Ink and paper
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200. Stationery ink. 201. Alizarin ink. 202. Aniline Ink. 203. Copying ink.
204. Copying ink for typewriters. 205. Paint for typewriters. 206. Lithographic ink.
207. Manufacture of a hectograph. 208. Hectorographic ink. 209. Stamp paint.
210. A non-drying pillow for stamps. 211. Ink for labeling the laundry. 212. Eternal ink.
213. Inks for writing on metals. 214. How to restore the faded ink on the parchment.
215. Washable working drawings. 216. Preparation of tracing paper. 217. Preparation of copying papers.
218. Rainproof paper. 219. Filter paper. 220. Filter suede.
200. Stationery ink.
For the preparation of ordinary stationery or school ink by means of infusion or drawing on cold water, take:
3 parts of ink nuts,
2 parts of iron sulfate,
2 parts of gum arabic,
60 parts of water.
The nut is poured into a powder and, pouring into a glass bottle, is poured over with water. In another vessel iron sulphate and gum arabic are dissolved separately. The infusion of nuts should stay for several days until water extracts all the tannin from it, while vitriol and gum arabic are completely dissolved within a few hours. Both solutions are poured together, mixed well and let stand for a day or two, carefully drained to separate the liquid from the precipitate.
201. Alizarin ink.
The name of this ink is completely wrong, since alizarin is not included in their composition. Alizarin ink is prepared from the drawing of ink nuts, and their composition includes acetic acid. In ordinary ink, the dye is in minute particles floating in the liquid. In alizarinic inks from the presence of a significant dose of acid and glue in the formation of sediment does not occur. Acetic acid, which is part of the ink, dissolves and maintains a dye in the dissolved form, so that in alizarinic inks there is absolutely no or almost no precipitate. However, they have a small disadvantage, which is that they dry out quickly, as a result of which they form a thick mass and the pen must be wiped with a cloth.
For the preparation of office alizarinic ink take:
10 parts of ink, 6 parts of ferrous sulfate,
1 part of gum arabic,
100 parts of vinegar,
20 parts indigo-carmine solution.
The crushed peanut is insisted in vinegar for 4-6 days. Kuporos and gum arabic are dissolved separately in vinegar, and it is necessary to boil them once. After the liquids are drained and filtered, an indigo-carmine solution is added. The latter should not be added at once a large amount, and gradually and with each addition, shake the solution.
202. Aniline Ink.
Aniline paints, which were so widely used in modern techniques of dyeing, also served as a material for the preparation of ink. Ink, walnut, iron sulphate, etc., used earlier for the preparation of ink, now retreated to the background. To obtain aniline ink, a known aniline pigment is taken and dissolved in water. This solution should not be concentrated, because then the ink will dry up quickly and will not hold firmly on the paper. If the concentration is correct, the aniline ink is constant, it easily drains from the pen, does not corrode steel feathers, does not so quickly become thick and does not become covered with mold.
a) Black ink. Dissolve 1 part of the dissolved in water nigrosin or black Reform-schwarz in 10 parts of hot water. In the resulting solution add a solution of 2 parts of gum arabic, diluted in 10 parts of cold water.
b) Red ink. For their preparation, take 2 parts of magenta or eosin and dissolve in 90 parts of hot water. On cooling, add 2 parts of gum arabic, diluted in 10 parts of cold water.
c) Blue ink. To prepare them take 5 parts resorcinol, pour 30 parts of cold water, and after 2 hours add 640 parts of hot water, which dissolved 20 parts of sugar and 1 part of crystalline oxalic acid. All together well shake, leave to stand for several days and filter.
d) Purple ink. For their preparation, take 10 parts of methyl-violet, pour 30 parts of cold water, leave for 3-4 hours and add 950 parts of hot water, 10 parts of sugar in powder and 2 parts of crystalline oxalic acid. Within 2-3 days the mixture is shaken and then filtered.
e) Green ink. To make them, take 1 part of the water-soluble green aniline paint and dissolve it in 100-200 parts of boiling water. To get a more dense green color, you can add a little picric acid.
203. Copying ink.
Copying ink is prepared in the same way as ordinary ink, only they are made more concentrated by the content of the dye. In addition, add sugar and glycerin - substances that maintain moisture. From this they acquire the property not to be absorbed into the paper and, when touching the imperfectly dried letter with moist tissue paper, separate the particle of the dye substance from itself. The amount of both substances is best determined on the samples.
