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25th anniversary of the Hubble telescope: the best photos of the cosmos

25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса
Photo: NASA / Hubble

25 years ago, an automatic Hubble Observatory was launched aboard the NASA space shuttle Spacecraft to a low orbit 560 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The total cost of the project, according to 1999, amounted to $ 6 billion from the American side and 593 million euros paid by the European Space Agency.

For a quarter of a century, the work of the tool of the information on outer space received by him was enough to publish about 13 thousand research papers. In addition, the orbital telescope, which still revolves around the Earth at a speed of about 27 thousand km / h, took more than 1 million photographs from which one can judge the structure available for studying the Universe.

Hubble, named after designer and inventor Edwin Hubble, is by far the most powerful orbital telescope. At the same time, NASA plans to replace it with the more advanced orbital observatory "James Webb" with a mirror diameter of 6.5 m (Hubble - 2.4 m). This will happen in the next few years.

The collection contains some of the best photographs of galaxies, nebulae, stars, and planets, taken with a telescope in both visible and ultraviolet and infrared light. Most of the images were post-processed.

Horsehead Nebula

Туманность Конская Голова - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Hubble team annually releases a stunning photograph to celebrate the anniversary of the launch of the space telescope on April 24, 1990. This time they presented to the world a photograph of the famous Horsehead Nebula, which is located in the constellation Orion 1500 light years from Earth.

NGC 5194

NGC 5194 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This large galaxy may have been the first spiral nebula discovered. It is clearly seen that its sleeves and dust bands pass in front of the satellite galaxy (left). This pair is about 31 million light-years away and officially belongs to the small constellation of the Hounds of Dogs.

Spiral Galaxy M33

Спиральная галактика M33 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The medium-sized galaxy M33 is also called the galaxy in the Triangle named after the constellation in which it is located. It is about 4 times smaller in radius than our Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy. M33 is located near the Milky Way, its angular size is twice the size of the full moon, and it can be clearly seen in good binoculars.

Stephan's Quintet

Квинтет Стефана - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This group of galaxies is called Stephen's Quintet. However, only four galaxies from this group, located three hundred million light years from us, participate in a cosmic dance, now drawing closer, now moving away from each other. The extra is quite simple to find. Four interacting galaxies have a yellowish color and curved loops and tails, the shape of which is due to the influence of destructive tidal gravitational forces. The bluish galaxy, located in the picture at the top left, is much closer than the rest, just 40 million light years away.

Andromeda Galaxy

Галактика Андромеды - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Andromeda Galaxy is the closest to our Milky Way from the giant galaxies. Most likely, our galaxy looks about the same as this one. The hundreds of billions of stars that make up the Andromeda galaxy together produce a visible diffuse glow. The individual stars in the image are in fact the stars of our Galaxy, located much closer to a distant object.

Lagoon Nebula

Туманность Лагуна - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

In the bright nebula Laguna there are many different astronomical objects. Particularly interesting objects include a bright open cluster of stars and several active star-forming regions.

Feline Nebula

Туманность Кошачий глаз - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The cat's eye nebula is one of the most famous planetary nebulae in the sky. Its memorable symmetrical forms are visible in the central part of this spectacular image in artificial colors, specially processed in order to show the huge, but very weak halo of a gaseous substance having a diameter of about three light years.

Chameleon Constellation

Созвездие Хамелеона - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The small constellation Chameleon is located near the south pole of the World. The picture reveals the amazing features of a modest constellation, in which many dust nebulae and multi-colored stars are found. Blue reflective nebulae are scattered across the field.

Sh2-136 Nebula

Туманность Sh2-136 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Cosmic dust clouds, faintly glowing with reflected starlight, hide on the edge of the complex of molecular clouds Aura of Cepheus, 1,200 light-years distant from us.

Crab Nebula

Крабовидная туманность - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This confusion remained after the explosion of the star. The Crab Nebula is the result of a supernova explosion that was observed in 1054 AD. The supernova remnant is filled with mysterious fibers. The length of the Crab Nebula is ten light years. In the very center of the nebula is a pulsar - a neutron star with a mass equal to the mass of the Sun, which fits in an area the size of a small town.

Mirage from a gravitational lens

Мираж от гравитационной линзы - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This is a mirage from a gravitational lens. The bright red galaxy depicted in this photo distorted the light from a more distant blue galaxy by its gravity. Most often, such a distortion of light leads to the appearance of two images of a distant galaxy, but in the case of a very precise superposition of the galaxy and a gravitational lens, the images merge into a horseshoe - an almost closed ring. This effect was predicted by Albert Einstein 70 years ago.

Star V838 Mon

Звезда V838 Mon - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

For unknown reasons, in January 2002, the outer shell of the V838 Mon star suddenly expanded, making it the brightest star in the entire Milky Way. Then she also suddenly became weak. Astronomers have never seen such a flash before.

