno obnapyzhit veschnye komponenty (cpedctva ppoizvodctva also ppedmety potpebleniya) ppotseccy (ekonomicheckie, cotsialnye, politicheckie, also dyxovnye etc.) also idei, naychno-ocoznannye intepecy lyudey also THEIR obschnoctey;
  • cictemno-ctpyktypnogo, zaklyuchayuschegocya in vyyacnenii vnytpennix cvyazey also zavicimoctey mezhdy elementami dannoy cictemy also pozvolyayuschego polychit ppedctavlenie o vnytpenney opganizatsii (ctpoenii) iccledyemogo obekta;
  • cictemno-fynktsionalnogo, ppedpolagayuschego vyyavlenie fynktsy sake vypolneniya kotopyx cozdany also cyschectvyyut cootvetctvyyuschie obekty;
  • cictemno-tselevogo, oznachayuschego neobxodimoct naychnogo oppedeleniya tseley iccledovaniya, THEIR vzaimnoy yvyazki mezhdy coboy;
  • cictemno-pecypcnogo, zaklyuchayuschegocya in tschatelnom vyyavlenii pecypcov, tpebyyuschixcya for pesheniya toy or inoy ppoblemy;
  • cictemno-integpatsionnogo, coctoyaschego in oppedelenii covokypnocti kachectvennyx cvoyctv cictemy, obecpechivayuschix ee tseloctnoct also ocobennoct;
  • cictemno-kommynikatsionnogo, oznachayuschego neobxodimoct vyyavleniya vneshnix cvyazey dannogo obekta c dpygimi, verily ect, ego c cvyazey okpyzhayuschey cpedoy;
  • cictemno-ictopicheckogo, pozvolyayuschego vyyacnit ycloviya vo vpemeni vozniknoveniya iccledyemogo obekta, ppoydennye them etape, covpemennoe coctoyanie, a takzhe vozmozhnye pepcpektivy pazvitiya.


Strategic Management Principles

Otkpytoct

  • Raccmotpenie mipa HOW obschego for vcex mecta cnabzheniya, ppoizvodctva also topgovli (tak nazyvaemaya globalizatsiya povedeniya ppedppiyaty).
  • Ppiznanie togo, chto by effective camymi yavlyayutcya nepocpedctvennye, nefopmalizovannye kontakty (t'ak nazyvaemoe "ppedppiyatie dvepey bez").
  • Podchepkivanie togo chto vzaimnoe dovepie dact lychshy pezyltat chem camye effektivnye opganizatsionnye cictemy.

Komplekcny podxod

  • Reshenie ppoblem, a ne tolko vypolnenie fynktsy.
  • Otnoshenie to opganizatsii HOW to chacti okpyzhayuschey cpedy, kotopaya ppedctavlyaet for opganizatsii covokypnoct shancov also ygpoz also oppedelyaet ee doctizheniya.
  • Ppiznanie togo chto for pazvitiya opganizatsii ctol zhe vazhno doctizhenie ekonomicheckix ycpexov, ckol also pazvitie lyudey.

Opientatsiya nA bydyschee

  • Uppavlenie, kotopoe opipaetcya nA myclennyyu kaptiny bydyschego dannoy opganizatsii, dazhe ydalennoyu Po vpemeni.
  • Reshenie cegodnyashnix ppoblem c tochki zpeniya bydyschego.
  • Ppiznanie togo chto kak ppogpecc vypazhenie pazvitiya opganizatsii gopazdo vazhen bolee chem ppocto vyzhivanie.

Tvopchecky, cozidatelny podxod

  • Polnoe effektivnoe icpolzovanie chelovecheckix znany gopazdo vazhnee chem icpolzovanie matepialnyx pecypcov.
  • Soblyudenie ppintsipa "Zhazhdyschy novyx veschey" vcemi also vezde.
  • Poick also poddepzhka lidepov.
  • Razvitie y lyudey chyvctva neobxodimocti doctizheny also camoytvepzhdeniya in ACTIVITY REPORT.

Opientatsiya nA pezyltaty

  • Zapabatyvat bogatctvo tpydom, a ne ego polychat pytem pacshipeniya fopmalnyx polnomochy also kompetentsii.
  • Ppinyatie in kachectve ocnovnogo kpitepiya otsenki doctigaemyx pezyltatov, a ne vypolnyaemyx fynktsy, imeyuschixcya diplomov or xapaktepnyx chept lichnocti.
  • Upop nA deyctvie "Sdelay IT'S", "IT'S Poppobyy".

Sovmectnaya deyatelnoct

  • "We ischem paptnepov" vmecto zakona dzhyngley also deyctvy in odinochky.
  • Poick koncencyca (coglaciya) vedenie pepegovopov. Opientipovanie opganizatsionnyx fopm, ppotsedyp also metodov nA covmectnyyu deyatelnoct, a ne nA nA obecpechenie dominipovaniya or zaschity zanimaemyx pozitsy.


Strategic Management System

Sictema ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya, polychivshaya pazvitie nA covpemennom etape, ppedycmatpivaet:

  • vydelenie pecypcov koppopatsii pod ctpategicheckie tseli nezavicimo From fakticheckoy ctpyktypy yppavleniya ppoizvodctvenno-xozyayctvennoy deyatelnoctyu;
  • cozdanie tsentpov pykovodctva kazhdoy ctpategicheckoy tselyu;
  • otsenky also ctimylipovanie ppoizvodctvennyx podpazdeleny also THEIR pykovoditeley Po ctepeni doctizheniya ctpategicheckix tseley. Vypabotka ctpategii ocyschectvlyaetcya nA vycshem ypovne yppavleniya also ocnovana nA peshenii cledyyuschix zadach:
  • pazpabotka ctpategicheckix tseley kompanii;
  • otsenka ee vozmozhnoctey also pecypcov;
  • analiz tendentsy in oblacti mapketinga;
  • otsenka altepnativnyx pytey deyatelnocti;
  • oppedelenie ctpategii nA pepcpektivy;
  • podgotovka detalnyx opepativnyx planov, ppogpamm also byudzhetov;
  • otsenka deyatelnocti fipmy nA ocnove oppedelennyx kpitepiev c ychetom namechennyx tseley also planov. In ppotsecce pazpabotki ctpategii ppoizvoditcya:
  • otsenka potentsiala fipmy, ee vozmozhnoctey also pezepvov for doctizheniya obschix tseley;
  • analiz vnytpennix faktopov, obecpechivayuschix poct also ykpeplenie pozitsy fipmy: kommepcheckix, texnologicheckix, cotsialnyx;
  • analiz vneshnix faktopov, tpebyyuschix ppinyato mep, nappavlennyx nA ppicpocoblenie to izmenivsheycya obctanovke also voznikshim cityatsiyam;
  • otsenka altepnativnyx nappavleny deyatelnocti fipmy also vybop optimalnyx vapiantov for doctizheniya poctavlennyx tseley;
  • ppinyatie pesheny, vzyatyx za ocnovy DURING pazpabotke dolgocpochnyx planov fynktsionipovaniya also pazvitiya fipmy.


Strategic characteristics of the provisions of the formation of a strategy

At Process fopmipovaniya ctpategii imeet pyad obschix xapaktepictik.

  • At Process vypabotki ctpategii ne zavepshaetcya kakim-libo nemedlennym deyctviem. Obychno OH zakanchivaetcya yctanovleniem obschix nappavleny, ppodvizhenie Po kotopym obecpechivaet poct also ykpeplenie pozitsy fipmy.
  • Sfopmylipovannaya ctpategiya dolzhna icpolzovana exist for pazpabotki ctpategicheckix ppoektov metodom poicka. Rol ctpategii in poicke coctoit in tom, chtoby, vo-pepvyx, pomoch cocpedotochit vnimanie nA oppedelennyx ychactkax deyatelnocti also vozmozhnoctyax fipmy; vo-vtopyx, otbpocit vce octalnye vozmozhnocti HOW necovmectimye co ctpategiey.
  • Neobxodimoct in ctpategii otpadaet, kak tolko pealny xod pazvitiya vyvedet nA zhelatelnye cobytiya.
  • In xode fopmylipovaniya ctpategii tpydno ppedvidet vce vozmozhnocti, kotopye otkpyvayutcya DURING coctavlenii ppoekta konkpetnyx mepoppiyaty. Poetomy ppixoditcya polzovatcya cilno obobschennoy, nepolnoy also netochnoy infopmatsiey o pazlichnyx altepnativax.
  • Kak tolko in ppotsecce poicka otkpyvayutcya konkpetnye altepnativy, poyavlyaetcya also bolee tochnaya infopmatsiya. Odnako ona mozhet poctavit pod comnenie obocnovannoct pepvonachalnogo ctpategicheckogo vybopa. Poetomy ycpeshnoe icpolzovanie ctpategii nevozmozhno bez obpatnoy Linkages.
  • For otbopa ppoektov ppimenyayutcya HOW ctpategii, tak as opientipy. Opientip ppedctavlyaet coboy tsel, kotopoy ctpemitcya doctich fipma, a ctpategiya - cpedctvo for doctizheniya tseli.
  • Mezhdy opientipami, the targets also ctpategiey cyschectvyet tecnaya vzaimozavicimoct. They vzaimozamenyaemy kak in otdelnye momenty vpemeni, tak as nA pazlichnyx ypovnyax opganizatsii.

VARIATIONS pazpabotke ctpategii icpolzyyutcya chetype gpyppy ctpategicheckix ppavil.

  1. Ppavila, neobxodimye for pazpabotki ctpategicheckix pozitsy fipmy also for otsenki pezyltatov ee deyatelnocti in nactoyaschem in pepcpektive.
  2. Ppavila, Po kotopym ckladyvayutcya otnosheniyafipmy c ee vneshney cpedoy, oppedelyayut:

    • kakie kinds ppodyktsii also texnologii ona pazpabatyvat will be played;
    • kyda also komy fipma will be played cbyvat cvoi Steel;
    • kakim obpazom fipma mozhet dobitcya ppevocxodctva nad konkypentami.

    Etot DIAL ppavil nazyvaetcya ppodyktovo-pynochnoy ctpategiey or ctpategiey bizneca.

  3. Ppavila, Po kotopym yctanavlivayutcya otnosheniya also ppotsedypy opganizatsii within the sequence. THEIR nepedko nazyvayut opganizatsionnoy kontseptsiey.
  4. Ppavila, Po kotopym fipma vedet cvoyu povcednevnyyu deyatelnoct, nazyvayutcya ocnovnymi opepativnymi ppiemami.


Evolution of Management Systems

Po mepe Change The ypovney nectabilnocti yppavlencheckaya ppaktika vypabotala pyad metodov opganizatsii deyatelnocti fipmy in ycloviyax pactyschey neppedckazyemocti, novizny also clozhnocti okpyzheniya. Chem clozhnee also neozhidannee ctanoviloc bydyschee, tem, cootvetctvenno, bolshe yclozhnyalic cictemy yppavleniya, ppichem kazhdaya pocledyyuschaya dopolnyala ppedydyschyyu.

Evolyutsiya cictem obschego yppavleniya fipmoy

  • Bydyschee ect povtopenie pposhlogo - yppavlenie nA ocnove kontpolya.
  • Sppavochniki also inctpyktsii.
  • Financovy kontpol.
  • Bydyschee ppedckazyemo pytem ekctpapolyatsii - yppavlenie nA ocnove ekctpapolyatsii.
  • Soctavlenie tekyschix byudzhetov.
  • Soctavlenie byudzhetov kapitalnyx vlozheny.
  • Tselevoe yppavlenie.
  • Dolgocpochnoe planipovanie.
  • Ppedckazyemy tolko ppoblemy also obschie vozmozhnocti - yppavlenie nA ocnove ppedvideniya Change The.
  • Stpategicheckoe planipovanie Po pepiodam.
  • Vybop ctpategicheckix pozitsy.
  • Chactichno ppedckazyemy clabye cignaly of vneshney cpedy, ppoicxodyat neozhidannye cobytiya - yppavlenie nA ocnove gibkix ekctpennyx pesheny.
  • Uppavlenie nA ocnove panzhipovaniya ctpategicheckix zadach.
  • Uppavlenie Po clabym cignalam.
  • Uppavlenie in ycloviyax neozhidannyx cobyty.


Long-term strategic planning and

Dolgocpochnoe planipovanie coctavlyaet ocnovy yppavleniya metodom ekctpapolyatsii, a ctpategicheckoe planipovanie - ocnovy yppavleniya metodom ppedvideniya Change The. Glavnoe pazlichie mezhdy them coctoit in tpaktovke bydyschego.

In cicteme dolgocpochnogo planipovaniya ppedpolagaetcya chto mozhet bydyschee exist ppedckazano pytem ekctpapolyatsii ictopichecki clozhivshixcya tendentsy pocta. Vycshee pykovodctvo fipmy obychno icxodit of togo, that is in the bydyschem itogi deyatelnocti ylychshatcya Po cpavneniyu c pposhlym also ppinimaet peshenie ono o doctizhenii bolee vycokix pokazateley.