To test the copying ink, you need to put a tissue paper (or oilcloth) on a sheet of tissue paper and water it with a wide brush or sponge. Then cover with a piece of paper and put it all in a thick book and press hard to remove excess moisture. After that, put a written sheet of paper, cover it with tissue paper and put it all back into the book and press firmly.
204. Copying ink for typewriters.
Take 3 parts of soap, 12.5 parts of glycerin, 36 parts of water and dissolve when heated. In another vessel, dissolve the desired amount of any aniline paint in 72 parts of alcohol and mix the two liquids.
205. Paint for typewriters.
In a porcelain cup, 100 g of glycerin is heated and 100 g of methyl ether are gradually added to the heated glycerin. After that, the mass is cooled and carefully added a little water, stirring constantly. Water is poured in order to eliminate the granularity of the mass. As soon as the mass takes the form of a thick shiny liquid, the addition of water is stopped. The tape for the typewriter is pulled through this paint and rolled between smooth rollers under strong pressure.
206. Lithographic ink.
Lithographic inks are used by lithographers to make croutons with a pen directly on a stone or on a transfer paper.
Austrian ink. For their preparation take:
600 parts of yellow wax,
125 parts of shellac,
75 parts fat,
300 parts of white soap,
100 parts of mastic,
25 parts of resin,
75 parts of Dutch soot.
To the melted pre-wax, add finely chopped soap and heat until the mass begins to emit an unpleasant odor. When cooking, you need to be very careful, in case of ignition, the flame is muffled by the lid. And then, when the mass is slightly cooled, it is poured into molds.
Lithographic ink, as is known, remains in pieces (like Chinese ink) and only if necessary, it is ground on a saucer with water to the required density. The good quality of this mass is in many respects sieve from sufficient incandescence of it, so that it is neither greasy nor lean. Both drawbacks prevent the translation of drawings or font on a lithographic stone.
For their preparation take:
60 parts of yellow wax,
60 parts of white soap,
80 parts of mastic,
60 parts fat,
120 parts shellac,
10 parts of Venetian turpentine,
11 parts of Dutch soot.
Mastic and shellac put in warmed terpentine, then add lard, wax, soap and soot. All this is well mixed and rubbed. The cooled and slightly hardened mass is laid out on a nasty stone or glass and cut into bars.
207. Manufacture of a hectograph.
First of all, you need to take the best grade of carpentry glue, having done with it the preliminary test. Take a small piece of glue and dip it into the water at room temperature. If the glue in the water disperses, then it is not suitable for manufacturing hectographic mass; If it turns into a gelatinous mass, the glue is suitable for making a hectograph.
500 g of this joiner's glue and 1 kg of technical glycerin are lowered into a new tin bowl, in which there should not be the slightest presence of fat. First, glycerol is poured and brought through a gradual heating to the state when steam rises from it. Then the carpenter's glue, turned by the action of water into the jelly, goes down into the pot and the pot is again put on the stove. Heating continues until the glue dissolves completely in glycerin with gentle stirring to prevent air bubbles from forming. When the heated mass turns yellow, it is poured into a flat zinc box with well-sealed edges 2-2.5 cm high and left standing on a flat surface until completely cooled, and the hectograph is ready. If during the transfusion of the mass from the kettle into the zinc box, bubbles form on the surface of the mass, then they can be destroyed by holding a burning ray above them. If the hectographic mass came out too strong and the ink does not stick to it, then it is necessary to melt the whole mass again, adding 50-60 g of glycerin. If you do not have a good carpenter's glue at hand, you can replace it with gelatin. To prepare the mass, 2 kg of gelatin is taken, which is dissolved in 3 kg of technical glycerin with the addition of 400 g of talc in powder.
We offer the following recipe for the preparation of a hectographic mass: 500 g of gelatin is dissolved in 3 liters of water when heated, during which 6 kg of technical glycerin and 500 g of sulfur boride salt in the powder are added.
208. Hectorographic ink.
Hectographic ink is a dense solution of aniline paint, through which it is possible to obtain, with the help of a hectograph, a mass of prints. The main role here is played by glycerin, which prevents rapid drying of ink.
