Creams and apertures for shoes
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226. Creams for shoes. 227. Appprints for shoes. 228. Grease for leather and driving belts.
229. Grease for belt harness and harness. 230. Giving the skin waterproof.
226. Creams for shoes.
Creams can be divided into two groups: turpentine and water.
I. Turpentine creams. It should be borne in mind that the production of turpentine creams poses a certain danger in the fire relation, in particular when they use open fire. Under the hands of the worker there should always be a lid to close the pan tightly in case of ignition of turpentine. Under the feet of a worker, there must always be an old carpet in order to drown out the resulting fire. Eyes should be protected with glasses. Smoking and lighting matches in a room where they work with turpentine are not allowed. In case of burns, bicarbonate soda should always be at hand, which is superimposed on a burn by a thick layer; For works no special utensils are required: a pig-iron enameled boiler with a lid is sufficient. For different colors of the cream should be a separate dish. It is also necessary to have a thermometer in Celsius, i.e. with divisions from 0 to 100 |. The required amount of oleic acid is poured into the cauldron (see below) and the necessary amount of aniline paint (black or color), soluble in fats, is dissolved in it. When the paint dissolves, a strained mixture of waxes is poured into the cauldron and, stirring, is melted, while observing with a thermometer, so that the temperature of the molten mass does not rise above 95 | and did not fall below 90 | Then, if the melting takes place on the primus, then, after extinguishing the fire beforehand, add the necessary amount of turpentine with a thin trickle, stirring all the time. If melting occurred on the plate, then you need to remove the boiler from the plate.
The temperature of the mass should be such that after the addition of turpentine it was not less than 40 | and not higher than 50 | C. It is necessary to ensure that the temperature of the mixture is not lower than 40 | C, since such a mass, poured into tin cans, will not have a good pattern. Warming the cooled mixture will not fix the matter, and therefore, it is necessary to find out in advance on a small sample how the temperature will turn out after the addition of turpentine and in certain cases (especially in winter) it is better to warm the turpentine by putting the bottle in hot water. The temperature of turpentine should be about 20-30 ° C in winter and 10-15 ° C in summer.
Turpentine cream is usually poured into jars or flat tins. The lids of both these and others should be tightly fitted so that turpentine can not evaporate. In artisan workshops are usually poured using a small pot with a spout, in large production - special bottling machines. To ensure that the cream does not cool below 40 ° C during operation, it is necessary to lower the pan with cream in a basin with hot water (50 | C). The temperature in the room should be about 15 |, then the cream cooling in the tins goes better and the more beautiful surface of the cream turns out.
Some varieties of cream have a characteristic pattern in the form of ring-shaped or zigzag lines running from the edges of the tin to the center. They are formed only if the composition of the cream includes the best quality materials, for example carnauba wax. Even with a small amount of carnauba wax in the ointment, this characteristic pattern on the surface of the cream can be caused. For this purpose, a flow of air to the cream spread in tins is arranged, fanning the ointment with a fan.
Below are some recipes for turpentine creams. From the experience of the master it depends on choosing such a mixture of waxes in order to obtain the best quality and at the same time the cheapest ointment.
Here are a few proven recipes for turpentine creams for shoes:
1) 30 parts of carnauba wax, 15 parts of paraffin (48-50 | C), 105 parts of turpentine, 3 parts of oleic or stearic acid, 2 1/4 of aniline paint.
2) 5 parts of carnauba wax, 5 parts of yellow beeswax, 5 parts of Japanese wax, 17 parts of paraffin, 68 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic or stearic acid, 1 part of aniline paint.
3) 5 parts of carnauba wax, 12 parts of candelilla wax, 10 parts of paraffin, 65 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic acid, 1 part of aniline paint.
4) 8 parts of carnauba wax, 8 parts of candelilla wax, 12 parts of paraffin, 68 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic acid, 1 part of aniline paint.
5) 30 parts of shellac wax, 15 parts of paraffin, 105 parts of turpentine, 3 1/4 parts of oleic acid, 2 parts of aniline paint.
6) 10 parts shellac wax, 20 parts paraffin, 60 parts turpentine, 1.5 parts oleic acid, 1.5 parts aniline dye,
7) 10 parts of ceresin, 5 parts of spermaceti, 30 parts of turpentine, 1 part of aniline paint.