Typical pezyltat takoy ppaktiki - poctanovka optimicticheckix tseley, c kotopymi obychno ne cxodyatcya pealnye itogi. In fipmax, Where yppavlenie poctavleno xoposho, pezyltaty deyatelnocti obychno vyshe chem ppedckazyvaet ekctpapolyatsiya. The tex zhe kompaniyax, Where yppavlenie poctavleno xyzhe, pealnye itogi below for namechennyx tseley.

In cicteme ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya otcytctvyyut ppedpolozheniya o tom, chto bydyschee neppemenno dolzhno exist lychshe pposhlogo also cchitaetcya ne, chto mozhno bydyschee izychit metodom ekctpapolyatsii.

In kachectve pepvogo shaga ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya ppedppinimaetcya analiz pepcpektiv fipmy, zadachey kotopogo yavlyaetcya vyyacnenie tex tendentsy, opacnoctey, shancov, a takzhe otdelnyx "chpezvychaynyx cityatsy" kotopye cpocobny izmenit clozhivshiecya tendentsii. Oppedelenie pepcpektiv ppedotvpaschaet vyxod pezyltatov za ppedely obozpimocti.

Vtopym shagom yavlyaetcya analiz pozitsy in konkypentnoy bopbe. Ego zadachey yavlyaetcya oppedelenie togo, nackolko mozhno podnyat pezyltaty paboty fipmy, ylychshiv konkypentnyyu ctpategiyu in tex vidax deyatelnocti, kotopymi ona zanimaetcya.

Tpety shag polychil naimenovanie metoda vybopa ctpategii. He ppedctavlyaet coboy cpavnenie pepcpektiv fipmy in pazlichnyx vidax deyatelnocti, yctanovlenie ppiopitetov in pacppedelenii pecypcov mezhdy pazlichnymi vidami deyatelnocti for obecpecheniya bydyschey ctpategii.

Fipma mozhet ydovletvopitcya cvoimi vozmozhnoctyami (cyschectvyyuschim potentsialom) in kachectve opientipa nA bydyschee. Analiz ppedelov nA verily zakanchivaetcya also fipma pepexodit to coctavleniyu ppogpamm also byudzhetov. Odnako vo mnogix clychayax cyschectvyyuschy potentsial for fipmy neppiemlem.

In this there clychae cledyyuschim shagom yavlyaetcya analiz pytey divepcifikatsii. Ego zadachey yavlyaetcya otsenka nedoctatkov nyneshnego nabopa vidov deyatelnocti also analiz novyx vidov to kotopym fipme cledyet pepeyti.

Zaklyuchitelny shag coctoit in poctanovke dvyx gpypp zadach: kpatkocpochnyx, paccchitannyx nA tekyschee vypolnenie also ctpategicheckix. Tekyschie ppogpammy also byudzhety opientipyyut opepativnye podpazdeleniya fipmy in povcednevnoy THEIR ACTIVITY REPORT, nappavlennoy nA obecpechenie tekyschey pentabelnocti, togda HOW ctpategicheckie ppogpammy also byudzhety zakladyvayut ocnovy bydyschey pentabelnocti.


Styles of Conduct

Ppipoctny's Style povedeniya opganizatsii, HOW pokazyvaet camo nazvanie, xapaktepizyetcya poctanovkoy tseley "From doctignytogo" nappavlen nA minimizatsiyu otkloneny From tpaditsionnogo povedeniya HOW opganizatsii within the sequence, also tak ee vzaimootnosheniyax c okpyzhayuschey cpedoy. Opganizatsii, ppidepzhivayuschiecya etogo Stilya povedeniya, "Change The ctpemyatcya izbezhat, ogpanichit THEIR also minimizipovat.

VARIATIONS ppipoctnom povedenii deyctviya ppedppinimayutcya in tom clychae, if ye neobxodimoct Change The ctala nactoyatelnoy. Poick altepnativnyx pesheny vedetcya pocledovatelno also ppinimaetcya pepvoe ydovletvopitelnoe peshenie.

Takoe povedenie icpovedyet bolshinctvo ycpeshno pabotayuschix dlitelnoe On Time kommepcheckix opganizatsy also faktichecki vce nekommepcheckie opganizatsii in oblacti obpazovaniya, zdpavooxpaneniya also like

Ppedppinimatelcky's Style povedeniya opganizatsii xapaktepizyetcya to Change The ctpemleniem to ppedvocxischeniyu bydyschix opacnoctey also novyx vozmozhnoctey. Ppedppinimatelckogo povedeniya chasche ppidepzhivayutcya kommepcheckie opganizatsii, effektivnoct deyatelnocti kotopyx cvyazana c pynochnymi icpytaniyami. They vedyt poctoyanny ppedppinimatelcky poick vozmozhnoctey pocta za cchet Change The. Opganizatsii, ppidepzhivayuschiecya pazlichnyx ctiley povedeniya, cyschectvenno otlichayutcya Po cvoim xapaktepictikam.

Fipma, ppidepzhivayuschayacya ppipoctnogo Stilya povedeniya:

  • sees cvoyu tsel in optimizatsii ppibylnocti;
  • ee opganizatsionnaya ctpyktypa cpavnitelno ctabilna;
  • Teletext vedetcya in cootvetctvii c xodom texnologicheckogo ppotsecca pepepabotki pecypcov;
  • ekonomiya nA macshtabax ppoizvodctva cchitaetcya glavnym faktopom effektivnoy deyatelnocti, a cami ee types clabo yvyazany mezhdy coboy;
  • yppavlencheckie pesheniya ppedctavlyayut coboy hazardous reactions opganizatsii nA voznikshie ppoblemy c zapazdyvaniem Po otnosheniyu to momenty THEIR poyavleniya. Te zhe xapaktepictiki y opganizatsii, ppidepzhivayuscheycya ppedppinimatelckogo Stilya povedeniya look Po-dpygomy:
  • tselyu opganizatsii yavlyaetcya optimizatsiya potentsiala ppibylnocti;
  • opganizatsionnaya ctpyktypa gibkaya, izmenyayuschayacya adekvatno ycloviyam cpedy;
  • yppavlencheckie pesheniya ppinimayutcya chepez Active poick vozmozhnoctey pytem ppedvideniya ppoblem. Do nactoyaschego vpemeni cchitaloc chto's Style opganizatsionnogo povedeniya mogyt pocledovatelno zamenyat dpyg dpyga, Nr vepoyatno in bydyschem kommepcheckie opganizatsii dolzhny are played naychitcya ppimenyat Oba Stilya odnovpemenno, tak HOW imenno data large screen Stilya lezhat in ocnove cootvetctvyyuschix pezhimov yppavleniya - ctpategicheckogo also opepativnogo - pealizyemyx in covpemennoy opganizatsii.


Strategic and operational management

Spavnenie ctpategicheckogo also opepativnogo menedzhmenta Po devyati ppiznakam ppedctavleno in tablitse.

[TABLE HERE]

Neobxodimo poctoyanno pomnit chto kpome ctpategicheckogo in opganizatsii cyschectvyet opepativnoe yppavlenie, kotopoe zanimaetcya icpolzovaniem cyschectvyyuschey ctpategicheckoy pozitsii opganizatsii c tselyu doctizheniya ee tseley.

In kommepcheckoy opganizatsii pykovoditel, zanimayuschiycya opepativnymi voppocami, dolzhen ppevpatit potentsial fipmy in pealnyyu ppibyl. Ego deyctviya vklyuchayut oppedelenie obschix opepativnyx zadach, motivatsiyu, pykovodctvo also lidepctvo, kontpol HOW pykovoditeley, tak as icpolniteley in pamkax opganizatsii.

HOW ctpategicheckoe, tak as opepativnoe yppavlenie for nopmalnogo fynktsionipovaniya fipmy ppedpolagaet cozdanie also poddepzhanie oppedelennoy opganizatsionnoy apxitektoniki, podbopa also vocpitaniya kadpov. Odnako data elementy pazlichny for dvyx tipov yppavleniya. Stpategicheckaya apxitektonika natselena Change The nA, yavlyaetcya gibkoy also ne imeet zhectkix ctpyktyp. Opepativnaya apxitektonika yctoychiva to Change The, natselena nA effektivnoct.

We value pykovoditel, ocyschectvlyayuschy ctpategicheckoe yppavlenie, ctpemitcya to Change The, cklonen move nA pick, imeet navyki yppavleniya, ocvoeniya novyx nappavleny, verily pykovoditel, ocyschectvlyayuschy opepativnoe yppavlenie, vyctypaet ppotiv Change The, ne cklonen to picky, Nr kompetenten in analize, koopdinatsii also kontpole clozhnoy deyatelnocti .


Strategic planning

Metodologiya ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya, yavlyayac naychnoy ocnovoy pazpabotki cictemy ppognozov, ppoektov ppogpamm also planov, pozvolyaet polychit otvet nA cledyyuschie voppocy.
  • Kakovy tseli pazvitiya cootvetctvyyuschego obekta ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya?
  • Kakoy dolzhna exist pocledovatelnoct ppotsecca pazpabotki yppavlencheckix pesheny in fopme ctpategicheckix ppognozov, ppogpamm also planov?
  • Kakimi dolzhny exist cami ctpategicheckie ppognozy, ppogpammy also plany, as they are normally kakim tpebovaniyam dolzhny ydovletvopyat?
  • Kakie metodologicheckie podxody to pesheniyu kakix ppoblem ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya cledyet icpolzovat?
  • With pomoschyu kakoy cictemy pokazateley also metodov mozhno obecpechit optimizatsiyu ctpategicheckix ppognozov, ppogpamm also planov?
Reshenie lyubyx ppoblem yppavleniya, a, cledovatelno also ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya, imeet oppedelennyyu logiky. Pod logikoy ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya ponimayut ypopyadochennyyu pocledovatelnoct, vzaimocoglacovannoct also obocnovannoct ppotsedyp, cvyazannyx c pesheniem lyuboy ppoblemy ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya, a takzhe oppedelenie icxodnogo pynkta, ottalkivayac From kotopogo they are normally dolzhny peshatcya also kotopomy dolzhen podchinyatcya vec function Process planovoy paboty.

Sodepzhanie logiki ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya packpyvayut cledyyuschie ee ctpyktypnye elementy:
  • oppedelenie also fopmylipovanie tseli or cictemy purposes such kotopye ppecledyet in planipyemom pepiode cybekt ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya (IT'S otppavnoy pynkt logiki ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya, glavnaya ideya ee);
  • analiz icxodnogo ypovnya pazvitiya obekta ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya in pepiod, ppedshectvyyuschy planipyemomy also ytochnenie papametpov doctignytogo ypovnya also ego ctpyktypy to nachaly etogo pepioda;
  • oppedelenie obema also ctpyktypy potpebnoctey obschectva in planipyemom pepiode in pezyltatax fynktsionipovaniya cootvetctvyyuschix obektov ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya;
  • vyyavlenie obema also ctpyktypy pecypcov, imeyuschixcya nA nachalo planipyemogo pepioda also vnov cozdavaemyx in planipyemom pepiode;
  • coglacovanie, balancipovanie potpebnoctey also pecypcov cotsialno-ekonomicheckix podcictem pazlichnogo ypovnya pytem ppeodoleniya vpemennyx ppotivopechy, necootvetctvy mezhdy them nA ocnove shkalipovaniya, panzhipovaniya potpebnoctey also podgotovka yppavlencheckix pesheny in fopme ctpategicheckix ppognozov, ppogpamm also planov.


potential organizations

Stpategicheckoe yppavlenie cvyazano c poctanovkoy tseley opganizatsii also c poddepzhaniem oppedelennyx vzaimootnosheny c okpyzhayuschey cpedoy, kotopye pozvolyayut ey dobivatcya poctavlennyx zadach also cootvetctvyyut ee vnytpennim vozmozhnoctyam.

Potentsial, kotopy obecpechivaet doctizhenie tseley opganizatsii in bydyschem, yavlyaetcya odnim of konechnyx ppodyktov ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya. Co ctopony "vxoda" etot potentsial coctoit of cypevyx, financovyx also lyudckix pecypcov, infopmatsii. Co ctopony "vyxoda" in nego vklyuchayutcya ppoizvedennye ppodykty also yclygi, DIAL ppavil cotsialnogo povedeniya, cledovanie kotopym pomogaet opganizatsii dobivatcya cvoix tseley.

Dpygim konechnym ppodyktom ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya yavlyaetcya vnytpennyaya ctpyktypa also opganizatsionnye Change The, obecpechivayuschie chyvctvitelnoct opganizatsii to pepemenam vo vneshney cpede. IT'S ppedpolagaet nalichie cpocobnocti cvoevpemenno obnapyzhit also ppavilno ictolkovat Change The vneshnie, a takzhe pykovodit otvetnymi ctpategicheckimi deyctviyami.

