Oyster mushroom cultivation technology.
To start work, it is necessary to prepare a substrate (husk of sunflower, sawdust of hardwood). The substrate must meet the following quality criteria.
Sunflower husk should have:
- fresh smell of sunflower;
- the absence of impurities;
- humidity not higher than 30%
For the preparation of one mushroom block (when using a plastic bag 350 x 750 mm) 25 liters (2.5 buckets) of dry substrate are needed. The substrate should be stored in a dry place in polypropylene bags.
Plastic bags (350 x 750 mm) are needed to create mushroom beds. They need to be purchased in the quantity that is necessary for the floor space intended for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Pre-processing bags do not require.
Mycelium is purchased on demand. To create one mushroom block (one bag) requires 150-200 grams of mycelium. The shelf life of mycelium at temperatures from +20 degrees C to 24 degrees C - 24 hours, from +15 degrees C to 18 degrees C - 3 days. from 0 to +2 degrees C - 2 weeks, from -2 to 0 degrees C - 1 month
Activators or growth promoters (organic supplements) that can be used in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms should be used in accordance with the recommendations of the developers. These kinds of supplements increase yields by up to 30 percent and significantly shorten the growing cycle. Powdered activators are usually introduced at the stage of processing the substrate, and liquid activators immediately before inoculation (seeding) the mycelium.
In the required amount of substrate, add the " bioactivator " in the amount of 1-2 percent by weight or, in its absence, slaked lime in the amount of 1% and grain waste 5-10 percent by weight and mix. The dry mixture is placed in a woven polypropylene bag and tied it.
- Polypropylene bags with an organic substrate are immersed in an appropriately sized container that holds water. Pasteurization (soaking) produce hot water (+ b5 ° -70 ° C). Water must completely cover the substrate. After 2.5-3 hours of soaking, we remove the bags and within 8-10 hours let the water drain, cool the substrate to a temperature of + 20-26 degrees C.
Upon reaching this temperature of the substrate, you can begin the process of inoculation (seeding) mycelium . Ready moistened substrate crumbles easily and does not stick to hands.
Mycelium is taken from the refrigerator 3-4 hours before sowing and brought to room temperature (20 ° - 22 ° С).
We thoroughly wash our hands (it is advisable to use rubber gloves that we also thoroughly disinfect) and knead the mycelium to separate grains in clean dishes (we first disinfect the dishes with alcohol or boiling water)
ATTENTION! Mycelium at the time of inoculation should be at room temperature. Sowing is carried out by two people. One holds a new clean plastic bag, the other pours a pasteurized substrate into the bag, adding to it and carefully mixing the required amount of mycelium in the amount of 2-2.5% (150-180 grams per 1 mushroom block - 7-8 kg of substrate).
Filling up the pasteurized substrate and mixing it with the mycelium, we knead the contents of the bag with the hand (we increase the density of the substrate by about 1.5 times) so that no voids remain (especially in the bottom corners of the bag) (Fig. 2).
After sowing, the neck of the bag is tied with a string.
Mushroom block is left in a clean room for 24-30 hours, after which on the side opposite surfaces of the block in a staggered manner we make 2-3 slots 5-7 cm long (additionally it is recommended to make several punctures in the corners (bottom) of the mushroom block for outflow of excess moisture ).
Mushroom block (bed) cooked.
Incubation (germination) of mycelium
Mushroom blocks are mounted vertically. The distance between them is up to 10 cm. Mycelium germinates at a room temperature of + 16 ° to + 22 ° С. During this period, the most important factor is the temperature regime and the presence of fresh air. Periodic lighting, watering is not required.
1-2 days after inoculation, pronounced white spots appear on the surface of the substrate in the mushroom block. With the normal development of mycelium, the temperature inside the mushroom blocks is 4 ° -6 ° C higher than the room temperature. The optimum temperature in the mushroom block is + 24 ° + 26 ° С. If the temperature inside the substrate rises to + 29 ° C or more, the room should be cooled down (ventilation, draft, enhanced ventilation).
On the 5th - 8th day the surface of the substrate becomes light brown in color. The temperature in the substrate is 1 "2 ° C higher than the ambient temperature. On the 10th-12th day, the substrate permeated with mycelium turns into a dense, white-colored homogeneous block.
In the area of the cut, "naturally" a drop in humidity, air exchange, temperature, and illumination is formed, which sharply accelerates the processes of maturation of the mycelium and the formation of primordiums (centers of fruiting). As a result, fruiting (the emergence and development of fruit bodies) begins approximately 14-16 days after sowing (inoculation).
ATTENTION! The most important condition for the incubation period is compliance with the temperature regime.
Optimally, the mushroom blocks for fruiting are installed in a nursery room in one row in several tiers, but other installation options are possible. The distance between the rows is 1 m (along the axes).
The main and main task is to create conditions that ensure the evaporation of water from the cap of the fungus, for which proper ventilation and ventilation of the room is organized (optimally 8-10 m3 of air per hour for 3 tons of substrate). The humidity of the air in the room in these conditions is set to within the normal range of 55-65%; watering of the mushroom blocks is not required. At the stage of fruiting indoors, an illumination of 100-180 lux / h is required (2-3 bulbs but 100 watts per 15 m2 of area).
Approximately 16 days from the day of sowing, rudiments of fungi (primordia) appear, which in 5-10 days of development turn into a fungus of standard sizes. The optimal cap size is up to 40 mm.
If the above microclimatic parameters are observed, the mushroom blocks bear fruit almost simultaneously. Mushrooms are collected by Druze (splices of mushrooms with a tile-like arrangement of caps) at a young age, which ensures high-quality mushroom products and almost completely eliminates spore release.
Selective cutting of mushrooms is undesirable.
After harvesting the first harvest, the next wave of fruiting begins in 7-10 days .
With the observance of microclimatic parameters, the yield is up to 40% of the weight of the organic substrate.
Mushrooms are stored in a refrigerator at a temperature from 0 ° to + 5 ° С - 8 days, in a frozen state at a temperature from -4 ° C - 3 months and 24 hours above 20 ° C.
After the removal of the main crop, the used blocks are capable of fruiting for a sufficiently long period (another 2-3 months), however, the yield decreases sharply and to keep such a unit becomes unprofitable.
The used block is utilized as a valuable organic fertilizer, as well as protein supplements in feed for farm animals (chickens, pigs).