Theory of aiming in billiards
Billiards (fr. Billard, from fr. Bille - ball or fr. Billette, billart - stick) - the collective name of several board games with different rules, as well as a special table on which the game takes place.
A characteristic feature of all billiard games is the movement of balls using a cue.
A room specially equipped for playing billiards is a billiard room.
Homeland billiard game considered to be India or China.
When performing strikes on sighting balls, it is necessary to choose the so-called true point of sight.
Imagine a line passing through the middle of the pocket A to the center of the played ball (see figure). The point M (marked in red), located on the side of this ball, facing the opposite side of the pocket, is the true aiming point, since it is in it that the contact of both balls is necessary in order for the aiming ball to be in the loop. To make it easier to find this point, you can estimate it with a cue, that is, you can aim a single ball at the pocket, and then aim “your own” at the found point. But this is how beginner players usually do. Experienced athletes at one glance accurately determine the aiming point and deliver accurate shots.
But for the correct play of the ball to determine the point of sight is not enough. We must also be able to correctly hit the ball. To do this, it is necessary to fully concentrate on the upcoming strike, trying to embrace the imaginary trajectories of the movement of "one's own" and "someone else's" and, having made a 2-4 sighting stroke, confidently strike the cue at the appropriate point. Sometimes novice players aim for a long time, making up to 5-6 or more strokes of the cue, as a result the blow is “wrong”, the ball does not hit the pocket. This is because the climax of the moment before the strike are those short several seconds, during which the player strains his attention to the maximum, and if the aiming time is tightened, then before the impact a regular relaxation of the muscles occurs, the vision and the impact is not effective.
First of all, we determine the intended path of the object ball into the pocket. Then we determine the point of sight.
For this you need:
- know (or measure) the diameter of the ball. (Standard balls in Russian billiards have a diameter of 60 and 68 mm., In the US - 57 mm.);
- put aside the 1/2 ball of diameter along the line of the intended path in the direction opposite to the ordered pocket. This will be the point of sight.
All you have to do is aim at that point and hit the cue ball ...
Now we will sort all this with reference to practice.
In the aiming system, the most important thing is to choose the line of impact and where the cue ball hits. Accuracy of impact depends on the ability to see well the line of impact. For practicing this skill, there are many exercises, but the main exercise is the mirror. Another necessary exercise is to hammer the cue ball into the pocket from various points on the table.
But first you need to learn how to look.
Eye work. Of the many ways of aiming and working the eyes (someone at the moment of impact looks at the object ball, someone at the point of contact, someone at the cue ball), I suggest one that helps me to make an accurate shot.
At the beginning, before taking the stand, I see the place where the cue-ball hit the top. For this, in front of the object ball, I mentally place an “imaginary” ball, which together with the object ball, would be strictly on the line passing through the middle of the pocket. It is not easy to learn this right away, but if you train your mind specifically, over time you will easily be able to represent this auxiliary ball.
Then I imagine the corridor from the cue ball to the "imaginary" ball and in the middle of this corridor mentally draw the line of impact. The vision of the corridor from the cue ball to the point of hitting especially helps when making beats with different cuts (see the next item), as well as when driving the cue ball when you need to imagine a corridor along which the cue ball bounces from the object ball into the pocket. After I have determined the place of hit and the line of impact, I stand in a rack and begin to set the cue along this line. At the same time, I do not move the cue back and forth, but just left and right to put the cue exactly along the line of impact.
After that, I start to drive back and forth with one weight of the cue, watching only the tip, which allows me to see if its movements coincide with the line of impact.
I make 3-6 swings, after which I stop the cue near the cue ball, I make a short pause and, without raising my head, let alone my shoulders, look at the place where the cue ball hits, trying to concentrate so that nothing distracts me. Then I gently pull my hand back, pause and smoothly “let go” of the cue with its weight forward, as if imitating the movement of the sea wave that is incident on the pier.
At the same time, I mentally imagine that the cue will “reach” the object ball, and the cue ball itself doesn’t seem to be present - at the moment of the impact it is impossible to lose the concentration of sight at the point of impact.
Cutting. In this technique, the most important thing is the ability to see where the cue ball hits and the line of impact. This is assisted by an “imaginary” ball, mentally attached to the sighting. If it is difficult to imagine an “imaginary” ball, you can use a different method: divide the object ball with an imaginary line vertically to determine how much it should be “cut off”. Then mentally draw a corridor from the cue ball to the object ball so that the line of the corridor, for example, on the left, coincides with your vertical line on the object ball (when driving the object ball into the corner to the left).
The ability to see the corridor helps to determine the place of hitting the cue ball.
Imagine that the task is not to score an object ball, but to direct the cue ball as if you were in the pocket. When this concentration of attention becomes a habit, your results will begin to improve.
It is necessary to make two pauses. One - at the time of stopping the cue before the cue ball, after you were convinced that the cue moves in one line, and the second - at the end of the swing before striking.
These pauses can be very short, almost imperceptible, but the “deeper” they are, the more controlled, I would even say, a deliberate blow becomes.
After the first pause, gently pull the cue back, as if you are tightening the bow string. The body remains motionless. The right shoulder does not rise up: if you unwittingly stand up before the last stroke, you may lose the strike line and cause an inaccurate blow.
At the moment of the second pause at the end of the last swing, try to ensure that the right shoulder remains in place. The shoulder shift is an imperceptible but harmful mistake, because in this case the blow is not applied to the given line of impact.
Learn to start smoothly with the cue after the second pause, so that the beginning of the movement comes from the hand, and not from the shoulder.
I want to draw attention to the fact that when the second pause is deep (lasting 1-2 seconds), you will feel like you are standing: in a calm state you are standing firmly and motionless. You need to be able to relieve tension, then you will quickly learn how to make an accurate strike.