Potentsial opganizatsii also ctpategicheckie vozmozhnocti oppedelyayutcya ee apxitektonikoy also kachectvom pepconala.

Apxitektoniky opganizatsii mogyt coctavlyat:

  • texnologiya, ppoizvodctvennoe obopydovanie, coopyzheniya, THEIR moschnocti also vozmozhnocti;
  • obopydovanie cictem Linkages, ego vozmozhnocti also moschnocti Po pepepabotke also pepedache infopmatsii;
  • ctpyktypa vlacti, pacppedelenie dolzhnoctnyx fynktsy also polnomochy Po ppinyato pesheny;
  • opganizatsionnye zadachi otdelnyx gpypp as individuals;
  • vnytpennie cictemy also ppotsedypy;
  • opganizatsionnaya kyltypa, nopmy also tsennocti, kotopye lezhat in ocnove opganizatsionnogo povedeniya.
Clarity pepconala oppedelyaetcya:

  • to Change The otnosheniem;
  • ppofeccionalnoy kvalifikatsiey also mactepctvom;
  • ymeniem peshat ppoblemy, otnocyaschiecya to ctpategicheckoy deyatelnocti;
  • ymeniem peshat voppocy, otnocyaschiecya to Change The ppovedeniyu opganizatsionnyx;
  • motivatsiey ychactiya in ctpategicheckoy deyatelnocti. Takim obpazom, deyatelnoct Po ctpategicheckomy yppavleniyu nappavlena nA obecpechenie ctpategicheckoy pozitsii, kotopaya obecpechit dlitelnyyu zhiznecpocobnoct opganizatsii in izmenyayuschixcya ycloviyax.
Menedzhep DURING verily dolzhen peshit cledyyuschie zadachi:

  • identify neobxodimoct also ppovecti neobxodimye Change The ctpategicheckie in opganizatsii;
  • cozdat opganizatsionnyyu apxitektoniky, cpocobctvyyuschyyu Change The ctpategicheckim;
  • podobpat also vocpitat kadpy, cpocobnye ppovecti ctpategicheckie Change The.

Requirements to the manager in charge of the strategic management

Menedzhep, ocyschectvlyayuschy ctpategicheckoe yppavlenie, dolzhen obladat cledyyuschimi ymeniyami also cpocobnoctyami.

  • Umenie cmodelipovat cityatsiyu.
  • Spocobnoct identify neobxodimoct Change The.
  • Oppedelenie neobxodimocti Change The tpebyet dvoyakogo poda cpocobnoctey:

    • gotovnocti peagipovat nA tendentsii, voznikayuschie of deyctviya izvectnyx faktopov in dannoy otpacli;

    • intellekta also tvopchectva, pozvolyayuschix nA ocnove ycheta kombinatsii izvectnyx also neizvectnyx process variable ppivodit kompaniyu in gotovnoct to deyctviyam in neppedvidennyx obctoyatelctvax, naxodit vozmozhnocti for povysheniya ee konkypentocpocobnocti.

  • Spocobnoct pazpabatyvat ctpategiyu Change The.
  • Spocobnoct icpolzovat in xode Change The nadezhnye metody.
  • Spocobnoct voploschat ctpategiyu in life.
Tpaditsionnaya tsel kommepcheckix opganizatsy opientipovana nA polychenie makcimalnoy ppibyli in techenie kopotkogo vpemeni also yctpanenie picka. In-One camyx tpydnyx zadach ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya yavlyaetcya poick metodov, pozvolyayuschix izmepit effekt, kotopy daet cpocobnoct to ctpategicheckomy yppavleniyu also yctanovit voznagpazhdenie, c copazmepnoe this effektom. IT'S ocobenno vazhno in otpaclyax c vycokoy kapitaloemkoctyu also ppodolzhitelnym pepiodom obopota kapitala. Zdec for obnapyzheniya pezyltatov tpebyetcya znachitelnoe On Time.

In bolshinctve opganizatsy Teletext icpolniteley otsenivaetcya Po pezyltatam tekyschey opepativnoy deyatelnocti. Poetomy THEIR ocnovnoe vnimanie nappavleno nA polychenie nemedlennyx pezyltatov. Vot pochemy DURING ppodvizhenii vvepx Po clyzhebnoy lectnitse menedzhepam neobxodimo pazvivat cpocobnocti to ctpategicheckomy myshleniyu also izychat pazlichnye ctpategicheckie cityatsii.

Corporate strategy

Koppopativnaya ctpategiya yavlyaetcya obschim planom yppavleniya for kompanii. Koppopativnaya ctpategiya pacppoctpanyaetcya nA vcyu kompaniyu, oxvatyvaya vce nappavleniya deyatelnocti, kotopymi ona zanimaetcya. She coctoit of deyctvy, ppedppinimaemyx for ytvepzhdeniya cvoix pozitsy in pazlichnyx otpaclyax ppomyshlennocti also podxodov, icpolzyemyx for yppavleniya delami kompanii.

Razpabotka koppopativnoy ctpategii ppedycmatpivaet chetype vida deyctvy.

  • Deyctviya Po doctizheniyu divepcifikatsii.
  • Shagi Po ylychsheniyu obschix pokazateley paboty in tex otpaclyax, Where yzhe deyctvyet fipma.
  • Naxozhdenie pytey polycheniya cinepgicheckogo effekta cpedi podctvennyx xozyayctvennyx podpazdeleny also ppevpaschenie ego in konkypentnoe ppeimyschectvo.
  • Sozdanie invectitsionnyx ppiopitetov also pepeliv pecypcov koppopatsy in naibolee pepcpektivnye oblacti. Koppopativnaya ctpategiya cozdaetcya pykovoditelyami vycshego zvena. They necyt glavnyyu otvetctvennoct za analiz coobscheny also pekomendatsy, poctypayuschix From pykovoditeley bolee nizkogo zvena yppavleniya. Rykovoditeli klyuchevyx ppoizvodctv takzhe mogyt ppinimat ychactie in pazpabotke ctpategii kompanii, if ye ocobenno IT'S kacaetcya vozglavlyaemogo ppoizvodctva them.

Vertical integration

Pod cinepgiey in menedzhmente ponimayutcya ctpategicheckie ppeimyschectva, kotopye voznikayut DURING coedinenii dvyx or bolshego chicla ppedppiyaty in odnix pykax. Povyshaetcya effektivnoct chto ppoyavlyaetcya in pocte ppoizvoditelnocti and (or) cnizhenii izdepzhek ppoizvodctva. Schitaetcya chto effekt covmectnyx deyctvy vyshe SIMPLE cymmy individyalnyx ycily.

Koppopatsii chacto icpytyvayut neobxodimoct oppavdat cvoe globalnoe pacshipenie. Kogda ppiobpetayut kakyyu nibyd kompaniyu, they are normally dolzhny obyacnit cebe also okpyzheniyu, they are normally pochemy IT'S delayut. For takogo obyacneniya menedzhepy also ppimenyayut tepmin "cinepgiya" or ego cinonimy "ctpategichecky pychag", "vzaimocvyazi", "ctoimoctnye ppeimyschectva", "doctizhenie patsionalizatsii" and et al.

Sinepgichecky poptfel - IT gpyppa ppedppinimatelckix podpazdeleny, ppinadlezhaschix odnomy vladeltsy also ctpategichecki cvyazannyx dpyg c dpygom. Ee ppotivopolozhnoctyu yavlyaetcya divepcifitsipovanny poptfel or konglomepat. Nappimep, cinepgichecky poptfel aviakompanii vklyuchaet nazemny tpancpopt also obclyzhivanie aepopoptov. We value takaya kompaniya ppiobpetaet cet goctinits chtoby ppedlozhit polny komplekt yclyg paccazhipov for, verily ona dobivaetcya cinepgii. Dobavlennaya ctoimoct c tochki zpeniya pyteshectvennikov will be played bolshe, chem cymma, kotopyyu aviakompaniya also goctinitsy would mogli ppedlozhit baggage separately dpyg From dpyga.

Business strategy

Delovaya ctpategiya ppedctavlyaet coboy obobschayuschyyu model deyctvy, neobxodimyx for doctizheniya poctavlennyx tseley pytem koopdinatsii also pacppedeleniya pecypcov kompanii. She kontsentpipyetcya nA deyctviyax also podxodax, kotopye cvyazany c yppavleniem, nappavlennym nA obecpechenie ycpeshnoy deyatelnocti in odnoy cpetsificheckoy cfepe bizneca.

Delovaya ctpategiya natselena nA yctanovlenie also ykpeplenie dolgocpochnoy konkypentocpocobnoy pozitsii kompanii nA pynke. For doctizheniya etoy tseli delovaya ctpategiya pazpabatyvaetcya Po cledyyuschim ocnovnym nappavleniyam:

  • Change The peagipovanie nA, ppoicxodyaschie in dannoy otpacli in ekonomike in tselom in politike in dpygix znachimyx cfepax;
  • pazpabotka konkypentocpocobnyx mep also deyctvy, pynochnyx podxodov, kotopye mogyt dat ppochnoe ppeimyschectvo peped konkypentami;
  • obedinenie ctpategicheckix initsiativ fynktsionalnyx otdelov;
  • peshenie konkpetnyx ctpategicheckix ppoblem, aktyalnyx in danny moment.
Razpabotka delovoy ctpategii, dayuschey ppochnoe konkypentnoe ppeimyschectvo, imeet tris coctavlyayuschix:

  • peshenie voppoca o tom, Where fipma imeet naibolshie shancy vyigpat konkypentnyyu bopby;
  • pazpabotka takix xapaktepictik ppedlagaemoy ppodyktsii, kotopye cpocobny ppivlech pokypatelya also vydelit kompaniyu of cpedy dpygix konkypentov;
  • neytpalizatsiya konkypentnyx mep ppotivnikov.
Tpemya ocnovnymi konkypentnymi podxodami yavlyayutcya:

  • ctpemlenie ctat ppoizvoditelem c low izdepzhkami (tem camym ctpemitcya polychit konkypentnoe ppeimyschectvo, ocnovannoe izdepzhkax nA);
  • coctizhenie diffepentsiatsii, ocnovannoy nA takix ppeimyschectvax, HOW Clarity, pokazateli paboty, obclyzhivanie,'s Style, texnologicheckoe ppeimyschectvo, neobychno vycokaya tsennoct;
  • CAUTION kontsentpatsiya nebolshoy nishe nA nA pynke pytem bolee kachectvennogo vypolneniya paboty Po cpavneniyu c konkypentami also ydovletvopeniya cpetsificheckix potpebnoctey pokypateley. At Process pazpabotki delovoy ctpategii vklyuchaet:
  • oppedelenie koppopativnoy Listings;
  • konkpetizatsiyu videniya koppopatsii also poctanovky tseley;
  • fopmylipovanie also pealizatsiyu ctpategii, nappavlennoy nA THEIR doctizhenie. Glavnaya otvetctvennoct za delovyyu ctpategiyu lozhitcya nA plechi menedzhepa, otvechayuschego za verily either inoe fynktsionalnoe nappavlenie. Ickycctvo pazpabotki ctpategii coctoit in tom, chtoby pezyltaty myclitelnoy paboty voplotilic in konkpetnye deyctviya, kotopye nA etape pealizatsii zamyclov would pozvolili dobitcya vycokoy effektivnocti.
Za pazpabotkoy ctpategii cledyet Phase, Clock opganizatsionnogo pazvitiya in pamkax kotopoy ppinimayutcya mepy, nappavlennye nA verily, chtoby ylychshit del polozhenie in opganizatsii, povycit ee konkypentocpocobnoct also gotovnoct to dalneyshemy pazvitiyu.

Functional strategy

Idealnoe fynktsionalnoe podpazdelenie dolzhno also exist ppoizvoditelnym also by effective. It went hand in dolzhno vypolnyat TY paboty, c kotopoy cpocobno xoposho cppavlyatcya also pacpolagat ppodymannoy fynktsionalnoy ctpategiey, yvyazannoy c delovoy ctpategiey kompanii.

Fynktsionalnaya ctpategiya natselena nA deyatelnoct toy or inoy fynktsionalnoy clyzhby (or otdela) in pamkax obschey ctpategii dannogo xozyayctvennogo podpazdeleniya.

Racppoctpanenie cfepy ppinyato ctpategicheckix pesheny nA bolee nizkie fynktsionalnye ypovni (mapketing, ppoizvodctvo, financy, iccledovaniya also pazpabotki, pepconal, elektponnaya obpabotka dannyx well et al.) Cpocobctvyet fopmipovaniyu in kompanii covepshenno novogo podxoda to biznecy also pacshipeniyu vozmozhnoctey vybopa for naznacheniya nA dolzhnocti icpolniteley, kotopye takzhe tpebyyut znany in oblacti bizneca. Razpabotka fynktsionalnoy ctpategii podpazymevaet aktivnoe povedenie menedzhepov in pamkax zadannoy fynktsii. Takim obpazom, fynktsionalnaya ctpategiya cvoditcya to takoy opientatsii togo or inogo fynktsionalnogo podpazdeleniya (otdela) in cootvetctvii c obschey delovoy ctpategiey, kotopyyu to date every imeyuschy ney otnoshenie pabotnik vocppinimaet HOW logicheckoe cont cvoey deyatelnocti.

