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The 25th anniversary of the Hubble telescope: the best photos of space

25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса
Photo: NASA / Hubble

25 years ago, the Hubble Automatic Observatory was launched aboard the NASA Discovery space shuttle into a low orbit 560 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The total project costs, estimated for 1999, amounted to $ 6 billion from the US side and 593 million euros paid by the European Space Agency.

For a quarter century of the tool’s work, the information on outer space that he received was enough to publish about 13 thousand research papers. In addition, the orbiting telescope, which still rotates around the Earth at a speed of about 27 thousand km / h, took more than 1 million photographs, which can be used to judge the structure available for the study of the Universe.

Hubble, named after designer and inventor Edwin Hubble, is by far the most powerful orbiting telescope. At the same time, NASA plans to replace it with a more sophisticated orbiting observatory, James Webb, with a mirror with a diameter of 6.5 m (Hubble - 2.4 m). This will happen in the next few years.

The selection contains some of the best photographs of galaxies, nebulae, stars and planets made by the telescope in both visible and ultraviolet and infrared light. Most of the pictures went through post-processing.

Horsehead Nebula

Туманность Конская Голова - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Hubble’s team annually releases stunning photography to celebrate the anniversary of the launch of the space telescope on April 24, 1990. This time they presented to the world a photograph of the famous Horsehead Nebula, which is located in the constellation Orion 1500 light years from Earth.

NGC 5194

NGC 5194 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This large galaxy may have been the first spiral nebula discovered. It is clearly seen that its arms and dust bands pass in front of the satellite galaxy (left). This pair is located at a distance of about 31 million light-years and officially belongs to the small constellation Hounds Dogs.

Spiral Galaxy M33

Спиральная галактика M33 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The medium-sized galaxy M33 is also called the Galaxy in the Triangle by the name of the constellation in which it is located. It is about 4 times smaller in radius than our Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy. M33 is located not far from the Milky Way, its angular dimensions are twice the size of the full moon, and it is clearly visible with good binoculars.

The Stephen Quintet

Квинтет Стефана - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This group of galaxies is called the Stefan quintet. However, only four galaxies from this group, located three hundred million light-years from us, participate in space dance, now moving closer, or moving away from each other. Excess is quite simple to find. Four interacting galaxies have a yellowish color and curved loops and tails, the shape of which is due to the influence of destructive tidal gravitational forces. The bluish galaxy located in the upper left picture is much closer than the rest, just 40 million light-years from us.

Andromeda Galaxy

Галактика Андромеды - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Andromeda Galaxy - the closest to our Milky Way of the giant galaxies. Most likely, our galaxy looks about the same as this one. The hundreds of billions of stars that make up the Andromeda galaxy together give a visible diffuse glow. The individual stars in the image are actually the stars of our Galaxy, located much closer to the distant object.

Lagoon nebula

Туманность Лагуна - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

There are many different astronomical objects in the vibrant Lagoon Nebula. Particularly interesting objects include a bright open star cluster and several active star formation regions.

Cat eye nebula

Туманность Кошачий глаз - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Cat's Eye Nebula is one of the most famous planetary nebulae in the sky. Its memorable symmetrical forms are visible in the central part of this spectacular image in artificial colors, specially processed in order to show a huge, but very weak halo of a gaseous substance having a diameter of about three light years.

Chameleon constellation

Созвездие Хамелеона - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The small constellation Chameleon is located near the South Pole of the World. The picture reveals the amazing features of a modest constellation, which reveals many dusty nebulae and multi-colored stars. Blue reflective nebulae are scattered across the field.

Nebula Sh2-136

Туманность Sh2-136 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Cosmic dust clouds, faintly glowing with reflected starlight, are hiding on the edge of the complex of molecular clouds Halo Cepheus, which is 1,200 light-years distant from us.

Crab Nebula

Крабовидная туманность - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This confusion remained after the explosion of a star. The crab nebula is the result of a supernova explosion that was observed in 1054 AD. The supernova remnant is filled with mysterious fibers. The length of the Crab Nebula is ten light years. At the very center of the nebula is a pulsar - a neutron star with a mass equal to the mass of the Sun, which fits in an area the size of a small town.

Gravity Lens Mirage

Мираж от гравитационной линзы - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This is a mirage from a gravitational lens. The bright red galaxy depicted in this photograph distorted light from a more distant blue galaxy with its gravity. Most often, such a distortion of light leads to the appearance of two images of a distant galaxy, however, in the case of a very precise superposition of the galaxy and the gravitational lens, the images merge into a horseshoe - an almost closed ring. This effect was predicted by Albert Einstein 70 years ago.

Star V838 Mon

Звезда V838 Mon - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

For unknown reasons, in January 2002, the outer shell of the V838 Mon star suddenly expanded, making this star the brightest in the entire Milky Way. Then she also suddenly became weak. Astronomers had never seen such a flash before.