The birth of planets

Рождение планет - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

How are the planets formed? To try to figure it out, the Hubble Space Telescope was instructed to look closely at one of the most interesting of all the nebulae in the sky - the Great Orion Nebula. The Orion Nebula can be seen with the naked eye near the belt of the Orion constellation. The inserts in this photo show numerous proplids, many of them are stellar nurseries, in which probably planetary systems are forming.

R136 star cluster

Звездное скопление R136 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

In the center of the starfish region of Golden Fish is a giant cluster of the largest, hottest and massive among all the known stars. These stars form a cluster, captured in this image.

Galaxy Silver Dollar

Галактика Серебряный Доллар - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The brilliant NGC 253 is one of the brightest spiral galaxies that we see, and at the same time one of the most dusty. Some call it the Silver Dollar Galaxy. Others simply call it the “Sculptor Galaxy” because it lies within the southern constellation Sculptor. This dusty galaxy is 10 million light-years away.

Galaxy M83

Галактика M83 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

One of the closest spiral galaxies to us. From a distance that divides us with it, equal to 15 million light years, it looks quite ordinary. However, if you look more closely at the center of the M83 using the largest telescopes, this area will appear in front of us as a tumultuous and noisy place.

Nebula Ring

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

She really looks like a ring in the sky. Therefore, hundreds of years ago, astronomers named this nebula according to its unusual shape. It belongs to the class of planetary nebulae. These are gas clouds that emit stars that look like the sun at the end of their lives. One of the earliest snapshots of Hubble.

Pillar and Jets in the Carina Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This cosmic gas and dust pillar is two light years wide. The structure is located in one of the largest star-forming regions of our Galaxy, the Carina Nebula, which is visible in the southern sky and is 7,500 light-years away.

Ball Center Omega Centauri

Центр шарового скопления Омега Центавра - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

In the center of the Omega Centaurius globular cluster, the stars are packed ten thousand times denser than in the vicinity of the Sun. The image shows a lot of faint yellow-white stars, smaller than our Sun, a few orange red giants, as well as random blue stars. If suddenly two stars collide, one more massive star may form, or they form a new binary system.

The giant cluster distorts and splits the image of the galaxy.

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

This is an image of a single unusual, bead-like, blue ring-shaped galaxy, which by chance turned out to be located behind a giant cluster of galaxies. According to recent studies, just in the picture you can find at least 330 images of individual distant galaxies. This magnificent photograph was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in November 2004.

Trifid Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Multicolored Trifidium Nebula allows you to explore cosmic contrasts. Also known as M20, it is about 5,000 light-years away in the nebula-rich constellation Sagittarius. The size of the nebula is about 40 light years.

Centaurus A

Центавр А - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

A fantastic pile of young blue star clusters, giant luminous gas clouds and dark dust streaks surround the central region of the active galaxy Centaurus A. Centaurus A is close to Earth, at a distance of 10 million light years.

Butterfly Nebula

 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Bright clusters and nebulae in the night sky of the planet Earth are often given names by the names of flowers or insects, and the NGC 6302 nebula is no exception. The central star of this planetary nebula is exceptionally hot: its surface temperature is about 250 thousand degrees Celsius.

Supernova

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Image of a supernova that broke out in 1994 on the edge of a spiral galaxy.

Two colliding galaxies with fused spiral arms

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This remarkable cosmic portrait depicts two colliding galaxies with fused spiral arms. Above and to the left of a large spiral galaxy, one can see a third galaxy, which is also likely to be involved in the interaction. All of these galaxies are about 450 million light-years from us in a cluster of galaxies in Hercules. At this distance, the image covers an area of ​​over 150 thousand light years. And although this view seems very unusual, now scientists know that collisions and subsequent mergers of galaxies are not uncommon.

NGC 3521 Spiral Galaxy

Спиральная галактика NGC 3521 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The spiral galaxy NGC 3521 is only 35 million light-years away from us in the direction of the constellation Leo. The galaxy, which extends over 50,000 light-years, has features such as torn irregular spiral arms, decorated with dust, pinkish areas of star formation and clusters of young bluish stars.

Galaxy Sombrero

Галактика Сомбреро - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The look of the galaxy M104 resembles a hat, that's why it was called the Sombrero galaxy. The image shows distinct dark dust streaks and a bright halo of stars and globular clusters. The reasons why the Sombrero galaxy looks like a hat is an unusually large central star bulge and dense dark dust bands in the disk of the galaxy, which we see almost from the edge.

M17: close-up view

M17: вид крупным планом - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Formed by stellar winds and radiation, these fantastic, wave-like formations are found in the Omega Nebula and enter the region of star formation. The Omega Nebula is located in the nebula-rich constellation of Sagittarius and is removed at a distance of 5500 light years. Ragged thickenings of dense and cold gas and dust are illuminated by the stars in the image at the top right, in the future they may become places of star formation.