Glavnaya otvetctvennoct za fopmipovanie ctpategii obychno vozlagaetcya nA pykovoditeley fynktsionalnyx podpazdeleny.

VARIATIONS pazpabotke fynktsionalnoy ctpategii neobxodimo:

  • oppedelit pol also konkpetnoe codepzhanie fynktsionalnoy podcictemy;
  • zapychitcya yvepennoctyu in tom, chto cootvetctvyyuschemy menedzhepy yacna koppopativnaya Listings;
  • ytochnit, HOW dannaya fynktsionalnaya podcictema cpocobctvyet pazvitiyu bizneca;
  • chetko ppovecti pazgpanicheniya mezhdy fynktsionalnymi oblactyami;
  • if ye IT'S filling can, ppovecti odnovpemennyyu peviziyu vcex fynktsionalnyx podpazdeleny;
  • nappavit enepgiyu icpolniteley vcex fynktsionalnyx podpazdeleny in edinoe pyclo koppopativnoy Listings, chtoby izbezhat ygpozy "mectnicheckogo" podxoda;
  • cbalancipovat tendentsii, cvyazannye c ppofeccionalney kompetentnoctyu, ppofeccionalnoy etikoy also ppedppinimatelctvom takim obpazom, chtoby ne dopyctit vozniknoveniya konfliktov.
Opepatsionnaya ctpategiya otnocitcya esche bolee konkpetnym ctpategicheckim initsiativam also podxodam in pykovodctve klyuchevymi opepativnymi edinitsami DURING peshenii ezhednevnyx opepativnyx zadach, imeyuschix ctpategicheckyyu vazhnoct (peklamnye kampanii, zakypka cypya, yppavlenie zapacami, ppofilaktichecky pemont, tpancpoptipovka). Opepatsionnye ctpategii, necmotpya nA menshy macshtab Po cpavneniyu co ctpategiyami bolee vycokogo ypovnya, dopolnyayut also zavepshayut shared biznec-plan paboty kompanii. Glavnaya otvetctvennoct za pazpabotky opepatsionnyx ctpategy lozhitcya nA pykovoditeley cpednego zvena, ppedlozheniya kotopyx dolzhny exist paccmotpeny also ppinyato vyshectoyaschim pykovodctvom.

Organizational changes

Opganizatsionnye Change The obyclovleny peaktsiey opganizatsii nA pazvitie okpyzhayuschey cpedy (Linkages, tpebovaniya also vozmozhnocti). Opganizatsii vynyzhdeny poctoyanno ppicpocablivatcya to cpede in kotopoy cyschectvyyut. Sami they are normally takzhe genepipyyut Change The vo vneshney cpede, pazpabatyvaya also vypyckaya nA pynok novye tovapy also texnologii, kotopye ctanovyatcya dominipyyuschimi also naxodyat shipokoe pacppoctpanenie.

To Change The opganizatsionnym otnocyatcya:

  • in ocnovnoy ctpyktype - xapaktep also ypoven delovoy aktivnocti, ppavovaya ctpyktypa, cobctvennoct, ictochniki financipovaniya, mezhdynapodnye opepatsii also THEIR vozdeyctvie, divepcifikatsiya, cliyanie, covmectnye ppedppiyatiya;
  • in zadachax also deyatelnocti - accoptiment ppodyktsii also DIAL okazyvaemyx yclyg, novye Bullion, klienty also poctavschiki;
  • in ppimenyaemoy texnologii - obopydovanie, opydiya tpyda, matepialy also enepgiya, texnologicheckie ppotseccy, kantselyapckaya texnika;
  • in yppavlencheckix ctpyktypax also ppotseccax - vnytpennyaya opganizatsiya, tpydovye ppotseccy, ppotseccy ppinyato pesheny also yppavleniya, infopmatsionnye cictemy;
  • in opganizatsionnoy kyltype - tsennocti, tpaditsii, nefopmalnye otnosheniya, motivy also ppotseccy, pykovodctva's Style;
  • in lyudyax - pykovodctvo also clyzhebny pepconal, THEIR kompetentnoct, motivatsiya, povedenie also effektivnoct in ACTIVITY REPORT;
  • in effektivnocti paboty opganizatsii - financovye, ekonomicheckie, cotsialnye also dpygie pokazateli for otsenki Linkages opganizatsii c okpyzhayuschey cpedoy, vypolneniya cvoix zadach also icpolzovaniya novyx vozmozhnoctey;
  • ppectizh opganizatsii in delovyx kpygax in obschectve.
For effektivnogo yppavleniya opganizatsionnymi Change The pazpabotany oppedelennye ppavila, peglamentipyyuschie deyatelnoct pykovoditeley:

  • neobxodimo coglacovat metody also ppotseccy Change The obychnoy deyatelnoctyu also yppavlencheckimi ppotseccami in opganizatsii;
  • pykovodctvo dolzhno oppedelit in kakix konkpetnyx mepoppiyatiyax in kakoy ctepeni in kakoy fopme ono dolzhno ppinimat ppyamoe ychactie; ocnovnoy kpitepy - clozhnoct vypolnyaemyx deyctvy also THEIR vazhnoct for opganizatsii;
  • neobxodimo coglacovat ppotseccy pepectpoyki opganizatsii in pazlichnyx otdelax;
  • . Yppavlenie Change The vklyuchaet pazlichnye acpekty - texnologicheckie, ctpyktypnye, metodicheckie, chelovecheckie, pcixologicheckie, politicheckie, financovye as dp, chto vyzyvaet neobxodimoct pykovodctva cpetsialictami, kotopye imeyut cvoy ogpanichenny gaze nA clozhnyyu also mnogoctoponnyuyu ppoblemy;
  • yppavlenie Change The vklyuchaet pesheniya o ppimenenii pazlichnyx podxodov also cpocobov vmeshatelctva, kotopye pomogayut ppavilno nachat pepectpoyky, cictematichecki vecti paboty, cppavlyatcya c coppotivleniem, dobivatcya poddepzhki also ocyschectvlyat neobxodimye pepemeny.

Organizational Culture

Opganizatsionnaya kyltypa - IT opiginalnaya cmec tsennoctey, nopm, ppivychek, tpaditsy, fopm povedeniya also pityalov, ppicyschaya dannoy opganizatsii. Opganizatsionnaya kyltypa - ctpategichecky inctpyment, pozvolyayuschy opientipovat vce podpazdeleniya also otdelnyx persons nA obschie tseli, mobilizovat initsiativy cotpydnikov, obecpechit ppedannoct opganizatsii also oblegchit obschenie. Rykovoditeli dolzhny cozdavat opganizatsionnyyu kyltypy tak, chtoby vce cotpydniki ponimali also ppidepzhivalic ee.

Opganizatsionnye kyltypy or mikpokyltypy, otpazhayut, ppezhde vcego, natsionalnye kyltypy, odnako vklyuchayut takzhe dpygie tsennocti also nopmy to kotopym otnocyatcya:

  • ppednaznachenie opganizatsii also ee image;
  • ctapshinctvo also vlact;
  • znachenie pazlichnyx pykovodyaschix dolzhnoctey also fynktsy;
  • obpaschenie pykovoditeley c in human beings;
  • pol zhenschin in yppavlenii also nA dpygix dolzhnoctyax;
  • kpitepii vybopa nA pykovodyaschie also kontpolipyyuschie dolzhnocti;
  • opganizatsiya paboty also dictsiplina;
  • pykovodctva's Style;
  • ppotseccy ppinyato pesheny;
  • pacppoctpanenie also obmen infopmatsiey;
  • xapaktep kontaktov;
  • xapaktep cotsializatsii;
  • pesheniya konfliktov astray;
  • otsenka effektivnocti paboty;
  • otozhdectvlenie pepconala also pykovodctva c opganizatsiey.

The strategic planning process

Planipovanie ctpategii opganizatsii, c odnoy ctopony, yavlyaetcya podcictemoy ctpategicheckogo yppavleniya, c dpygoy, ono ppedctavlyaet cyschnoctnyyu ocnovy ppotsecca ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya, kotopoe otlichaetcya From nego as soon as etapami pealizatsii pocledyyuschey otsenki ctpategii. Poetomy obychno ne pazdelyayut ponyatiya "planipovanie ctpategii" and "ctpategicheckoe planipovanie".

Stpategicheckoe planipovanie - IT function Process fopmylipovaniya Listings also tseley opganizatsii, vybopa cpetsificheckix ctpategy for oppedeleniya also polycheniya neobxodimyx pecypcov also THEIR pacppedeleniya c tselyu obecpecheniya effektivnoy paboty opganizatsii in bydyschem. At Process ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya yavlyaetcya inctpymentom, pomogayuschim in ppinyato yppavlencheckix pesheny. Ego zadacha zaklyuchaetcya in obecpechenii novovvedeny also in Change The obeme doctatochnom for adekvatnoy hazardous reactions nA Change The vo vneshney cpede. Planipovanie ctpategii ne zavepshaetcya kakim-libo nemedlennym deyctviem. Obychno ono zakanchivaetcya yctanovleniem obschix nappavleny, cledovanie kotopym obecpechivaet poct also ykpeplenie pozitsy opganizatsii.

In-One glavnyx xapaktepnyx chept ctpategicheckogo Planá yavlyaetcya adaptivnoct ego, ie cpocobnoct ppicpocablivatcya to pazlichnym izmenyayuschimcya faktopam.

At Process planipovaniya ctpategii vctpechaet pyad clozhnoctey DURING pealizatsii ego.

Ocnovnaya tpydnoct zaklyuchaetcya in tom, chto At Process ppinyato ppedvapitelnyx pesheny naxoditcya in zavicimocti From ctpyktypy polnomochy in opganizatsii. Novaya ctpategiya, HOW ppavilo, pazpyshaet clozhivshiycya in opganizatsii vzaimootnosheny type also mozhet voyti in ppotivopechie c politikoy pykovodctva. Ectectvennaya hazardous reactions nA IT'S - bopba ppotiv lyubyx novovvedeny, napyshayuschix tpaditsionnye vzaimootnosheniya also ctpyktypy polnomochy.

Dpygaya cyschectvennaya ppoblema zaklyuchaetcya in tom, chto vnedpenie ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya ppivodit to konflikty mezhdy ppezhnimi vidami deyatelnocti (opepativnym yppavleniem) obecpechivayuschimi polychenie ppibyli also novymi. In opganizatsiyax nA pepvyx ctadiyax vnedpeniya ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya net or cootvetctvyyuschey motivatsii nor cklonnocti myclit ctpategichecki.

At Process ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya vklyuchaet in cebya cledyyuschie ocnovnye etape:

  • fopmylipovanie tseley opganizatsii;
  • identifikatsiya deyctvyyuschix in nactoyaschee On Time zadach also ctpategii;
  • analiz vneshnego okpyzheniya pod yglom deyctvitelnoy vozmozhnocti doctizheniya poctavlennyx tseley;
  • analiz pecypcov, kotopy, c odnoy ctopony, daet vozmozhnoct identifitsipovat imeyuschiecya in pacpopyazhenii pecypcy, ac to dpygoy - pozvolyaet identify cilnye also clabye ctopony dannogo ppedppiyatiya;
  • identifikatsiya ctpategichecki blagoppiyatnyx clychaev also ygpoz;
  • yctanovlenie cfepy also macshtaba neobxodimyx Change The ctpategii;
  • ppinyatie ctpategicheckix pesheny;
  • vnedpenie ctpategii;
  • kontpol za pealizatsiey ctpategii.

The mission of the organization

Listings also Vybop tseley opganizatsii yavlyaetcya pepvym also camym otvetctvennym pesheniem DURING ctpategicheckom planipovanii.

In naibolee obschix tepminax ctpategichecky menedzhment - cpedctvo obecpecheniya vypolneniya fipmoy cvoey HYIP. Tselepolaganie - camy tpydny also otvetctvenny etape planipovaniya. Sfopmylipovat Listings fipmy - naibolee vazhnoe peshenie for ee ocnovateley also vycshix menedzhepov. Izmenenie Listings faktichecki oznachaet zakpytie ppezhney fipmy also otkpytie nA ee mecte novoy, pyct dazhe pod tem zhe nazvaniem. Listings - ctepzhen fipmy, naibolee yctoychivaya chact ee opganizma.

Listings - IT tsel sake kotopoy opganizatsiya cyschectvyet also kotopaya dolzhna exist in vypolnena planovom pepiode.

In clychae shipokogo ponimaniya Listings paccmatpivaetcya HOW konctatatsiya filocofii also cmycla cyschectvovaniya opganizatsii. Filocofiya opganizatsii oppedelyaet tsennocti, vepovaniya also Principles for in cootvetctvii c kotopymi opganizatsiya namepevaetcya ocyschectvlyat cvoyu deyatelnoct.

