Technology of growing oyster mushrooms.
To start working it is necessary to prepare a substrate (husk of sunflower, sawdust of hardwood trees). The substrate must meet the following quality criteria.
Sunflower husks should have:
- fresh sunflower smell;
- absence of foreign impurities;
- humidity not more than 30%
For the preparation of one mushroom block (when using a polyethylene bag of 350 x 750 mm) 25 liters (2.5 buckets) of a dry substrate are necessary. The substrate should be stored in a dry place in polypropylene bags.
To create mushroom beds, polyethylene bags (350 x 750 mm) are needed. They need to be purchased in quantities that are necessary for the area of the premises, intended for the growth of oyster mushrooms. Pre-processing bags are not required.
Mycelium is purchased on demand. The creation of a single mushroom block (one bag) requires 150-200 g of mycelium. The shelf life of the mycelium at a temperature of +20 degrees C to 24 degrees C is 24 hours, from +15 degrees C to 18 degrees C is 3 days. from 0 to +2 degrees C - 2 weeks, from -2 to 0 degrees C - 1 month
Activators or growth stimulants (organic additives) that can be used to grow oyster mushrooms should be used in accordance with the recommendations of the developers. Such additives increase crop yields to 30 percent and significantly shorten the cultivation cycle. Powder activators are usually applied at the stage of substrate treatment, and liquid activators are introduced just before the inoculation (inoculation) of the mycelium.
In the required amount of substrate add " bioactivator " in the amount of 1-2 percent by weight or, in its absence, slaked lime in an amount of 1% and grain wastes of 5-10 percent by weight and mixed. The dry mixture is placed in a woven polypropylene bag and knotted.
- Polypropylene bags with organic substrate are immersed in a suitably sized container that holds water. Pasteurization (soaking) is made with hot water (+5 ° -70 ° C). Water must completely cover the substrate. After 2.5-3 hours soaking the bags, we remove and within 8-10 hours let the water drain, the substrate cool to a temperature of + 20-26 degrees C.
When this substrate temperature is reached, we can begin the process of inoculation (seeding) of the mycelium . The ready moistened substrate easily crumbles and does not stick to the hands.
Mycelium is taken from the refrigerator 3-4 hours before sowing and brought to room temperature (20 ° - 22 ° C).
Carefully my hands (it is advisable to use rubber gloves, which are also thoroughly disinfected) and we knead the mycelium up to individual grains in clean dishes (we disinfect the dishes with alcohol beforehand or with boiling water)
ATTENTION! The mycelium at the time of inoculation should have room temperature. Sowing is carried out by two people. One holds a new clean polyethylene bag, the other pours a pasteurized substrate into the bag, adding to it and carefully mixing the required amount of mycelium in an amount of 2-2.5% (150-180 g per 1 mushroom block - 7-8 kg of substrate).
Falling asleep the pasteurized substrate and mixing it with the mycelium, we squeeze the contents of the bag with your hand (increase the density of the substrate by approximately 1.5 times) so that no voids remain (especially in the lower corners of the bag) (Fig. 2).
After sowing the neck of the bag, we tie it with twine.
The mushroom block is left in a clean room for 24-30 hours, then on the lateral opposite surfaces of the block we make 2-3 slits of 5-7 cm in staggered order (it is additionally recommended to make a few punctures in the corners (at the bottom) of the mushroom block for the outflow of excess moisture ).
The mushroom block (bed) is prepared.
Incubation (germination) of a mycelium
Mushroom blocks are installed vertically. The distance between them is up to 10 cm. The mycelium germinates at room temperature from + 16 ° to + 22 ° C. During this period, the most important factor is the temperature regime and the presence of fresh air. Lighting is periodic, watering is not required.
1-2 days after inoculation, pronounced white spots appear on the surface of the substrate in the fungal block. With normal development of the mycelium, the temperature inside the mushroom blocks is 4 ° -6 ° C above the room temperature. The optimum temperature in the mushroom block is + 24 ° + 26 ° C. If the temperature inside the substrate rises to + 29 ° C or more, the room should be cooled (ventilation, draft, increased ventilation).
On the 5th - 8th day, the surface of the substrate acquires a light brown color. The temperature in the substrate is 1 to 2 ° C above the ambient temperature.On the 10th to the 12th day, the substrate penetrated by the mycelium turns into a dense white, homogeneous block.
In the area of the slot, "naturally" there is a difference in moisture, air exchange, temperature and illumination, which dramatically accelerate the processes of mycelial ripening and the formation of primordia (foci of fruiting). As a result, fruiting (the appearance and development of fruit bodies) begins approximately 14-16 days after seeding (inoculation).
ATTENTION! The most important condition of the incubation period is compliance with the temperature regime.
In an optimal variant, the fungal blocks for fruiting are installed in a growing space in one row in several tiers, but other installation options are possible. The distance between the rows is 1 m (along the axes).
The main and main task is to create conditions that ensure the evaporation of water from the mushroom cap, for which proper ventilation and airing of the room is organized (optimally 8-10 m3 of air per hour per 3 tons of substrate). Humidity of air in the room in these conditions is set within the normal - 55-65%, watering the mushroom blocks is not required. At the fruiting stage in the room, an illumination of 100-180 lux / h is required (2-3 bulbs but 100 W per 15 m2 of area).
Approximately on day 16 from the day of sowing there appear rudiments of fungi (primordia), which for 5-10 days of development turn into a fungus of standard sizes. The optimal size of the cap is up to 40 mm.
If the above microclimatic parameters are observed, the fungal blocks bear fruit almost simultaneously. Fungi are collected by druses (mushroom clusters with a tile-like arrangement of hats), at a young age, which ensures the production of high-quality mushroom products and almost completely eliminates sporulation.
Selective cutting of mushrooms is undesirable.
After harvesting the first harvest, the next fruiting wave begins in 7-10 days .
If the microclimatic parameters are observed, the yield is up to 40% of the weight of the organic substrate.
Fungi are stored in the refrigerator at temperatures from 0 ° to + 5 ° C - 8 days, frozen at a temperature of -4 ° C - 3 months and 24 hours over 20 ° C.
After removal of the main crop, the spent blocks are capable of bearing fruit for a sufficiently long period (2-3 more months), however, the yield sharply decreases and keeping such a block becomes unprofitable.
The used block is disposed of as a valuable organic fertilizer, as well as protein-based bioadditives in feed for agricultural animals (chickens, pigs).