Aniline paints are known to have two kinds: soluble in fats and soluble in water and alcohol. For turpentine creams are used exclusively aniline paints, soluble in fats, and for water creams - aniline paints, soluble in water.
For black creams most commonly used nigrosine WLA, WL, KS and C.
For yellow creams, methanil-yellow, orange II, yellow II, autol orange, Persian-yellow, Persian-brown. By mixing these colors, you can get any shade.
Colored turpentine creams are prepared in the same way as black, with the only difference that the materials for colored creams are lighter and cleaner.
For white creams take zinc white of better quality, and to destroy yellowness add a little ultramarine (blue for linen).
II. Water creams differ from turpentine ones in that in them the solvent is not turpentine, but water. When preparing water-based creams for saponification of waxes potash is used. For the preparation of aqueous ointments by handicraft, no special utensils are required. You can work in an ordinary enameled boiler on a stove or on a stove. Since this method does not use turpentine, the work is absolutely safe in a fire relationship.
In the cauldron put a mixture of waxes and melt, stirring thoroughly. That the wax is not burned, the temperature should not be above 95 | C. In another cauldron pour 10% potash solution and, when the dissolved potash boils, it is gradually added to the melted wax carefully, stirring. If you immediately pour a lot of potash, then in the boiler will rise a lot of foam, which can go over the edge. In this case, you should sprinkle it with water and the foam will quickly settle. The mixture is heated until it becomes homogeneous. In the remaining water, which must be added to the wax, dissolve aniline paint, soluble in water. Finally, the dye solution is added to the hot, wiped wax, thoroughly mixed and poured into tin boxes.
Here are two tested recipes for water creams;
1) 4 parts of carnauba or shellac wax, 16 parts of beeswax, 3 parts of potash, 4 parts of aniline paint, 100 parts of water.
2) 16 parts of carnauba wax, 6 parts of Japanese wax, 3.5 parts of potash, 4 parts of aniline paint, 120 parts of water.
Colored creams are prepared in the same way, only instead of black aniline paint, nigrosine WLA, WL, use for yellow creams methanil yellow extra, orange on; for brown creams - brown havanna GM, etc.
Water creams for shoes are much cheaper than turpentine, and their preparation is much safer in terms of fire. Well-prepared water creams are just as good for cleaning shoes as turpentine. They also have the advantage that they do not smell of turpentine.
Colored water creams should be poured into glassware, as the color of the ointment can change in tins.
III. Mixed creams. There is a third kind of creams - mixed creams, which are saponified wax wax, diluted with turpentine.
Here is the recipe for this cream.
4 parts of carnauba wax; 16 parts of beeswax, 3 parts of potash, 2 parts of aniline paint, 60 parts of water, 30 parts of turpentine.
IV. Liquid creams. Liquid creams or dressings for shoes are painted shellac aqueous alkaline solutions that are applied to the skin with a brush or sponge and which, upon drying, give an excellent gloss.
The dishes in which the dressing is prepared should be copper or well-harvested; in no case should the solution come in contact with iron. The reagent should not be stored in tins, as in connection with iron shellac will be released from the solution in the form of flakes.
The water used for the preparation of the finish should not be hard, but it is better to use distilled water. Preparing the dressing as follows: in the copper boiler dissolve potash, then gradually to the boiling solution add shellac. Saponification occurs quickly, and when the entire shellac is dissolved, it is allowed to cool and float to the surface of shellac wax. Wax is removed by filtration or simply removed with a spoon. This wax, of course, should not be thrown away, it can be used to prepare turpentine and water creams (see above). Then add the necessary amount of aniline dye soluble in water to the still hot solution, and stir thoroughly until the paint disperses. Since the finish can be moldy during long storage, it is useful to add a small amount of formalin. Pour appratura in glass bottles, and to a stopper by means of a copper (not iron) wire attach a sponge, by means of which spread apprrekturu on footwear. Here are some of the tried-and-
1) 10 parts shellac, 2 parts potash, 2 parts nigrosine, 100 parts water.
2) 68 parts shellac, 15 parts borax, 10 parts nigrosine, 400 parts water.
3) 20 parts shellac, 8 parts ammonia, 4 parts nigrosine, 120 parts water, 50 parts castor-oil soap.
227. Appprints for shoes.
The apricot replaces the cream and differs from the latter in that it does not require brushing to obtain a shine after it has been spread over it.