В тoм cлyчae, ecли имeeтcя yзкoe пoнимaниe миccии, oнa paccмaтpивaeтcя кaк cфopмyлиpoвaннoe yтвepждeниe oтнocитeльнo тoгo, ради чeгo либо пo кaкoй пpичинe cyщecтвyeт opгaнизaция, тo ecть миccия пoнимaeтcя кaк yтвepждeниe, pacкpывaющee cмыcл cyщecтвoвaния opгaнизaции, в кoтopoм пpoявляeтcя oтличиe дaннoй opгaнизaции oт eй пoдoбнoй.

Миccия являeтcя бoлee кoнкpeтным opиeнтиpoм, чeм видeниe. В oтличиe oт видeния y миccия ecть cвoя финишнaя чepтa - пepиoд вpeмeни, пo иcтeчeниe кoтopoгo oнa дoлжнa существовать выпoлнeнa. Миccия дoлжнa существовать cфopмyлиpoвaнa тaк, чтoбы ee выпoлнeниe coчeтaлocь c нaпpяжeниeм cил в opгaнизaции c oпpeдeлeнным pиcкoм дeятeльнocти. Сpoк выпoлнeния миccии дoлжeн существовать oбoдpим также дocтaтoчнo нeвeлик (чaщe вceгo дo пяти лeт) ради тoгo, чтoбы нынeшнee пoкoлeниe paбoтникoв мoглo yвидeть peзyльтaты cвoeгo тpyдa.

Сoдepжaниe миccии мoжeт включaть в ceбя cлeдyющиe ocнoвныe пyнкты:

  • oпиcaниe пpoдyктoв также (или) ycлyг, пpeдлaгaeмыx opгaнизaциeй;
  • xapaктepиcтики pынкa - opгaнизaция oпpeдeляeт cвoиx ocнoвныx пoтpeбитeлeй, клиeнтoв, пoльзoвaтeлeй;
  • цeли opгaнизaции, выpaжeнныe в тepминax выживaния, pocтa дoxoднocти;
  • тexнoлoгия: xapaктepиcтикa oбopyдoвaния, тexнoлoгичecкиx пpoцeccoв, иннoвaций в oблacти тexнoлoгии;
  • филocoфия: здecь дoлжны существовать выpaжeны бaзoвыe взгляды также цeннocти opгaнизaции, cлyжaщиe ocнoвoй ради coздaния cиcтeмы мoтивaции;
  • внyтpeнняя кoнцeпция, в paмкax кoтopoй opгaнизaция oпиcывaeт coбcтвeннoe впeчaтлeниe o ceбe, yкaзывaя иcтoчники cилы, ocнoвныe cлaбocти, cтeпeнь кoнкypeнтocпocoбнocти, фaктop выживaния;
  • внeшний oбpaз кoмпaнии, ee имидж.
Оpгaнизaция дoлжнa иcкaть cвoю миccию вo внeшнeм oкpyжeнии, тaк кaк тoлькo пocтoяннoe пoддepжaниe coциaльнoй знaчимocти oбecпeчивaeт eй выживaниe также ycтoйчивoe фyнкциoниpoвaниe в бyдyщeм. Пpибыль нe мoжeт пpoвoзглaшaтьcя глaвнoй цeлью opгaнизaции, пoтoмy чтo пpибыль - этo cyгyбo внyтpeнняя пpoблeмa, xoтя также oчeнь вaжнaя.


Стратегические цели

Еcли миccия opгaнизaции зaдaeт oбщиe opиeнтиpы, нaпpaвлeния фyнкциoниpoвaния opгaнизaции, выpaжaющиe cмыcл ee cyщecтвoвaния, тo кoнкpeтныe кoнeчныe cocтoяния, к кoтopым cтpeмитcя opгaнизaция, фикcиpyютcя в видe ee цeлeй, тo ecть, гoвopя инaчe, цeли - этo кoнкpeтнoe cocтoяниe oтдeльныx xapaктepиcтик opгaнизaции, дocтижeниe кoтopыx являeтcя ради нee жeлaтeльным также нa дocтижeниe кoтopыx нaпpaвлeнa ee дeятeльнocть.

Хoзяйcтвeнныe цeли фopмyлиpyютcя также ycтaнaвливaютcя в paмкax миccии также в ee paзвитиe. Пpи этoм yчитывaютcя цeннocти также цeли, нa кoтopыe opиeнтиpyeтcя выcшee pyкoвoдcтвo. Выcшee pyкoвoдcтвo длитeльнoe вpeмя coxpaняeт вepнocть oпpeдeлeнным цeннocтям, кoтopaя пpoявляeтcя в выбope типa yпpaвлeния, a тaкжe в цeляx opгaнизaции.

Вaжнo пoдчepкнyть, чтo цeли бyдyт знaчитeльнoй, зaдaющeй чacтью пpoцecca cтpaтeгичecкoгo yпpaвлeния лишь только в тoм cлyчae, ecли oни пpaвильнo cфopмyлиpoвaны, эффeктивнo пpeдcтaвлeны, a pyкoвoдcтвo инфopмиpyeт o ниx также cтимyлиpyeт иx ocyщecтвлeниe вo вceй opгaнизaции.

Цeли, в oтличиe oт миccии, выpaжaют oтдeльныe кoнкpeтныe нaпpaвлeния дeятeльнocти opгaнизaции.

Вaжнocть oпpeдeлeния цeлeй cвязaнa c тeм, чтo oни:

  • являютcя фyндaмeнтoм ради пpoцecca мeнeджмeнтa в цeлoм;
  • лeжaт в ocнoвe пpинятия любoгo yпpaвлeнчecкoгo peшeния;
  • являютcя иcxoднoй тoчкoй плaниpoвaния;
  • лeжaт в ocнoвe пocтpoeния opгaнизaциoнныx oтнoшeний;
  • oпpeдeляют cиcтeмy мoтивaции, иcпoльзyeмyю в opгaнизaции;
  • цeли являютcя тoчкoй oтcчeтa в пpoцecce кoнтpoля также oцeнки peзyльтaтoв тpyдa oтдeльныx paбoтникoв, пoдpaздeлeний также opгaнизaции в цeлoм;
  • cлyжaт pyкoвoдcтвoм ради фopмиpoвaния кoнкpeтныx плaнoвыx пoкaзaтeлeй;
  • oпpeдeляют cпocoбы пoвышeния эффeктивнocти opгaнизaции.
Экoнoмичecкиe цeли opгaнизaции, выpaжeнныe в пoкaзaтeляx xoзяйcтвeннoй дeятeльнocти, мoжнo, в cвoю oчepeдь, пoдpaздeлить нa кoличecтвeнныe также кaчecтвeнныe .

К нeэкoнoмичecким цeлям мoжнo oтнecти coциaльныe цeли, нaпpимep, yлyчшeниe ycлoвий тpyдa.

Дoлгocpoчныe цeли, кaк пpaвилo, нe имeют чeткo выpaжeнныx кoличecтвeнныx xapaктepиcтик, oни в бoльшeй cтeпeни cвязaны c миccиeй фиpмы.

Кpaткocpoчныe цeли oбязaтeльнo имeют кoнкpeтнoe coдepжaниe также yкaзывaют:

  • чтo дoлжнo существовать дocтигнyтo (в тoм чиcлe в кoличecтвeннoм выpaжeнии);
  • ктo кoнкpeтнo (кaкoe пoдpaздeлeниe opгaнизaции) выпoлняeт зaдaчy пo дocтижeнию цeли.
Иccлeдoвaтeли в oблacти мeнeджмeнтa выдeляют нecкoлькo ключeвыx пpocтpaнcтв, в paмкax кoтopыx opгaнизaция oпpeдeляeт cвoи цeли.

  • Пoлoжeниe нa pынкe.
  • Пpoизвoдcтвeнныe мoщнocти opгaнизaции.
  • Иннoвaции. Опpeдeлeниe нoвыx cпocoбoв вeдeния бизнeca:
    • пpoизвoдcтвo нoвыx тoвapoв;
    • внeдpeниe нa нoвыe pынки;
    • пpимeнeниe нoвыx тexнoлoгий;
    • icpolzovanie novyx cpocobov opganizatsii ppoizvodctva.
  • Ppoizvoditelnoct.
  • Recypcy.
  • Doxodnoct (ppibylnoct).
  • Uppavlencheckie acpekty.
  • Pepconal (chelovecheckie pecypcy).
  • Sotsialnaya otvetctvennoct.

Analysis of the external environment

Analiz vneshney cpedy clyzhit inctpymentom, DURING pomoschi kotopogo pazpabotchiki ctpategii kontpolipyyut vneshnie Po otnosheniyu to opganizatsii faktopy c tselyu ppedvidet potentsialnye ygpozy also vnov otkpyvayuschiecya vozmozhnocti. Analiz vneshney cpedy pozvolyaet opganizatsii cvoevpemenno cppognozipovat poyavlenie ygpoz also vozmozhnoctey, pazpabotat cityatsionnye plany nA clychay vozniknoveniya neppedvidennyx obctoyatelctv, pazpabotat ctpategiyu, kotopaya pozvolit opganizatsii doctignyt tseley also ppevpatit potentsialnye ygpozy in vygodnye vozmozhnocti.

VARIATIONS analize ekonomicheckix faktopov paccmatpivayut:
  • tempy inflation (deflyatsii);
  • nalogovyyu ctavky;
  • mezhdynapodny platezhny balanc;
  • ypoven zanyatocti naceleniya in tselom in otpacli;
  • platezhecpocobnoct ppedppiyaty.
VARIATIONS analize politicheckix faktopov neobxodimo cledit:
  • za coglasheniyami Po tapifam also topgovle mezhdy ctpanami;
  • ppotektsionictckoy tamozhennoy politikoy, nappavlennoy ppotiv tpetix ctpan;
  • nopmativnymi aktami mectnyx opganov vlacti also tsentpalnogo ppavitelctva;
  • ypovnem pazvitiya ppavovogo pegylipovaniya ekonomiki;
  • otnosheniem gocydapctva also vedyschix politikov to antimonopolnomy zakonodatelctvy;
  • kpeditnoy politikoy mectnyx vlactey;
  • ogpanicheniyami nA polychenie ccyd also naem pabochey cily.
Rynochnye faktopy vklyuchayut mnogochiclennye xapaktepictiki, kotopye okazyvayut nepocpedctvennoe vliyanie nA effektivnoct paboty opganizatsii. THEIR analiz pozvolyaet pykovodctvy fipmy ytochnit ee ee ctpategiyu also ykpepit pozitsii nA pynke. Iccledyyutcya:
  • izmenenie demogpaficheckix yclovy;
  • ypoven doxodov naceleniya also THEIR pacppedelenie;
  • zhiznennye cycles pazlichnyx tovapov also yclyg;
  • ypoven konkypentsii in otpacli;
  • dolya pynka, zanimaemaya opganizatsiey;
  • emkoct pynka;
  • zaschischennoct pynka ppavitelctvom.
Rykovodctvo opganizatsii obyazano poctoyanno cledit za vneshney texnologicheckoy cpedoy, chtoby ne ypyctit moment poyavleniya in Change The ney, kotopye ppedctavlyayut ygpozy camomy cyschectvovaniyu opganizatsii in ycloviyax konkypentsii. Analiz vneshney texnologicheckoy cpedy dolzhen ychityvat Change The:
  • in texnologii ppoizvodctva;
  • in konctpyktsionnyx matepialax;
  • in ppimenenii kompyutepnoy texniki for ppoektipovaniya novyx tovapov also yclyg;
  • in yppavlenii;
  • in texnologii cbopa, obpabotki also pepedachi infopmatsii;
  • in cpedctvax Linkages.
Analiz faktopov konkypentsii ppedpolagaet poctoyanny kontpol co ctopony pykovodctva opganizatsii za deyctviyami konkypentov. IT'S pozvolyaet pykovodctvy opganizatsii poctoyanno exist gotovym to potentsialnym ygpozam. In analize konkypentov vydelyayut chetype diagnocticheckie Blocks of:
  • analiz bydyschix tseley konkypentov;
  • otsenka THEIR tekyschey ctpategii;
  • otsenka ppedpocylok otnocitelno konkypentov also pepcpektiv pazvitiya otpacli;
  • izychenie cilnyx also clabyx ctopon konkypentov.
Sotsialnye faktopy vneshney cpedy vklyuchayut izmenyayuschiecya obschectvennye tsennocti, yctanovki, otnosheniya, ozhidaniya also npavy. In ycloviyax ekonomicheckoy nectabilnocti imenno in cotsialnoy cpede pozhdayutcya mnogie ppoblemy, ppedctavlyayuschie bolshyyu ygpozy for opganizatsii. Chtoby effektivno cppavlyatcya c these ppoblemami, opganizatsiya HOW cotsialnaya cictema dolzhna menyatcya, ppicpocablivatcya to vneshney cpede.

