The best visual animated model of the universe
The Universe is not a strictly defined concept in astronomy and philosophy. It is divided into two fundamentally different entities: speculative (philosophical) and material, accessible to observations at present or in the foreseeable future. If the author distinguishes between these entities, then, following tradition, the first is called the Universe, and the second is called the astronomical Universe or the Metagalaxy (recently this term has almost gone out of use). The universe is the subject of cosmology research.
In the historical plan, various words were used to designate “the whole space”, including equivalents and variants from various languages, such as “space”, “world”, “celestial sphere”. The term “macrocosmos” was also used, although it is intended to define large-scale systems, including their subsystems and parts. Similarly, the word microcosmos is used to refer to small-scale systems.
Everything is relative. Cognitive thing.
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Any research, any observation, whether it is a physicist’s observation of how the nucleus of an atom, a child of a cat, or an astronomer who observes a far-distant galaxy breaks, is all observation of the Universe, or rather, of its individual parts. These parts are the subject of study of individual sciences, and the universe on the largest possible scale, and even the universe as a whole, is occupied by astronomy and cosmology; in this case, the Universe is understood either as the region of the world covered by observations and space experiments, or the object of cosmological extrapolations - the physical Universe as a whole.
The subject of this article is knowledge of the observable Universe as a single whole: observations, their theoretical interpretation and history of formation.
Among the unambiguously interpreted facts regarding the properties of the Universe, here are the following:
|The most common element is hydrogen.||Expansion of the Universe with good accuracy linearly to z ~ 0.1||The relict background fluctuates on the scales of the fourth order of smallness.|
|The temperature of the relict background depends on z .||The presence of L Alpha forests in the spectra of distant objects (quasars) with z > 6.||The presence of strong heterogeneity in the distribution of galaxies at scales <100 Mpc.|
The theoretical explanations and descriptions of these phenomena are based on the cosmological principle, the essence of which is that observers, regardless of the place and direction of observation, on average discover the same picture. Theories themselves seek to explain and describe the origin of chemical elements, the course of development and the cause of expansion, the emergence of a large-scale structure.
The first significant push towards modern ideas about the Universe was made by Copernicus. The second largest contribution was made by Kepler and Newton. But truly revolutionary changes in our ideas about the Universe occur only in the 20th century.
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