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Theory of Impact in Billiards

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Теория удара в бильярде

Billiards (French billard, from French bille - ball or French billette, billart - stick) - the collective name of several board games with different rules, as well as a special table on which the game takes place.

A characteristic feature of all billiard games is the movement of balls with a cue.

The room specially equipped for playing billiards is Billiard room.

The birthplace of billiards is considered to be India or China.

Good billiard

The billiard plane consists of two squares stacked together. This ancient shape of the shape of billiards is based on a deep study of the billiard game. Of course, if billiards had the outline of a strict square, then doublets, triplets and, in general, all “reflected” balls would go with remarkable accuracy. It would also be on round billiards. But only billiards in the form of a quadrangle give a lot of different positions of the ball, and that's why this form is preserved forever.

Good billiards should be, first of all, great. This main advantage is so important that no matter how small the billiards is accurate, elegant and strict, another great player will not play on it.

And this is fair. On small billiards another blow, another calculation. A player who plays excellently on large billiards, playing on the small one also confidently and freely, often substitutes balls and sees with irritation how the obviously weakest player wins the game. And this is easy to understand, because in the big billiards, wagering is on the small stand. In a word, the basic law of the billiard game is most obvious here: the more false, the easier and the less billiards, the more balanced and good the forces of a good and bad player. That is why a first-class player will never play bad billiards.

Billiards should be strict and correct - not only in the sense of fabricating its sides and pockets, but also regarding the selection of balls for pockets.

After all, any billiards at first glance is not difficult to make strict: you just have to take balls that would hardly enter the pockets. True, this will be relative severity. True rigor lies in the observance of mathematical proportionality between the size of the billiards, the size of the pockets and the diameters of the balls. At the same time, the following important law of all Russian parties should be borne in mind: it is required that any ball fall into any pocket with a strong blow, it would be impossible to play on the side of the middle pocket.

Satisfying this law in the technical sense is very difficult, but possible. However, some masters do not recognize that the onboard ball, one of the most brilliant blows on billiards, could fall while walking on board. Other masters and most of them strive, on the contrary, to facilitate the making of balloons. To do this, they lower the plane of billiards at the sides, as a result of which the ball pulls to the side, and therefore the balls, even incorrectly taken, with a quiet impact will certainly fall into the pocket.

Currently, it is almost impossible to meet strict billiards, on which the ball would go along the board. Now they cannot do such billiards. The billiards of Freiberg's heirs are often so strict that good players play a game for about an hour. So, on these billiards all the various elements of the game are taken into account and everything is sacrificed only for one precision sight. This game should be called rough. Such a billiard in its one-sidedness approaches the bowling alley.

On accurate billiards, all the purity and charm of the game depends on the reasonable cutting of billiard pockets, and therefore I draw the attention of billiard manufacturers to this question.

Game technique

The technique of a billiard game consists in the ability to play equally successfully with a strong and quiet shtos, to make direct punches, to cut, to be able to duplicate and, finally, to own an exit and wagering.

In fact, even for the most inattentive observer, it is obvious that every billiard player, good or bad, still has his own way of playing, his own punch. Expressions are heard everywhere: he has a beautiful blow, that one has a bold blow, etc. Therefore, the quality depends on the talent or mediocrity of each individual nature.

There is no doubt that through long and continuous exercises it is possible to refine to the astounding eyes, to assimilate the incredible accuracy of the blow, but the blow of the artist of this free, bold and wide scope cannot be acquired by anything if there is none by nature.

If you do not have a beautiful blow by nature, do not chase after it. Better work hard, develop philosophical composure, and you probably will never regret that nature went around you in another way.

Players who constantly play for big money get used to playing with an even, moderate and mercilessly right hit. There is no sharp forte or piano in this beat - it is very monotonous and self-confident in itself. Such a strike is called commercial. A player who is accustomed to playing in this way will never take risks, never out of mischief, neglect the stand, and only unless he accidentally makes the stand himself. Such a game, of course, is very instructive, but it is dry and, so to speak, too machine. There is no fire, aristocratic execution and taste in it. Moreover, when an artist comes together with a commercial player, with brilliant technique and reasonable risk, albeit of equal strength, the first one is discouraged that he begins to lose all games in a row.

A completely direct hit at a considerable distance between the balls is rightly considered the most difficult hit on billiards. The easiest way to make a straight ball coasting. So I advise beginners to do this. It is much more difficult to play with a direct klapshtosom and even more difficult to pull off. However, the artist should not be content with these three strokes. He must sometimes use the French blow.

Physics of billiards

As is known in physics, the laws of elastic bodies are considered in great detail and formulas are derived that express the force of impact of balls, velocity after impact, etc.

Unfortunately, all these formulas are deduced only for balls having one motion - translational, i.e. forward. In a billiard game, one has to constantly consider blows to balls having two or even three movements. In the analysis of these strokes, we agree to call our ball red and suppose that there is an arbitrary number of white balls on billiards necessary to explain one or another variation of the game - we will summarize in this way all billiard parties for studying the laws of ball strikes.

It is not difficult to notice that the balls touch each other at points. It should be added that with a strong impact, due to the significant elasticity of the ivory, these points are far from geometric. Therefore, the balls easily transmit to each other not only translational, but also rotational motion. Then, it was said above what the "true point of sight" is, and that for each particular case of the position of the balls it is one, and when it is visible, they say: "the ball is visible"; when not visible, they say: "the ball is not visible." We now proceed to the effects of a billiard game.