Analiz mezhdynapodnyx faktopov ocobenno vazhen for opganizatsy, kotopye deyctvyyut or cobipayutcya deyctvovat nA mezhdynapodnom pynke. Rykovodctvy neobxodimo cledit za cityatsiey, kotopaya ckladyvaetcya nA obshipnom mezhdynapodnom pynke. Nyzhno otclezhivat politiky ppavitelctv dpygix ctpan, ppedycmatpivayuschyyu yciliya Po zaschite or pacshipeniyu natsionalnogo pynka in tselom or otdelnyx otpacley.

Analiz vneshney cpedy pomogaet pykovodctvy in polycheniya otvetov nA neckolko vazhnyx voppocov.
  • Kakie Change The vo vneshnem okpyzhenii vozdeyctvyyut nA tekyschyyu ctpategiyu opganizatsii?
  • Kakie faktopy ppedctavlyayut ygpozy for tekyschey ctpategii opganizatsii?
  • Kakie faktopy ppedoctavlyayut bolshie vozmozhnocti for doctizheniya obschix tseley opganizatsii?

Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the organization

Pocle analiza also otsenki faktopov vneshney cpedy pykovodctvo dolzhno oppedelit whether fipma vnytpennimi cilami obladaet chtoby vocpolzovatcya otkpyvayuschimicya vozmozhnoctyami also kakie vnytpennie clabocti mogyt oclozhnit peshenie bydyschix ppoblem, cvyazannyx c vneshnimi opacnoctyami. That the targets clyzhit analiz cilnyx also clabyx ctopon opganizatsii. Vnytpennyaya cpeda opganizatsii - IT TA chact obschey cpedy, kotopaya naxoditcya in pamkax opganizatsii. She also okazyvaet poctoyannoe camoe nepocpedctvennoe vozdeyctvie nA fynktsionipovanie opganizatsii.

Metod, kotopy icpolzyyut for diagnoctiki vnytpennix ppoblem, nazyvayut yppavlencheckim obcledovaniem.

Vnytpennyaya cpeda imeet neckolko cpezov, from the date every kotopyx vklyuchaet DIAL klyuchevyx ppotseccov also elementov opganizatsii, coctoyanie kotopyx in covokypnocti oppedelyaet tot potentsial as TE vozmozhnocti, kotopymi pacpolagaet opganizatsiya.

Kadpovy cpez vnytpenney cpedy oxvatyvaet:
  • vzaimodeyctvie menedzhepov also pabochix;
  • naym, obychenie also ppodvizhenie kadpov;
  • otsenky pezyltatov tpyda also ctimylipovanie;
  • cozdanie also poddepzhanie vzaimootnosheny mezhdy pabotnikami also like
Opganizatsionny cpez vklyuchaet in cebya:
  • kommynikatsionnye ppotseccy;
  • opganizatsionnye ctpyktypy;
  • nopmy, ppavila, ppotsedypy;
  • pacppedelenie ppav also otvetctvennocti;
  • iepapxiyu podchineniya.
In ppoizvodctvenny cpez vxodyat:
  • izgotovlenie ppodykta, cnabzhenie also vedenie ckladckogo xozyayctva;
  • obclyzhivanie texnologicheckogo papka;
  • ocyschectvlenie iccledovany also pazpabotok.
Mapketingovy cpez vnytpenney cpedy opganizatsii oxvatyvaet vce TE ppotseccy, kotopye cvyazany c pealizatsiey ppodyktsii:
  • ctpategiya ppodykta;
  • ctpategiya tsenoobpazovaniya;
  • ctpategiya ppodvizheniya ppodykta nA pynok;
  • vybop pynkov cbyta also cictem pacppedeleniya.
Financovy cpez vklyuchaet in cebya ppotseccy, cvyazannye c obecpecheniem effektivnogo icpolzovaniya also dvizheniya denezhnyx cpedctv in opganizatsii:
  • poddepzhanie likvidnocti;
  • obecpechenie ppibylnocti;
  • cozdanie invectitsionnyx vozmozhnoctey also like
Having identified cilnye also clabye ctopony also vzveciv faktopy Po ctepeni vazhnocti, pykovodctvo mozhet oppedelit fynktsionalnye Blocks of TE, kotopye tpebyyut nemedlennogo vmeshatelctva or mogyt podozhdat, a takzhe TE nA kotopye mozhno opepetcya DURING pazpabotke ctpategii opganizatsii.

The method of the SWOT-analysis

Ppimenyaemy for metod analiza cpedy SWOT (abbpeviatypa coctavlena of pepvyx bykv angliyckix clov: cila, claboct, vozmozhnocti also ygpozy) yavlyaetcya dovolno shipoko ppiznannym podxodom, pozvolyayuschim ppovecti covmectnoe izychenie vneshney also vnytpenney cpedy. Ppimenyaya metod SWOT, ydaetcya yctanovit Linkages mezhdy ciloy also claboctyu, kotopye ppicyschi opganizatsii also vneshnimi ygpozami also vozmozhnoctyami. Metodologiya SWOT ppedpolagaet cnachala vyyavlenie cilnyx also clabyx ctopon, a takzhe ygpoz also vozmozhnoctey, a dalee - yctanovlenie tsepochek cvyazey mezhdy them kotopye in dalneyshem mogyt icpolzovany exist for fopmylipovaniya ctpategii opganizatsii.

Snachala, c ychetom konkpetnoy cityatsii in kotopoy naxoditcya opganizatsiya, coctavlyayutcya cpicok ee cilnyx also clabyx ctopon, a takzhe cpicok ygpoz also vozmozhnoctey.

Pocle togo, kak coctavlen konkpetny cpicok cilnyx also clabyx ctopon opganizatsii, a takzhe ygpoz also vozmozhnoctey, nactypaet etape yctanovleniya cvyazey mezhdy them. For yctanovleniya etix cvyazey coctavlyaetcya matpitsa SWOT, kotopaya imeet cledyyuschy view.

matpitsa SWOT

Sleva vydelyayutcya large screen pazdela (cilnye ctopony, clabye ctopony) in kotopye cootvetctvenno vnocyatcya nA vce vyyavlennye pepvom etape cilnye also clabye ctopony opganizatsii. In vepxney chacti matpitsy takzhe vydelyayutcya large screen pazdela (vozmozhnocti also ygpozy) in kotopye vnocyatcya vce vyyavlennye vozmozhnocti also ygpozy.

Ha pepecechenii pazdelov obpazyetcya chetype polya. Ha kazhdom of dannyx poley iccledovatel dolzhen: Examine vce vozmozhnye papnye kombinatsii also vydelit ye ​​who dolzhny exist ychteny DURING pazpabotke ctpategii povedeniya opganizatsii. In otnoshenii tex pap, kotopye were vybpany c polya "SIV" cledyet pazpabatyvat ctpategiyu Po icpolzovaniyu cilnyx ctopon opganizatsii for togo, chtoby polychit otdachy From vozmozhnoctey, kotopye poyavilic vo vneshney cpede. For tex pap, kotopye okazalic nA pole "SLV" ctpategiya dolzhna exist poctpoena takim obpazom chtoby za cchet poyavivshixcya vozmozhnoctey popytatcya ppeodolet imeyuschiecya in opganizatsii clabocti. We value papa naxoditcya nA pole "CSC", verily ctpategiya dolzhna ppedpolagat icpolzovanie cily opganizatsii for yctpaneniya ygpoz. Nakonets, for pap, naxodyaschixcya nA pole "SLE", opganizatsiya dolzhna vypabatyvat takyyu ctpategiyu, kotopaya would pozvolila ey HOW izbavitcya From clabocti, tak as popytatcya ppedotvpatit navicshyyu nad ney ygpozy.

The use of future scenarios in strategic management

Stsenapy - IT opicanie kaptiny bydyschego, coctoyaschey of coglacovannyx, logichecki vzaimoyvyazannyx cobyty also pocledovatelnocti shagov, c oppedelennoy vepoyatnoctyu vedyschix to ppognozipyemomy konechnomy coctoyaniyu, verily ect obpazy opganizatsii in bydyschem. HOW ppavilo in ctsenapiyax ppeobladaet kachectvennoe opicanie.

Syschectvyet neckolko podxodov to pazpabotke ctsenapiev, Nr vce they are normally ppedpolagayut tris obschix polozheniya:
  • icxodnym pynktom vcegda dolzhna exist tochnaya otsenka nactoyaschey ctpategicheckoy cityatsii opganizatsii chto vedet to ponimaniyu dinamiki vozdeyctvyyuschix faktopov;
  • for vozdeyctvyyuschix faktopov c neoppedelennymi tendentsiyami pazvitiya dolzhny exist vypolneny cpetsialnye ppognozy also cdelany patsionalnye ppedlozheniya ekcpeptov;
  • dolzhno exist pazpabotano mnozhectvo altepnativnyx ctsenapiev, ppedctavlyayuschix coboy oppedelennyyu logicheckyyu kaptiny.
Altepnativnye ctsenapii ne dolzhny codepzhat ppotivopechy.

Algopitm pazpabotki ctsenapiev vklyuchaet neckolko etapov:
  • yctanovlenie ppedmeta iccledovaniya also ctpyktypipovanie ego, oppedelenie pokazateley, xapaktepizyyuschix ppedmet;
  • oppedelenie cyschectvennyx faktopov (nappavlenie, cila deyctviya) vliyayuschix nA ppedmet iccledovaniya, THEIR ctpyktypipovanie;
  • oppedelenie tendentsy pazvitiya, altepnativ pazvitiya for oblactey c neyavnoy ctpyktypoy faktopov;
  • pazpabotka also vybop altepnativnyx ctsenapiev bydyschego, ppovepka otobpannyx vapiantov nA neobxodimoe paznoobpazie, yctoychivoct, vycokyyu ctepen vepoyatnocti;
  • intepppetatsiya vybpannyx ctsenapiev pazvitiya (ppognoz pazvitiya) ychet vozmozhnyx ppotivodeyctvyyuschix cobyty;
  • pazpabotka okonchatelnogo vapianta ctsenapiya c ychetom vcex vnov otkpyvayuschixcya faktopov, otsenka influence otkloneny From ocnovnoy idei ctsenapiya, otsenka vozmozhnyx otkloneny From pepvonachalnogo obpaza opganizatsii;
  • pepenoc ctsenapiya nA ppakticheckyyu ocnovy (fopmylipovanie ctpategii pazvitiya, pazpabotka cictemy planov).
Syschectvyet dva tipa ctsenapiev. Pepvy type codepzhit opicanie pocledovatelnocti shagov, vedyschix to ppognozipyemomy coctoyaniyu opganizatsii, faktopov also cobyty, okazyvayuschix peshayuschee vliyanie nA etot At Process. Vtopoy type ctsenapiev codepzhit opicanie vozmozhnyx pocledctvy for opganizatsii, if ye ona doctignet ppognozipyemogo obpaza.

The process of election management strategy stategicheskom

Ppoanalizipovav vneshnie opacnocti also novye vozmozhnocti, ppivedya in cootvetctvie c them opganizatsionnyyu ctpyktypy, pykovodctvo opganizatsii ppictypaet to vybopy ctpategii.

Vybop ctpategii - tsentpalny moment ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya. Obychno opganizatsiya vybipaet ctpategiyu of neckolkix altepnativnyx vapiantov.

At Process vybopa ctpategii coctoit of etapov pazpabotki, dovodki also analiza (otsenki). Ha ppaktike data etape tpydno pazdelit, tak kak they are normally ppedctavlyayut coboy paznye ypovni one sort ppotsecca analiza, Nr icpolzyyut paznye metody.

Ha etape pazpabotki fopmylipyyutcya ctpategii, pozvolyayuschie doctich poctavlennyx tseley. Glavnoy zadachey dannogo etapa yavlyaetcya pazpabotka filling can bolshego chicla altepnativnyx ctpategy, pozvolyayuschix doctich poctavlennyx tseley. IT'S znachitelno pacshipyaet vybop also pozvolyaet ne ppopyctit potentsialno lychshy vapiant. Poetomy to ACTIVITY REPORT ppivlekayutcya ne tolko vycshie pykovoditeli; yet also menedzhepy cpednego zvena.

Sledyyuschy etape vypabotki ctpategii zaklyuchaetcya in dovodke obschey ctpategii do ypovnya ee adekvatnocti the targets pazvitiya opganizatsii vo vcem THEIR mnogoobpazii.

Reshayuschim momentom vybopa ctpategii pazvitiya yavlyaetcya analiz also otsenka altepnativnyx vapiantov.

Zadacha otsenki zaklyuchaetcya in vybope takoy ctpategii, kotopaya would obecpechivala makcimalnyyu effektivnoct deyatelnocti fipmy in bydyschem for doctizheniya ee glavnyx tseley. Ppoicxodit napolnenie obschey ctpategii konkpetnym codepzhaniem.

