The best visual animated model of the universe
The Universe is a non-rigorous concept in astronomy and philosophy. It is divided into two fundamentally different entities: speculative (philosophical) and material, accessible to observations in the present or in the foreseeable future. If the author distinguishes between these entities, then, following the tradition, the first is called the Universe, and the second - the astronomical Universe or Metagalaxy (recently this term has practically gone out of use). The universe is the subject of cosmology research.
Historically, various words have been used to designate “whole space”, including equivalents and variations from different languages, such as “space”, “world”, “celestial sphere”. The term “macrocosm” was also used, although it is intended to define large-scale systems, including their subsystems and parts. Similarly, the word "microcosm" is used to refer to small scale systems.
Everything is relative. The cognitive thing.
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Any research, any observation, whether it is a physicist's observation of how a nucleus of an atom, a child of a cat or an astronomer conducting an observation of a distant galaxy splits, is all this observation of the universe, or rather, of its individual parts. These parts are the subject of study of individual sciences, and astronomy and cosmology are engaged in the Universe on the largest scale, and even on the Universe as a whole; in this case, the Universe is understood as either a region of the world covered by observations and space experiments, or an object of cosmological extrapolations — the physical Universe as a whole.
The subject of the article is knowledge about the observable Universe as a single whole: observations, their theoretical interpretation and the history of formation.
Among the unambiguously interpreted facts regarding the properties of the universe, we give here the following:
|The most common element is hydrogen.||Expansion of the Universe with good accuracy is linear to z ~ 0.1||Relic background fluctuates on the fourth order of small scale.|
|The background temperature of the background depends on z .||The presence of L Alpha forest in the spectra of distant objects (quasars) with z > 6.||The presence of strong inhomogeneity in the distribution of galaxies on scales <100 Mpc.|
The cosmological principle is the basis for theoretical explanations and descriptions of these phenomena, the essence of which is that observers, regardless of the place and direction of observation, on average find the same picture. Theories themselves tend to explain and describe the origin of chemical elements, the course of development and the reason for expansion, the emergence of a large-scale structure.
The first significant push towards modern ideas about the Universe was made by Copernicus. The second largest contribution was made by Kepler and Newton. But truly revolutionary changes in our ideas about the Universe occur only in the XX century.
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