Теория удара в бильярде
Claw point impact point

Physics teaches that if the balls are the same size, then when one ball hits the other, the latter will bounce, and the hit will stop motionless in place. The same thing always happens on billiards, but for this it is necessary to hit the red cue in such a way that it receives only one forward movement (central blow). Then after the strike, white will fly into the pocket, and red will stop in place. This is the klapshtos.

Thus, if you hit the cue in the center of the ball "in the plane parallel to the billiards", you get klapshtos.

Klapshtos is a very beautiful and useful blow. It is very light at short range and very difficult at long range. In general, the following law applies to all strokes (with the exception of the roll): the difficulty of performing a stroke is proportional to the distance between the balls. Of particular importance is klapshtos in the game a la guerre, which we will see later.


Теория удара в бильярде
Roll Point

It is often necessary for the cue ball to go forward after the blow. To do this, hit the red with a long, long blow smoothly in the plane parallel to the billiards, to the top of the ball. Then the cue ball, moving forward, will also roll up and down, and when it hits the white ball, it will give the latter only its forward movement, it will keep moving from top to bottom and therefore, having lingered for a moment in place, after the impact will move forward. A similar hit is called a “roll."

The roll is the most ordinary and easiest touch. All beginners begin to play only on the coast. Moreover, during the reel, the sight and strike are most likely, so there are very strong players who use this strike exclusively. Especially important is the reel when playing the Polish billiards. But for all that, the art of getting out and playing back requires the use of other punches that need to be studied.


Теория удара в бильярде
Guy point

Sometimes it is required that after hitting your ball go back. To do this, it is necessary to inform him of two movements: one is translational, and the other is rotational from bottom to top. Then, after hitting the ball, it will pass on to a stranger a forward movement, maintaining rotation from bottom to top, and, standing still, will move backward. This hit is called a guy.

The guy is the most beautiful and the hardest hit. Many very clever punches are unthinkable without a delay. The application of this blow is very extensive.

When delayed, instantaneousness and softness of impact are of the greatest importance. Moreover, the sticker is very important - to a certain extent, elastic and rough.

If the player wants to make a very steep pull, or if the two balls are too close, you must strike from top to bottom at an angle of 45 °. This short and quick punch is extremely difficult.

Side or French shots (French)

All strikes considered are ordinary shtos used by players of medium and high strength. They are produced by hitting a cue in a vertical plane at the center of the ball, above or below it. But players of excellent strength, for a variety of ways out and wagering, also use the so-called “side” blows, which are delivered by ki at the points located to the right or left of the center vertical line of the ball. These strikes are quite difficult, especially in terms of assessing the strength of the cue strike. Their use is very diverse.

Right side

Теория удара в бильярде
Impact point with klapshtos "French right"

This is a hit in the middle point on the right side of the cue ball. With such a hit, the cue ball, in addition to translational forward movement, also receives a rotational movement around the vertical axis, which passes through the center of the ball counterclockwise and, having encountered a played ball, passing it forward, wrapping up a top and carried away by its rotational movement, the ball goes only to the right.

Left side

Теория удара в бильярде
Impact point at klapshtos "French left"

Beat to the midpoint on the left side of the cue ball. The action of this blow is similar to the previous one, only the cue ball receives vertical rotation clockwise and after a collision with another ball will go only to the left.

French roll

also effective and original hit. This roll is used in the case when, after hitting white, red should move left or right and, moreover, forward. To do this, hit the cue on the red smoothly and long in the upper part, retreating to the right or left of the vertical line of the center. The French roll is the lightest of all French punches.

French guy

also one of the hard hits. It is used when it is required that red, after hitting white, go back and still to the right or left. Achieve this by striking short and fast red down, but to the right or left of the vertical line of the center.

All these side impacts are called French, because they are most widely used on French billiards without pockets in the cannon. These blows were of great importance when they improved the cue and sticker. The main advantage of them is their convenient achievement through wagering or exiting.


Suppose that one alien ball is standing above the pocket and the other is blocking it. Then, in order to play someone else's over the pocket, you must play the arc. To do this, strike their ball with their cue left (right) and down, telling him a strong rotation around the vertical axis from left to right, and at the same time telling him the forward movement to the right of the line between the centers of his and the first alien. Then the addition of these two movements as a result will give movement along an arc (parabola).

If his ball, launched to the right of the mentioned line between the centers of the balls, had no lateral rotation around the axis, then he would go in a straight line. But, since the lateral rotation from left to right continuously carries him to the left, he will go both to the right and to the left, that is, along the arc.


This is such a blow when, jumping over an obstructing alien, its ball is put into the pocket of another alien. To achieve this shtos, a long and strong blow is applied to the ball at an angle of 30 ° down the ball. Then your own, pushing off from the surface of the table, will jump and roll in a straight line. This result can be achieved in another way. Holding the cue in a plane parallel to the surface of the billiards, they bring the end of the cue under the lower part of it. Then they throw up this ball and throw it over a stranger. This method is easier, but not as reliable as the previous one.

Lemanovsky blow

Kiem quickly and easily press on the playing ball, after which the side falls into the pocket.