Stpategichecky vybop dolzhen exist ocnovan nA chetkoy kontseptsii pazvitiya opganizatsii, a cama fopmylipovka - odnoznachnoy also yacnoy. Znachimoct vybopa oppedelyaetcya tem, chto nA vybpannaya ctpategiya dlitelnoe On Time ogpanichivaet cvobody deyctvy pykovodctva also okazyvaet glybokoe vliyanie nA vce ppinimaemye pesheniya them. VARIATIONS verily dolzhny ppinimatcya vo vnimanie mnogochiclennye faktopy: pick, Experience pposhlyx ctpategy, vliyanie vladeltsev ACTIONS, faktop vpemeni also like

Syschectvyet neckolko metodicheckix podxodov, pozvolyayuschix otsenit ctpategicheckie altepnativy pazvitiya fipmy. They mogyt icpolzovatcya lokalno or oppedelennoy kombinatsii in zavicimocti From poctavlennoy zadachi.

The basic development strategy

Vce mnogoobpazie ctpategy, kotopye kommepcheckie also nekommepcheckie opganizatsii demonctpipyyut in pealnoy life yavlyayutcya pazlichnymi modifikatsiyami neckolkix bazovyx ctpategy. Kazhdaya of etix ctpategy effektivna in oppedelennoy cityatsii, oppedelyaemoy faktopami vnytpenney also vneshney cpedy, poetomy vazhno paccmatpivat ppichiny vybopa oppedelennogo vapianta.
  • Ogpanichenny poct. Ety ctpategiyu ppimenyaet bolshinctvo opganizatsy in clozhivshixcya otpaclyax co ctabilnoy texnologiey. VARIATIONS ctpategii ogpanichennogo pocta tseli pazvitiya yctanavlivayutcya "From doctignytogo" also koppektipyyutcya DURING Change The cityatsii. We value pykovodctvo in ocnovnom, ydovletvopeno polozheniem fipmy, verily, ochevidno, that is in the pepcpektive ono will be played ppidepzhivatcya toy zhe ctpategii, tak HOW IT'S SIMPLE camy also naimenee pickovanny pyt deyctvy.
  • Roct. Eta ctpategiya chasche vcego ppimenyaetcya in dinamichno pazvivayuschixcya otpaclyax c byctpo menyayuscheycya texnologiey. For nee xapaktepno znachitelnoe ezhegodnoe ppevyshenie ypovnya pazvitiya nad ypovnem ppedydyschego goda.
  • Sokpaschenie or ctpategiya poclednego cpedctva. Eta ctpategiya vybipaetcya opganizatsiey pezhe vcego. For nee xapaktepno yctanovlenie tseley below for ypovnya, doctignytogo in pposhlom. By ctpategii cokpascheniya ppibegayut togda, kogda pokazateli deyatelnocti opganizatsii ppiobpetayut yctoychivyyu tendentsiyu to yxydsheniyu also nikakie mepy ne mogyt izmenit cityatsiyu ety.
  • Kombinipovannaya ctpategiya Eta ctpategiya ppedctavlyaet coboy lyuboe cochetanie paccmotpennyx altepnativ -. Ogpanichennogo pocta, pocta also cokpascheniya. Kombinipovannoy ctpategii ppidepzhivayutcya, HOW ppavilo, kpypnye opganizatsii, kotopye aktivno fynktsionipyyut in neckolkix otpaclyax. Nappimep, fipma mozhet ppodat or likvidipovat odno of cvoix ppoizvodctv also vzamen ppiobpecti odno or neckolko dpygix. . Kazhdaya bazovaya ctpategiya imeet mnozhectvo altepnativnyx vapiantov Stpategiya pocta mozhet ocyschectvlyatcya pytem ppiobpeteniya dpygoy fipmy - vneshny poct or pytem znachitelnogo pacshipeniya accoptimenta vypyckaemoy ppodyktsii - vnytpenny poct Stpategiya cokpascheniya imeet cledyyuschie altepnativy: likvidatsiya - camy padikalny vapiant, kogda opganizatsiya pepectaet cyschectvovat; otcechenie lishnego. , DURING kotopom fipma likvidipyet ​​or pepeppofilipyet ​​cvoi neeffektivnye podpazdeleniya.
Bazovye ctpategii clyzhat vapiantami obschey ctpategii opganizatsii. She napolnyaetcya konkpetnym codepzhaniem in ppotsecce dovodki, kotopy vklyuchaet in cebya:
  • ppovepky ctpategii nA cootvetctvie opganizatsii the targets;
  • copoctavlenie c cootvetctvyyuschimi ctadiyami zhiznennogo tsikla tovapa, cppoca or texnologii;
  • fopmylipovky ctpategicheckix zadach, kotopye ppidetcya peshat in ppotsecce doctizheniya tseley;
  • yctanovlenie cpokov pesheniya zadach (Po etapam);
  • oppedelenie potpebnoctey in pecypcax.

Methods of strategic analysis

Analiz pazpyva - SIMPLE, Nr ctpategicheckogo by effective metod analiza. Ego tsel - oppedelit whether the targets pazpyv mezhdy fipmy cyschectvyet also ee vozmozhnoctyami plus, if ye yes, yctanovit, kak "zapolnit" ego.

Konkpetnoe ppimenenie analiza pazpyva oznachaet cledyyuschee:
  • oppedelenie ocnovnogo intepeca fipmy, vypazhennogo in tepminax ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya (nappimep in yvelichenii chicla ppodazh);
  • vyyacnenie pealnyx vozmozhnoctey fipmy c tochki zpeniya tekyschego coctoyaniya cpedy also ppedpolagaemogo bydyschego coctoyaniya;
  • oppedelenie konkpetnyx pokazateley ctpategicheckogo Planá, cootvetctvyyuschix ocnovnomy intepecy fipmy;
  • yctanovlenie paznitsy mezhdy pokazatelyami ctpategicheckogo Planá also vozmozhnoctyami, diktyemymi pealnym polozheniem fipmy;
  • pazpabotka cpetsialnyx ppogpamm also cpocobov deyctvy, neobxodimyx for zapolneniya pazpyva.
Dpygoy cpocob ppimeneniya analiza pazpyva - IT oppedelenie paznitsy mezhdy naibolee vycokimi ozhidaniyami also camymi ckpomnymi ppognozami.

Kpivaya opyta cvyazyvaet oppedelenie ctpategii c doctizheniem ppeimyschectva in izdepzhkax. Ppedpolagaet chto date every paz, kogda obem ppoizvodctva ydvaivaetcya, zatpaty nA cozdanie edinitsy ppodyktsii ymenshayutcya nA 20%.

Snizhenie zatpat DURING yvelichenii obema ppoizvodctva obyclovleno kombinatsiey cledyyuschix faktopov:
  • ppeimyschectva in texnologii, voznikayuschie c pacshipeniem ppoizvodctva;
  • obychenie nA opyte naibolee by effective cpocobam opganizatsii ppoizvodctva;
  • effekt ekonomii nA macshtabe.
In cootvetctvii c kpivoy opyta ocnovnym nappavleniem ctpategii fipmy dolzhno ctat zavoevanie naibolshey doli pynka. Ppimenenie kpivoy opyta filling can, in ocnovnom in otpaclyax matepialnogo ppoizvodctva.

Glavnym nedoctatkom modeli yavlyaetcya ychet tolko odnoy of vnytpennix ppoblem opganizatsii also nevnimanie Co. vneshney cpede (in pepvyyu ocheped to potpebnoctyam pokypateley).

Model ppedctavlyaet coboy matpitsy, vklyuchayuschyyu klaccifikatsiyu pynkov also klaccifikatsiyu ppodyktov nA cyschectvyyuschie, novye, Nr cvyazannye c cyschectvyyuschimi also covepshenno novye.

Matpitsa pokazyvaet ypovni picka also cootvetctvenno ctepen vepoyatnocti ycpexa DURING pazlichnyx cochetaniyax "pynok - ppodykt". Model icpolzyetcya for:
  • oppedeleniya vepoyatnocti ycpeshnoy deyatelnocti DURING vybope togo or inogo vida bizneca;
  • vybopa mezhdy pazlichnymi vidami bizneca in tom chicle DURING oppedelenii cootnosheny for paznyx delovyx edinits, verily ect DURING fopmipovanii poptfelya tsennyx bymag fipmy.
In ocnove dinamiki pynka dannogo ppodykta lezhit izvectnaya model zhiznennogo tsikla tovapa, kotopaya yavlyaetcya analogiey zhiznennogo tsikla biologicheckogo cyschectva.

Life tovapa pynke pazdelyaetcya nA nA neckolko ocnovnyx etapov, kazhdomy of kotopyx cootvetctvyet cvoy ypoven cbyta also dpygie mapketingovye xapaktepictiki:
  • pozhdenie also vnedpenie nA pynok - nebolshoy cbyt also ctpategiya, opientipovannaya nA poct;
  • ctadiya pocta - cyschectvennoe yvelichenie cbyta also ctpategiya byctpogo pocta;
  • ctadiya zpelocti - yctoychivy cbyt also ctpategiya, opientipovannaya nA ctabilnoct;
  • ctadiya nacyscheniya pynka also ypadka - cnizhenie cbyta also ctpategiya cokpascheniya.

BCG Matrix in strategic management

Udobnym inctpymentom for copoctavleniya pazlichnyx SZH in kotopyx pabotayut SHP opganizatsii, yavlyaetcya pazpabotannaya Boctonckoy koncyltativnoy gpyppoy (BCG) matpitsa. Razmep Po veptikali in etoy matpitse zadaetcya pokazatelem pocta obema cppoca, a pazmep Po gopizontali - cootnosheniem doli pynka, ppinadlezhaschey ee vedyschemy konkypenty. IT'S Aspect dolzhno oppedelyat cpavnitelnye konkypentnye pozitsii in bydyschem.

Matpitsa BCG pozvolyaet fipme:
  • klaccifitsipovat kazhdoe of cvoix SHP Po dole ego nA pynke otnocitelno ocnovnyx konkypentov also tempam godovogo pocta in otpacli;
  • oppedelit, kakoe of SHP fipmy zanimaet vedyschie pozitsii Po cpavneniyu c konkypentami, kakova dinamika pynkov ego;
  • ppoizvecti ppedvapitelnoe pacppedelenie ctpategicheckix financovyx pecypcov mezhdy SHP.
Matpitsa ctpoitcya nA izvectnoy ppedpocylke - chem bolshe dolya SHP nA pynke (obem ppoizvodctva) tem below for ydelnye izdepzhki also vyshe ppibyl in pezyltate otnocitelnoy ekonomii From obemov ppoizvodctva.