Planet birth

Рождение планет - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

How are planets formed? To try to figure this out, the Hubble Space Telescope was tasked with staring at one of the most interesting nebulae in the sky - the Great Orion Nebula. The Orion Nebula can be seen with the naked eye near the belt of the constellation Orion. The insets in this photo show numerous props, many of them are star nurseries, in which, probably, the forming planetary systems are located.

Star cluster R136

Звездное скопление R136 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

In the center of the star-forming region of the Golden Fish is a gigantic cluster of the largest, hottest and most massive of all the stars known to us. These stars form a cluster captured in this image.

Galaxy Silver Dollar

Галактика Серебряный Доллар - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The brilliant NGC 253 is one of the brightest spiral galaxies we see, and at the same time one of the most dusty. Some call it the Silver Dollar Galaxy. Others simply call it the “Galaxy in the Sculptor” because it is located within the southern constellation Sculptor. This dusty galaxy is 10 million light-years away from us.

Galaxy M83

Галактика M83 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

One of the closest spiral galaxies to us. From a distance that separates us from her, equal to 15 million light-years, she looks completely ordinary. However, if you look in more detail at the center of M83 with the help of the largest telescopes, this area will appear before us as a stormy and noisy place.

Nebula Ring

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

She really looks like a ring in the sky. Therefore, hundreds of years ago, astronomers called this nebula according to its unusual shape. It belongs to the class of planetary nebulae. These are gas clouds that emit stars that look like the Sun at the end of their lives. One of the earliest shots of Hubble.

Pillar and Jets in the Carina Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This cosmic gas and dust pillar is two light years wide. The structure is located in one of the largest star-forming regions of our Galaxy, the Carina Nebula, which is visible in the southern sky and is 7500 light-years distant from us.

Omega Centauri Globular Cluster Center

Центр шарового скопления Омега Центавра - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

In the center of the Omega Centauri globular cluster, stars are packed ten thousand times denser than in the vicinity of the Sun. The image shows a lot of faint yellow-white stars, smaller than our Sun, several orange red giants, as well as random blue stars. If suddenly two stars collide, then one more massive star may form, or they form a new binary system.

A giant cluster distorts and splits the image of the galaxy

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This image is of a single unusual, bead-like, blue ring-shaped galaxy, which by chance turned out to be located behind a giant cluster of galaxies. According to recent studies, all in all, at least 330 images of individual distant galaxies can be found in the picture. This magnificent photograph was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in November 2004.

Three Particle Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Multi-colored Three-part nebula allows you to explore cosmic contrasts. Also known as M20, it is located at a distance of about 5 thousand light-years in the nebula-rich constellation Sagittarius. The size of the nebula is about 40 light years.

Centaurus A

Центавр А - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

A fantastic bunch of young blue star clusters, giant luminous gas clouds and dark dust veins surround the central region of the active galaxy Centaurus A. Centaurus A is located close to Earth, at a distance of 10 million light-years.

Butterfly Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Bright clusters and nebulae in the night sky of planet Earth are often given names by the names of flowers or insects, and the nebula NGC 6302 is no exception. The central star of this planetary nebula is extremely hot: its surface temperature is about 250 thousand degrees Celsius.

Supernova

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Image of a supernova that erupted in 1994 on the outskirts of a spiral galaxy.

Two colliding galaxies with merged spiral arms

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This wonderful space portrait depicts two colliding galaxies with merged spiral arms. Above and to the left of the large spiral galaxy, you can see the third galaxy, which is also probably involved in the interaction. All these galaxies are located at a distance of about 450 million light-years from us in the cluster of galaxies in Hercules. At this distance, the image covers an area of ​​more than 150 thousand light years. And although this species seems very unusual, now scientists know that collisions and subsequent mergers of galaxies are not uncommon.

Spiral Galaxy NGC 3521

Спиральная галактика NGC 3521 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The spiral galaxy NGC 3521 is only 35 million light-years from us in the direction of the constellation Leo. The galaxy, spanning 50,000 light-years, has features such as torn spiral arms of irregular shape, decorated with dust, pink areas of star formation and clusters of young bluish stars.

Galaxy sombrero

Галактика Сомбреро - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The appearance of the galaxy M104 resembles a hat, which is why it was called the Sombrero galaxy. The picture shows distinct dark streaks of dust and a bright halo of stars and globular clusters. The reasons why the Sombrero galaxy looks like a hat are the unusually large central star bulge and dense dark streaks of dust located in the disk of the galaxy, which we see almost from the edge.