10 parts of nigrosine,
90 parts of water,
10 parts of glycerin.
10 parts of magenta,
10 parts of alcohol,
10 parts of glycerin,
70 parts of water.
10 parts of blue aniline,
15 parts of alcohol,
10 parts of glycerin,
80 parts of water.
10 parts of methyl violet,
5 parts of glycerin,
70 parts of water,
or 10 parts of methyl violet,
8 parts of 20% acetic acid,
4 parts of glycerin,
70 parts of water.
10 parts indigo carmine,
10 parts of picric acid,
30 parts of alcohol,
10 parts of glycerin,
80 parts of water.
209. Stamp paint.
Such paint should give clean, clear prints and should not dry out on the stamp. Stamp paint is made in different colors, but the most common is purple. The easiest way to do it is from aniline inks.
We give the tested composition of violet stamping paint:
10 parts of methyl violet,
3 parts of gum arabic,
1 part of glycerin,
2 parts of water.
Gum arabic is dissolved in cold water and mixed with glycerin, the paint in powder is put in a flat-bottom porcelain mortar and rubbed with porcelain pestle, gradually adding gum arabic with glycerin. To obtain other colors, take the appropriate paint, for black - nigrosine, for red magenta, etc.
210. A non-drying pillow for stamps.
To prepare such a pillow, take 30-40 parts of glycerin and saturate with some easily soluble aniline paint, for example, methyl violet. Then, 10 parts of the carpentry glue, previously soaked in water for a day, are dissolved therein and the resulting mass is poured into a tin box. After cooling, the mass is covered with a rare muslin and receives a pillow, which will be permanently impregnated with paint and sufficiently moist, since glycerin has the property of attracting moisture from the air. When the surface of the mass is strongly wiped, the pillow can be melted down and reused. If the pillow has not been used for a long time and has somewhat hardened, it should be moistened with a few drops of warm water.
211. Ink for labeling the laundry.
Good ink for the label of laundry can be prepared from aniline paints.
Black ink. Take 1 part of nigrosine, soluble in water, 1.5 parts hydrochloric acid, 22 parts alcohol. To this solution is added a solution of 7.5 parts of gum arabic in 100 parts of cold water.
Red ink. Prepared also, only instead of nigrosin take fuchsin or eosin.
212. Eternal ink.
200 parts of shellac, 300 parts of borax, 3000 parts of hot water are taken, dissolved under heating, filtered and a solution of 100 parts of aqueous nigrosine, 1 part of picric acid, 3 parts of tannin, 150 parts of ammonia and 75 parts of distilled water is added.
213. Inks for writing on metals.
For writing on zinc.
15 parts of copper sulphate,
10 parts of potassium chloride,
14 parts of water.
For writing on copper and tin:
25 parts of copper sulfate,
10 parts of gum arabic,
5 parts of soot,
10 parts hydrochloric acid,
24 parts of ammonia,
26 parts of water.
For writing on iron and steel:
20 parts of copper sulphate,
5 parts of vinegar,
5 parts of soot,
10 parts of gum arabic,
60 parts of water.
For writing on tin:
10 parts of copper sulphate,
20 parts of water,
a few drops of hydrochloric acid,
a little gum arabic.
To write on the glass:
3 parts of barium sulfate are mixed with 1 part of ammonium chloride and add as much sulfuric acid to the mixture to form a semi-liquid mass. Since such ink corrodes the glass, they can only be stored in bottles smeared with paraffin.
214. How to restore faded ink on parchment
To do this, it is enough that the place on the parchment, from which the ink has come off, is covered with a brush of a layer of ammonium sulphide. This method has been tested for a long time and is successfully practiced, as appropriate, by the Oxford Library.
215. Washable working drawings.
It has long been known that the drawings in the workshops become so dirty and obscure in time that the numbers and dimensions indicated on them are often impossible to disassemble. In order to protect the drawings made in carcasses or in a pencil from contamination, we advise putting them on a glass or on a board and covering them with collodion, in which 20% of stearin is added. After 15 minutes it dries and gives a pure white color with a matt gloss. Thus, the drawing is covered with a protective layer, which can be washed with clean water, without fear of washing away the figures and figures.