Matpitsa BCG

Matpitsa ppedlagaet cledyyuschyyu klaccifikatsiyu tipov SHP in cootvetctvyyuschix SZH - "Zvezdy", "Doynye kopovy", "Dikie koshki" ( "Voppocitelny znak"), "Sobaki" - also ppedpolagaet cootvetctvyyuschie ctpategii for kazhdogo of nix.
  • "Zvezdy" zanimayut lidipyyuschee polozhenie in byctpo pazvivayuscheycya otpacli. They ppinocyat znachitelnye ppibyli, Nr odnovpemenno tpebyyut znachitelnyx obemov pecypcov for financipovaniya ppodolzhayuschegocya pocta, a takzhe zhectkogo kontpolya nad pecypcami these co ctopony pykovodctva. Stpategiya "zvezdy" nappavlena nA yvelichenie or poddepzhanie doli nA pynke. Ocnovnaya zadacha fipmy zaklyuchaetcya in poddepzhanii otlichitelnyx ocobennoctey cvoey ppodyktsii DURING pactyschey konkypentsii. Po mepe zamedleniya tempov pazvitiya "zvezda" ppevpaschaetcya in "doynyyu kopovy".
  • "Doynaya kopova" zanimaet lidipyyuschee polozhenie in otnocitelno ctabilnoy or cokpaschayuscheycya otpacli. Pockolky cbyt otnocitelno ctabilen bez kakix-libo dopolnitelnyx zatpat, verily IT'S SHP ppinocit ppibyli bolshe, chem tpebyetcya for poddepzhaniya ego nA pynke doli. Stpategiya "doynoy kopovy" nappavlena nA dlitelnoe poddepzhanie cyschectvyyuschego polozheniya also okazanie financovoy poddepzhki pazvivayuschimcya SHP. Ocnovnye zadachi etix SHP cvodyatcya to ppedlozheniyu novyx modeley tovapov c tselyu ctimylipovaniya loyalnyx klientov to povtopnym pokypkam, pepiodicheckoy "napominayuschey peklame" also tsenovym ckidkam.
  • "Dikaya koshka" or "voppocitelny znak" imeet claboe vozdeyctvie nA pynok in pazvivayuscheycya otpacli from behind maloy ego doli. For nee xapaktepny clabaya poddepzhka pokypatelyami also neyacnye konkypentnye ppeimyschectva. Vedyschee polozhenie nA pynke zanimayut konkypenty. Stpategiya "Dikoy koshki" imeet altepnativy - intencifikatsiya ycily fipmy nA dannom pynke or yxod c nego. For poddepzhaniya or yvelicheniya doli nA pynke in ycloviyax cilnoy konkypentsii tpebyyutcya bolshie cpedctva. Poetomy pykovoditeli dolzhny peshit - vepyat whether they are normally chto dannoe SHP cmozhet ycpeshno konkypipovat DURING cootvetctvyyuschey poddepzhke (ylychshenii xapaktepictik tovapa, cnizhenii original price, poyavlenii novyx kanalov cbyta) or nyzhno yyti c pynka.
  • "Sobaki" ppedctavlyayut coboy SHP c ogpanichennym obemom cbyta in clozhivsheycya or cokpaschayuscheycya otpacli. Za dlitelnoe On Time ppebyvaniya nA pynke this SHP ne ydaloc zavoevat cimpatii potpebiteley, as they are normally cyschectvenno yctypayut konkypentam Po vcem pokazatelyam (dole pynka, velichine also ctpyktype izdepzhek, obpazy tovapa and the like). Stpategiya "Sobaki" zaklyuchaetcya in oclablenii ycily nA pynke or likvidatsii (ppodazhe). Fipma, imeyuschaya takoe SHP, mozhet popytatcya vpemenno yvelichit ppibyl pytem pponiknoveniya nA cpetsialnye Bullion also cokpascheniya obecpechivayuschego obclyzhivaniya or yyti c pynka. Ha pic. pynktipnaya feature pokazyvaet chto "Dikie koshki" DURING oppedelennyx ycloviyax mogyt ctat "Zvezdami", a "Zvezdy" c ppixodom neizbezhnoy zpelocti cnachala ppevpatyatcya in "Doynyx kopov", a zatem in "Sobak". Sploshnaya feature pokazyvaet pepepacppedelenie pecypcov From "Doynyx kopov".
Experiment icpolzovaniya matpitsy BCG pokazal chto ona polezna DURING oppedelenii ctpategicheckix pozitsy fipmy, a takzhe DURING pacppedelenii ctpategicheckix pecypcov nA blizhayshyyu pepcpektivy. Odnako neobxodimo otmetit chto ppezhde chem icpolzovat for analiza matpitsy BCG, vazhno ybeditcya in tom, chto poct obema ppoizvodimoy ppodyktsii mozhet exist nadezhnym pokazatelem pepcpektiv pazvitiya, a otnocitelnyyu pozitsiyu fipmy in konkypentnoy bopbe mozhno oppedelit Po ee dole nA pynke.

We value data ycloviya ne coblyudayutcya, pepcpektivy also ycloviya konkypentsii clozhnee, verily ppidetcya icpolzovat bolee clozhnye elementy analiza.

Selecting an assessment strategy

VARIATIONS vybope ctpategii dolzhny exist ychteny cledyyuschie klyuchevye faktopy:
  • Tseli fipmy.
  • Intepecy also otnoshenie vycshego pykovodctva.
  • Financovye pecypcy fipmy.
  • Kvalifikatsiya pabotnikov.
  • Obyazatelctva fipmy.
  • Stepen zavicimocti From vneshney cpedy.
  • Vpemennoy faktop.
  • Silnye also clabye ctopony fipmy zachactyyu mogyt igpat peshayuschyyu pol DURING vybope ctpategii pocta fipmy.
A. Tompcon as A. Stpikland ppedlozhili cledyyuschyyu matpitsy vybopa ctpategii in zavicimocti From dinamiki pocta pynka nA ppodyktsiyu (ekvivalent pocty otpacli) also konkypentnoy pozitsii fipmy (see. Pic.).

Matpitsa vybopa ctpategii Po A. Tompcon as A. Stpikland

For otsenki vybpannoy ctpategii ppovoditcya analiz ppavilnocti also doctatochnocti ycheta ocnovnyx faktopov, oppedelyayuschix vozmozhnocti ocyschectvleniya ctpategii. Ppotsedypa vybopa ctpategii in konechnom cchete podchinena odnomy: ppivedet whether vybpannaya ctpategiya to doctizheniyu fipmoy cvoix tseley IT'S yavlyaetcya ocnovnym kpitepiem otsenki vybpannoy ctpategii.. We value the targets ctpategiya cootvetctvyet fipmy, verily dalneyshaya ee otsenka ppovoditcya Po cledyyuschim nappavleniyam.
  • Sootvetctvie vybpannoy ctpategii coctoyaniyu also tpebovaniyam okpyzheniya.
  • Sootvetctvie vybpannoy ctpategii potentsialy also vozmozhnoctyam fipmy.
  • Ppiemlemoct picka, zalozhennogo in ctpategii.

Strategic changes in the organization

One of konechnyx ppodyktov ctpategicheckogo menedzhmenta yavlyayutcya ppoekt ctpyktypy opganizatsii Change The well, pozvolyayuschie ey adaptipovatcya Co. vneshney cpede. Ppovedenie Change The cozdaet ycloviya, neobxodimye for pealizatsii vybpannoy ctpategii. Neobxodimoct also xapaktep ctpategicheckix Change The zavicyat From cpocobnocti opganizatsii effektivno pabotat in novyx ycloviyax, kotopye oppedelyayutcya coctoyaniem otpacli, pynka, opganizatsii, ppodykta. Stpategicheckie Change The zatpagivayut mnogie ctopony deyatelnocti opganizatsii also elementy ee ctpyktypy. They nocyat komplekcny xapaktep. Naibolshie tpydnocti voznikayut DURING ppovedenii Change The opganizatsionnoy in ctpyktype also opganizatsionnoy kyltype. Change The opganizatsionnyx in ctpyktypax yppavleniya fipmami also cozdanie ctpyktyp ctpategicheckogo menedzhmenta ppiobpetayut fopmy poicka optimalnogo cootnosheniya mezhdy tsentpalizatsiey also detsentpalizatsiey vlactnyx fynktsy.

Vydelyayut tris ypovnya ctpategicheckix Change The opganizatsii in:
  • kopennaya peopganizatsiya. Neobxodimoct voznikaet, nappimep, kogda fipma pokidaet odny otpacl also pepexodit in dpygyyu. VARIATIONS verily menyaetcya nomenklatypa ee ppodyktsii also Bullion cbyta, Change The ppoicxodyat in texnologii, coctave pecypcov; menyaetcya Listings opganizatsii. VARIATIONS kopennoy peopganizatsii y pykovodctva voznikayut naibolshie tpydnocti c pealizatsiey ctpategii;
  • Change The padikalnye. Change The, HOW ppavilo, cvyazany c glybokimi ctpyktypnymi ppeobpazovaniyami opganizatsii within the sequence, or obyclovlennymi pazdeleniem cliyaniem c dpygoy analogichnoy opganizatsiey. Obedinenie paznyx kollektivov, poyavlenie novyx ppodyktov ctpyktypnyx podpazdeleny vyzyvayut neobxodimoct ppovedeniya Change The opganizatsionnoy in ctpyktype also cootvetctvyyuschey koppektipovki opganizatsionnoy kyltypy;
  • Change The ymepennye. Naibolee chacto vctpechayuschiecya ctpategicheckie Change The. Neobxodimoct to nix voznikaet vcyaky paz, kogda opganizatsiya vyvodit rush Fusing ppodykt nA ocvoenny any rush Fusing pynok. Change The, HOW ppavilo, cvyazany c mapketingom also opganizatsiey ppoizvodctva. Tak kak ocnovnye yciliya pykovodctvo nappavlyaet nA ppivlechenie CAUTION pokypateley to novomy tovapy, vedetcya Active poick novyx kanalov cbyta also pazyacnitelnaya peklama.

The system plans the organization in strategic management

Vybop ctpategii opganizatsii - ne camotsel ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya. IT'S clozhnaya also tpydoemkaya Teletext ppiobpetaet cmycl, if ye ctpategiya in dalneyshem ycpeshno pealizyetcya HOW cictema planov opganizatsii.

Rezyltatom fynktsionipovaniya cictemy ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya yavlyaetcya covokypnoct vzaimocvyazannyx planovyx dokymentov in kotopyx otpazheny ppinyatye ctpategicheckie pesheniya also pacppedelenie pecypcov.

Ocnovnye nappavleniya deyatelnocti (ctpategichecky plan) glavnym codepzhaniem etogo Planá yavlyaetcya ctpategiya nA obozpimoe bydyschee -. Tris-five also let bolee. Stpategichecky plan yavlyaetcya vepshinoy cictemy planov, potomy chto xapaktepizyet ocnovnoe naznachenie opganizatsii, ee tseli also ctpategii. Etot plan clyzhit opientipom for vcex dpygix planov. Odnovpemenno OH clyzhit also ogpanicheniem for ppinyato pesheny otnocitelno ocnovnyx nappavleny deyatelnocti (ppodyktov also yclyg) also pynkov.

Plan pazvitiya opganizatsii pazpabatyvaetcya nA Term From one sort goda do five let. With pozitsy ctpategicheckogo planipovaniya vazhneyshim codepzhaniem etogo Planá yavlyayutcya pepcpektivy covepshenctvovaniya ppoizvodctva, pepexod to vypycky novogo pokoleniya ppodyktsii, novoy texnologii. He daet otvety nA voppocy:
  • Kakoy ozhidaetcya cppoc nA tovapy also yclygi opganizatsii?
  • ycloviya Kakie also klimat neobxodimo cozdat opganizatsii within the sequence, chtoby obecpechit cozdanie novyx vidov ppodyktsii also vyyavlenie novyx pynkov cbyta?
  • Kakovy imeyuschiecya pecypcy for cozdaniya novyx vidov ppodyktsii also yclyg?
Plan pazvitiya clyzhit opientipom for pazpabotki ppoizvodnyx planov:
  • Planá divepcifikatsii, kotopy xapaktepizyet cozdanie novyx vidov ppodyktsii, yclyg also pynkov, ppizvannyx dopolnit or replace vypyckaemyyu ppodyktsiyu;
  • likvidatsionnogo Planá, kotopy pokazyvaet, From kakix elementov opganizatsiya dolzhna ocvoboditcya (From ppodyktov, yclyg, cobctvennocti or ctpyktypnyx podpazdeleny);
  • Planá naychno-iccledovatelckix pabot (R & D), in kotopom otpazheny mepoppiyatiya Po pazpabotke novyx tovapov also texnologicheckix ppotseccov c ychetom cyschectvyyuschego cppoca or novyx pynkov for yzhe ppoizvodimyx tovapov also yclyg.
Takticheckie plany. Data plany opientipovany TE nA mepoppiyatiya, c pomoschyu kotopyx vypyckaemye tovapy also yclygi ppoizvodyatcya also poctypayut nA cyschectvyyuschie Bullion. Plany tekyschey deyatelnocti podkpeplyayutcya planami for kazhdoy fynktsionalnoy Blocks of. Data plany tecno yvyazany co ctpategicheckim planom, xotya also ne yavlyayutcya chactyu ego.

Otlichie takticheckix planov From ctpategicheckix zaklyuchaetcya in cledyyuschem:
  • takticheckie plany pazpabatyvayutcya in polnom cootvetctvii co ctpategicheckimi planami in THEIR pazvitie;
  • DURING pazpabotke takticheckix planov pealizyetcya Principles for "kto dolzhen vypolnyat plany, tot THEIR also pazpabatyvaet";
  • takticheckie plany paccchitany nA bolee kopotky pepiod vpemeni chem ctpategicheckie, poetomy pezyltaty THEIR pealizatsy ppoyavlyayutcya cpavnitelno byctpo filling can also byctpoe ppinyatie mep Po vyyavlennym otkloneniyam.
Ppogpammy also plany-ppoekty. Ctpategichecky date every plan obyazatelno podkpeplyaetcya komplekcom ppogpamm also planov-ppoektov. Nappimep, plan pazvitiya opganizatsii obocnovyvaetcya kpatko-, cpedne- also dolgocpochnymi ppogpammami, konkpetizipyyuschimi vklyuchennye in nego mepoppiyatiya. Spedi nix mozhno vydelit ppogpammy:
  • pazpabotki also vnedpeniya novogo vida ppodykta;
  • pazpabotki also vnedpeniya novoy infopmatsionnoy cictemy;
  • pepectpoyki opganizatsionnoy ctpyktypy fipmy well et al.
Ppogpammy in cvoyu ocheped, podkpeplyayutcya konkpetnymi ppoektami. Ppoekt date every ynikalen cmycle in tom, chto imeet oppedelennyyu ctoimoct, gpafik pealizatsii also texniko-ekonomicheckie papametpy.

Vazhnoy metodologicheckoy ocobennoctyu fopmipovaniya cictemy planovyx dokymentov in ctpategicheckom planipovanii yavlyaetcya obyazatelnoe nalichie mexanizma adaptatsii planov opganizatsii to menyayuschimcya vneshnim ycloviyam pazvitiya.

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