Black finish. 20 parts of shellac, 10 parts of borax per 140 parts of water are taken, heated in a water bath with constant stirring until dissolved and 20 parts of sugar, 12 parts of glycerin and 5 parts of water nigrosine are added. Pre-cleaned with soap and water, leather objects are smeared with a brush or sponge, which is wetted in the finish.
Yellow finish. Take 2 parts of yellow wax, 1 part of stearin, 1 part of linseed oil, melt in a water bath, add 6 parts of turpentine, I part of yellow golden ocher. At the same time, dissolve 1 part of solid soap in 10 parts of water and, with constant stirring, mix this solution with the above mixture until a uniform mass is obtained, to which 8 parts of water are gradually added. By cooling the masses, it is filled with bottles with a wide neck.
228. Grease for leather and driving belts.
Take 60 parts of olein, 20 parts of resin, 50 parts of vaseline oil, 5 parts of castor oil, melt and stir until cooled.
229. Grease of harness and harness.
First, the following formulations are prepared:
1) In pure fish oil or blubber, add 1/3 of lard and brew all together so that the fat is mixed with the blubber; then cool in a tin.
2) A simple gray soap is boiled in water until it is completely dissolved and let cool in a tin so that a soft ointment is obtained.
3) Spread a little sandal in a bottle with vitriol.
First of all, you should wash the strap with lukewarm water and soap with a strong brush so that all the old ointment or tar, as well as dust and dirt come off. Then the raw skin is lubricated with the first composition, rubbing it with a cloth. When the ointment is dry in the strap, then to get a gloss, it is rubbed dry with the same cloth in the second composition. The places rubbed and rusted on the belt are lubricated slightly with a third compound. The latter, however, should be done as rarely as possible, since frequent use of the composition can damage the skin.
Lubricate the belts always moist, never hang them in the sun, and leave them in a damp place, without fear of mold, which can always be wiped with a rag. The most harmful to the belt and harness: tar, heat and sun. If belts or harnesses were previously smeared with tar, then they can not be washed off once and you need to wash them several times. Cracked or perepending belts, of course, can not be restored, and for new ones one can not take leather that has been smeared with tar, which is easily recognizable by smell. It is rare to lubricate new belts and keep them in a cool place. Long lying new belts and harness well lubricate with boiled hemp oil.
The above recipe has been tested for many years and has always yielded excellent results.
230. Giving the skin waterproof.
To make the skin waterproof, use liquid and solid fats, which are used either separately, or mixed with each other. They must meet the following requirements: to penetrate deeper into the skin, to make the last flexible and soft and not to report any undesirable features to it. For such ointments that make the skin impenetrable, all vegetable and animal fats and oils with a weak acid reaction are suitable, and various types of wax with and without resin addition. Drying oils, although mentioned in many recipes for a similar purpose, should be excluded, since they make the skin hard and brittle over time. The use of glycerin is useless, since it is extracted from the skin with water. Mineral oils also do not suit. Over time, from the action of water, the impermeability of the skin is lost, so grease should be repeated from time to time. We offer the following remedy for making skin impermeable. Dissolve the yellow beeswax in gasoline before saturation, heat the solution in a water bath and add to it 1/10 part of the spermacetum in a melted state. The frozen mass is stored in jars and is used as follows; melted in a water bath, it is applied to the skin with a brush or brush. The skin should be dry and slightly warm. The ointment penetrates deep into the skin and, in addition, forms a thin layer on its surface. The latter does not in the least prevent the cleaning of the cream.
There is another composition that has been tested in a number of experiments and has yielded very good results: it is a mixture of 50 parts by weight of lamb fat melted in light flames, 49 parts of linseed oil and 1 part by weight of turpentine. The composition is applied to dry and not cold skin. This ointment is especially suitable for hunting shoes and, moreover, as in wet, marshy, and loose, deep snow; in all such cases it perfectly protects the shoes from dampness.
Here is another good composition for giving shoes waterproof. Take 1/4 liters of linseed oil and, warming it on a light fire, dissolve in it 50 grams of bacon, 5 g of wax, 5 grams of wood tar. This slightly warmed up mixture is thoroughly lubricated by shoes. The skin from this becomes not only very soft and flexible, but also completely impermeable to water.
Any leather shoes can be waterproofed if you put it for several hours in the water, in which the gray soap is dissolved in as much as possible. On drying, the shoes not only keep the original softness, but it becomes even softer; and penetrated into all pores of the skin soap solution fills them with the resulting fatty acid, which does not pass water at all.