The best visual animated model of the universe
The universe is not strictly defined in astronomy and philosophy. It is divided into two fundamentally different entities: speculative (philosophical) and material, available to observations now or in the foreseeable future. If the author distinguishes these entities, then, following tradition, the former is called the Universe, and the second is called the astronomical Universe or the Metagalaxy (in recent times this term has practically disappeared). The universe is the subject of cosmology research.
Historically, various words were used to refer to "the whole space", including equivalents and variants from different languages, such as "space", "world", "heavenly sphere". The term "macrocosmos" was also used, although it is intended for the definition of large scale systems, including their subsystems and parts. Similarly, the word "microcosm" is used to refer to systems of small scale.
Everything is relative. Cognitive thing.
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Any research, any observation, whether watching a physicist behind how the nucleus of an atom, a child after a cat, or an astronomer observing a remote, distant galaxy is split, is all the observation of the universe, or rather, of its individual parts. These parts are the subject of the study of individual sciences, and the universe as large as possible, and even the universe as a whole are engaged in astronomy and cosmology; while the universe is understood to be either the region of the world covered by observations and cosmic experiments, or the object of cosmological extrapolations - the physical universe as a whole.
The subject of the article is knowledge about the observed universe as a single whole: observations, their theoretical interpretation and the history of formation.
Among the unambiguously interpreted facts about the properties of the universe, we give here the following:
|The most common element is hydrogen.||The expansion of the universe with a good accuracy is linear up to z ~ 0.1||Relict background fluctuates on scales of the fourth order of smallness.|
|The background temperature depends on z .||The presence of L Alpha- las in the spectra of distant objects (quasars) with z > 6.||The presence of a strong inhomogeneity in the distribution of galaxies at scales of <100 Mpc.|
The theoretical explanations and descriptions of these phenomena are based on the cosmological principle, the essence of which is that observers, on the average, find the same picture, regardless of the place and direction of observation. Theories themselves tend to explain and describe the origin of chemical elements, the course of development and the cause of expansion, the emergence of a large-scale structure.
The first significant push towards modern ideas about the universe was made by Copernicus. The second largest contribution was made by Kepler and Newton. But truly revolutionary changes in our ideas about the universe occur only in the twentieth century.
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