IRAS 05437 + 2502 Nebula

Туманность IRAS 05437+2502 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

It is not yet known what illuminates this nebula. Particularly mysterious is the bright arc in the shape of an inverted V, which outlines the upper edge of mountain-like clouds of interstellar dust near the center of the picture. In general, this ghost-like nebula includes a small star-forming region filled with dark dust. It was first seen in images taken by the IRAS satellite in infrared light in 1983. Shown here is a wonderful, recently published image from the Hubble Space Telescope. Although many new details are visible on it, it was not possible to establish the cause of the bright, clear arc.

Galaxy "Pinwheel"

Галактика Вертушка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Jupiter in natural color

Юпитер в естественном цвете - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Arp 273 - a group of interacting galaxies in the constellation Andromeda

Arp 273 — группа взаимодействующих галактик в созвездии Андромеды - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Centaurus A (NGC 5128) - a lenticular galaxy in the constellation Centaurus

Центавр A (NGC 5128) — линзообразная галактика в созвездии Центавр - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 1300 - spiral galaxy in the constellation Eridanus

NGC 1300 — спиральная галактика в созвездии Эридан - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Fragment of the nebula M16 Eagle

Фрагмент туманности М16 Орел - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 2207 - a pair of interacting galaxies in the constellation Big Dog

NGC 2207 — пара взаимодействующих галактик в созвездии Большой Пёс - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070)

Туманность Тарантул (NGC 2070) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 2841 is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major

NGC 2841 — спиральная галактика в созвездии Большая Медведица - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Hourglass Nebula

Туманность Песочные Часы - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 4038 - a galaxy in the constellation Raven

NGC 4038 — галактика в созвездии Ворон - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Orion Nebula

Туманность Ориона - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 4921 - a galaxy in the constellation Hair of Veronica

NGC 4921 — галактика в созвездии Волосы Вероники - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Krina Nebula

Туманность Крина - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 6217 - a spiral galaxy with a jumper in the constellation Ursa Minor

NGC 6217 — спиральная галактика с перемычкой в созвездии Малая Медведица - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula "Cat's Eye"

Туманность Кошачий Глаз - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 6535 cluster

Кластер NGC 6535 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Horsehead Nebula

Туманность Конская Голова - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 1672

Галактика NGC 1672 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula "Ring"

Туманность Кольцо - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 4449 with active star formation

Галактика NGC 4449 с активным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula "Carina"

Туманность Карина - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 4522 with a jumper in the constellation Virgo

Галактика NGC 4522 с перемычкой в созвездии Дева - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Monkey Head Nebula

Туманность Голова Обезьяны - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Spindle Galaxy (NGC 5866)

Галактика Веретено (NGC 5866) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Eye of God Nebula (NGC 7293)

Туманность Глаз Бога (NGC 7293) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy "Pinwheel"

Галактика Вертушка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula "Butterfly"

Туманность Бабочка - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy Tadpole

Галактика Головастик - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

NGC 5189 Nebula

Туманность NGC 5189 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)

Галактика Водоворот (M51) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Nebula "Pillars of Creation"

Туманность Столпы творения - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Jumper galaxy NGC 5584

Галактика с перемычкой NGC 5584 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Cigar Galaxy (NGC 3034) with a powerful star formation

Галактика Сигара (NGC 3034) с мощным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Saturn in natural color

Сатурн в естественном цвете - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy Sombrero (Messier 110)

Галактика Сомбреро (Messier 110) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Two spiral galaxies in the constellation Hair of Veronica

Две спиральные галактики в созвездии Волосы Вероники - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Region with dense star formation

Регион с плотным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Another region with dense star formation

Еще один регион с плотным звездообразованием - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Planetary Nebula "Red Spider"

Планетарная туманность Красный Паук - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Star RS Puppis

Звезда RS Puppis - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Planetary Nebula IC 4406 (Dying Star)

Планетарная туманность IC 4406 (умирающая звезда) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Westerlund 2 Star Cluster

Звездное скопление Westerlund 2 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

The Mystic Mountain - fragment of the Carina Nebula

Мистическая гора — фрагмент туманности Киля - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Star-forming nebula NGC 3603

Звездообразующая туманность NGC 3603 - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Perseus Galaxy A (NGC 1275)

Галактика Персей A (NGC 1275) - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Stephen's Quintet - a group of five galaxies in the constellation Pegasus

Квинтет Стефана — группа из пяти галактик в созвездии Пегаса - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Galaxy NGC 7049 in the constellation Native American

Галактика NGC 7049 в созвездии Индеец - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Crab Nebula

Крабовидная туманность - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса

Shuttle launch with Hubble aboard

Старт шаттла с Хабблом на борту - 25-летие телескопа Хаббл: лучшие фото космоса