M17: close-up view

M17: вид крупным планом - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Formed by stellar winds and radiation, these fantastic, wave-like formations are in the Omega nebula and enter the region of star formation. The Omega Nebula is located in the nebula-rich constellation Sagittarius and is located at a distance of 5500 light-years. Ragged condensations of dense and cold gas and dust are illuminated by the radiation of stars in the image at the top right, in the future they may become star-forming sites.

Nebula IRAS 05437 + 2502

Туманность IRAS 05437+2502 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

It is not yet known what illuminates this nebula. Particularly mysterious is the bright arc in the form of an inverted letter V, which outlines the upper edge of mountains-like clouds of interstellar dust located near the center of the picture. In general, this ghost-like nebula includes a small star-forming region filled with dark dust. It was first seen in images taken by the IRAS satellite in infrared in 1983. Shown here is a wonderful, recently published image from the Hubble Space Telescope. Although a lot of new details are visible on it, the reason for the appearance of a bright, clear arc could not be established.

Galaxy Pinwheel

Галактика Вертушка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Jupiter in natural color

Юпитер в естественном цвете - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Arp 273 - a group of interacting galaxies in the constellation Andromeda

Arp 273 — группа взаимодействующих галактик в созвездии Андромеды - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation Centaurus

Центавр A (NGC 5128) — линзообразная галактика в созвездии Центавр - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 1300 - a spiral galaxy in the constellation Eridanus

NGC 1300 — спиральная галактика в созвездии Эридан - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Fragment of the Nebula M16 Eagle

Фрагмент туманности М16 Орел - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 2207 - a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Canis Major

NGC 2207 — пара взаимодействующих галактик в созвездии Большой Пёс - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070)

Туманность Тарантул (NGC 2070) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 2841 - a spiral galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major

NGC 2841 — спиральная галактика в созвездии Большая Медведица - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Hourglass Nebula

Туманность Песочные Часы - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 4038 - Galaxy in the constellation Raven

NGC 4038 — галактика в созвездии Ворон - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Orion Nebula

Туманность Ориона - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 4921 - Galaxy in the constellation Veronica Hair

NGC 4921 — галактика в созвездии Волосы Вероники - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Kreen Nebula

Туманность Крина - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 6217 - a spiral galaxy with a jumper in the constellation Ursa Minor

NGC 6217 — спиральная галактика с перемычкой в созвездии Малая Медведица - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Cat Eye Nebula

Туманность Кошачий Глаз - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Cluster NGC 6535

Кластер NGC 6535 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Horsehead Nebula

Туманность Конская Голова - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 1672

Галактика NGC 1672 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Nebula Ring

Туманность Кольцо - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Active Starburst Galaxy NGC 4449

Галактика NGC 4449 с активным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Carina Nebula

Туманность Карина - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 4522 with a jumper in the constellation Virgo

Галактика NGC 4522 с перемычкой в созвездии Дева - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Monkey Head Nebula

Туманность Голова Обезьяны - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Spindle Galaxy (NGC 5866)

Галактика Веретено (NGC 5866) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Eye of God Nebula (NGC 7293)

Туманность Глаз Бога (NGC 7293) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy Pinwheel

Галактика Вертушка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Butterfly Nebula

Туманность Бабочка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy "Tadpole"

Галактика Головастик - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula NGC 5189

Туманность NGC 5189 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)

Галактика Водоворот (M51) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Pillars of Creation Nebula

Туманность Столпы творения - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy with jumper NGC 5584

Галактика с перемычкой NGC 5584 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Cigar Galaxy (NGC 3034) with powerful star formation

Галактика Сигара (NGC 3034) с мощным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Saturn in natural color

Сатурн в естественном цвете - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy Sombrero (Messier 110)

Галактика Сомбреро (Messier 110) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Two spiral galaxies in the constellation Veronica Hair

Две спиральные галактики в созвездии Волосы Вероники - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Dense Star Region

Регион с плотным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Another dense starburst region

Еще один регион с плотным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Planet Nebula Red Spider

Планетарная туманность Красный Паук - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

RS Puppis Star

Звезда RS Puppis - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Planetary Nebula IC 4406 (Dying Star)

Планетарная туманность IC 4406 (умирающая звезда) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Star Cluster Westerlund 2

Звездное скопление Westerlund 2 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Mystic Mountain - a fragment of the Carina Nebula

Мистическая гора — фрагмент туманности Киля - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Star-forming Nebula NGC 3603

Звездообразующая туманность NGC 3603 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy Perseus A (NGC 1275)

Галактика Персей A (NGC 1275) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Stephen's Quintet - a group of five galaxies in the constellation Pegasus

Квинтет Стефана — группа из пяти галактик в созвездии Пегаса - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 7049 in the constellation Native American

Галактика NGC 7049 в созвездии Индеец - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Crab Nebula

Крабовидная туманность - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Shuttle launch with Hubble aboard

Старт шаттла с Хабблом на борту - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса