Theory of aiming in billiards
Billiards (French billard, from French bille - ball or French billette, billart - stick) - the collective name of several board games with different rules, as well as a special table on which the game takes place.
A characteristic feature of all billiard games is the movement of balls with a cue.
The room specially equipped for playing billiards is Billiard room.
The birthplace of billiards is considered to be India or China.
When striking aiming balls, you must select the so-called true point of sight.
Imagine a line passing through the middle of pocket A to the center of the ball being played (see. Figure). Point M (marked in red), located on the side of this ball, facing the other way round from the pocket, is the true aiming point, since it is in it that the contact of both balls is necessary for the aiming ball to be in the pocket. To make it easier to find this point, you can pretend to be a cue stick, that is, aim one played ball in the pocket, and then aim your friend at the found point. But this is usually what beginner players do. Experienced athletes at one glance accurately determine the aiming point and deliver accurate shots.
But for the correct playing of the ball to determine the point of sight is not enough. You must still be able to hit the ball correctly. To do this, it is necessary to fully concentrate on the upcoming blow, trying to capture the imaginary trajectories of the movement of “one's own” and “another's” with one’s eyes and, making 2-4 aiming strokes, confidently strike a cue to the corresponding point. Sometimes novice players aim for a long time, making up to 5-6 or more waved cues, as a result the blow is "wrong", the ball does not fall into the pocket. This is because the culmination moment before the strike is those short few seconds, during which the player strains his attention to the maximum, and if the aiming time is tightened, then even before the strike there comes a natural relaxation of muscles, vision and the strike is not effective.
First of all, we determine the estimated path of the sighting ball into the pocket. Then we determine the point of sight.
For this it is necessary:
- know (or measure) the diameter of the ball. (Standard balls in Russian billiards have a diameter of 60 and 68 mm., In American - 57 mm.);
- set aside along the line of the proposed path of the sighting ball 1/2 diameter in the direction opposite to the ordered pocket. This will be the point of sight.
All that remains for you is to aim at this point and hit the cue ball ...
Now we will analyze all this in relation to practice.
In the aiming system, the most important thing is the choice of the line of impact and the place where the cue ball hits. The accuracy of the stroke depends on the ability to clearly see the line of impact. There are many exercises to practice this skill, but the main exercise remains at the mirror. Another necessary exercise is driving a cue ball into a pocket from different points on the table.
But first you need to learn how to look.
The work of the eyes. Of the many ways of aiming and working the eyes (someone at the time of the impact looks into the aiming ball, someone at the point of impact, someone at the cue ball) I offer one that helps me make an accurate hit.
At first, before taking the rack, I see the place where the cue ball hit from above. To do this, I put an “imaginary” ball in front of the aiming ball, which, together with the aiming ball, would be strictly on the line passing through the middle of the pocket. This is not easy to learn right away, but if you specifically train your gaze, then over time you will easily imagine this auxiliary ball.
Then I imagine the corridor from the cue ball to the "imaginary" ball and in the middle of this corridor I mentally draw a line of impact. The vision of the corridor from the cue ball to the point of impact especially helps when performing strokes with various cuts (see, the next paragraph), as well as when hammering the cue ball, when you need to imagine the corridor along which the cue ball bounces from the aiming ball into the pocket. After I determined the place of impact and the line of impact, I stand in the rack and begin to put a cue along this line. At the same time, I do not move the cue back and forth, but only to the right and left to place the cue exactly along the line of impact.
After that, I start driving back and forth with one weight of a cue, following only the tip, which allows me to see if its movements coincide with the line of impact.
I make 3-6 swings, after which I stop the cue near the cue ball, make a short pause and, without raising my head, and especially my shoulders, turn my eyes to the place where the cue ball hit, trying to concentrate so that nothing distracts me. Then I gently take my hand back, pause and gently “release” the cue with its weight forward, as if imitating the movement of a sea wave running onto the pier.
At the same time, I mentally imagine that the cue "will reach" the aiming ball, and the cue ball itself does not seem to be there - at the moment of impact, you should not lose your concentration of sight at the place of impact.
Cutting. In this technique, the most important thing is the ability to see the place where the cue ball hit and the line of impact. This helps the "imaginary" ball, mentally assigned to the sighting. If it is difficult to imagine an “imaginary” ball, you can use a different method: divide the aim ball vertically with an imaginary line to determine how much you need to “cut” it. Then mentally draw a corridor from the cue ball to the aiming ball so that the line of the corridor, for example, on the left, coincides with your vertical line on the aiming ball (when driving the aiming ball into the corner to the left).
The ability to see the corridor helps to determine where the cue ball hit.
Imagine that the task is not to score an aiming ball, but to direct the cue ball as if you were hammering it into a pocket. When this concentration of attention becomes a habit, your results will begin to improve.
Two pauses must be made. One - at the moment the cue stops before the cue ball, after you make sure that the cue moves along one line, and the second - at the end of the swing before striking.
These pauses can be very short, almost imperceptible, but the “deeper” they are, the more controlled, I would even say, the blow becomes conscious.
After the first pause, gently pull the cue back, as if you were pulling a bow string. The body remains motionless. The right shoulder does not rise: if you unwittingly stand in front of the last swing, as a result you may lose the line of impact and inflict an inaccurate strike.
At the moment of the second pause at the end of the last swing, try to make sure that the right shoulder remains in place. The shoulder shift is an imperceptible, but harmful error, because in this case the blow is delivered not along the given line of impact.
Learn to smoothly start with a cue after the second pause, so that the beginning of the movement comes from the brush, and not from the shoulder.
I want to draw attention to the fact that when the second pause is deep (1-2 seconds long), you will feel how you are standing: in a calm state, you are standing firmly and motionless. You must be able to relieve tension, then you will quickly learn how to make an accurate hit.