216. Preparation of tracing paper.
For the preparation of transparent copy paper, or tracing paper, wax is dissolved in turpentine, it is impregnated with this solution with thin writing paper and the turpentine is evaporated, after which the paper becomes transparent and ready for use.
Paper can be given transparency and with the help of gasoline: they impose on the drawing from which they want to make a copy, thin writing paper and, after moistening a small piece of cotton wool with gasoline, carry them on paper. The moistened part of the paper becomes completely transparent, and you can draw on it not only with a pencil, but also with ink, and then with watercolors: no ink, no colors blur. Gasoline quickly evaporates, and the paper retains its initial appearance. If the drawing is large, then the paper is cut in parts and copied in parts; gasoline escapes not earlier than the work will be finished.
217. Preparation of copying papers.
A blue paper, prepared as follows, is often used for copying. Take 10 parts by weight of good French blue or Prussian blue, crushed and poured into 20 parts by weight of vegetable olive oil, to which 1/4 of the weight part of glycerin is added. This mixture is left for a week in a dry, warm place at a temperature of 40-50'C and stirred from time to time, and then, when French blue is impregnated with oil, it is well rubbed. When the blue paint is thus completely ready, 0.5 part by weight of yellow wax is blown off lightly and 1.5 parts by weight of petroleum alcohol known in the market under the name of naphtha are added to it, after which 3 parts of the grinded with butter of French blue; heat everything up to 30-35 | C and thoroughly grind until it is completely homogeneous in consistency mass. This mass is applied to a paper, so-called silk, using a broad, soft bristle brush and then leveling the layer with a broad brush or flute so that it settles evenly, after which the paper is dried and then it is completely usable.
218. Rainproof paper.
Dissolve 500 g of white soap in 0.5 liters of water; then prepare a solution of 100 grams of gum arabic and 300 g of carpentry glue for 0.5 liters of water; preheat both mixtures, merge them together and immerse the paper in it. When the latter is well moistened, it is removed and allowed to dry at room temperature. The paper so treated becomes completely waterproof and can be used as wrapping, protecting the objects from wetting with water.
There are other ways: immerse the paper in an aqueous solution of shellac with borax or take 1 part of the joinery adhesive and dissolve it in 10 parts of water, add a solution of 1 part of alum in 10 parts of water. The paper is immersed in this mixture, and then dried.
In order to make the paper waterproof, we recommend impregnating it with an aqueous solution of liquid glue, technical gelatin or casein with 1% formalin.
219. Filter paper.
Чтобы фильтровальная бумага не так скоро прорывалась, что нередко случается при фильтрации больших количеств жидкости, рекомендуется простое средство, которое, значительно увеличивая прочность фильтровальной бумаги, нисколько, вместе с тем, не уменьшает ее фильтрующей способности. Средство это состоит в том, что бумагу погружают на несколько секунд в азотную кислоту с удельным весом 1,42 и затем тотчас же тщательно промывают в воде. Приготовленную таким образом бумагу можно мыть и мять, как полотно; она становится до того прочной, что полоса обыкновенной фильтровальной бумаги шириной в 5-6 см выдерживает тяжесть в 1,5 кг, тогда как такая же полоса, не подвергнутая действию азотной кислоты, разрывается от тяжести 150 г, т.е. is ten times less durable.
220. Фильтровальная замша.
Фильтровальная бумага, как известно, имеет недостаток, состоящий в том, что через нее жидкости фильтруются сравнительно медленно, в особенности более или менее густой и тягучей консистенции. Этот недостаток особенно заметен, когда фильтруется значительное количество названных жидкостей. In these cases, the filter paper can be successfully replaced with suede. Кусок замши вымачивают в слабом растворе соды для удаления содержащихся в ней жиров и затем тщательно прополаскивают в холодной воде. The suede prepared in this way is used as a filter paper. Через нее очень чисто и вместе с тем быстро фильтруются не только всевозможные тинктуры, но и очень густые сиропы, а также тягучие, слизистые растительные соки. О быстроте этого процесса можно судить уже по тому, что литр самого густого сиропа фильтруется за 15 минут. Другое немаловажное достоинство фильтровальной замши состоит в том, что она может служить очень долго; необходимо только каждый раз после употребления тщательно ее промывать.