Creams and dressing for shoes
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226. Shoe creams. 227. Finishing for shoes. 228. Lubricant for leather and belts.
229. Lubricant for belt harnesses and harness. 230. Making the skin waterproof.
226. Shoe creams.
Creams can be divided into two groups: turpentine and water.
I. Turpentine creams. It should be borne in mind that the production of turpentine creams poses some danger in the fire relation, especially when using open fire. Under the hands of the worker should always be a lid to tightly close the pan in case of ignition of turpentine. Under the feet of a worker there must always be an old carpet in order to drown out the fire that has occurred. Eyes should be protected with glasses. Smoking and lighting matches in the room where they work with turpentine is not allowed. In the event of burns, bicarbonate soda should always be on hand, which is thickly applied to the burn; For the work does not require special dishes: enough cast iron enameled boiler with a lid. For different colors of the cream should have a separate bowl. It is also necessary to have a thermometer centigrade, i.e. with tick marks from 0 to 100 |. The boiler poured the required amount of oleic acid (see below) and dissolve in it the right amount of aniline dyes (black or color), soluble in fats. When the paint has dissolved, put the filtered mixture of waxes into the boiler and, while stirring, melt it, observing with a thermometer so that the temperature of the molten mass does not rise above 95 | and did not fall below 90 | C. Then, if melting takes place on a primus, then, after extinguishing the fire, a necessary amount of turpentine is added in a thin stream, stirring all the time. If melting occurred on the stove, then you need to remove the boiler from the stove.
The temperature of the mass should be such that after adding turpentine it is not lower than 40 | and not higher than 50 | C. It is necessary to ensure that the temperature of the mixture was not lower than 40 | C, since such a mass, poured into tins, will not have a good pattern. Heating the cooled mixture will not fix things, and therefore you need to first find out on a small sample what the temperature will be after adding turpentine and in certain cases (especially in winter) it is better to warm the turpentine by placing the bottle in hot water. The temperature of turpentine should be around 20-30 | C in winter and 10-15 | C in summer.
Turpentine cream is usually poured into jars or flat cans. The lids of both those and others must be tight-fitting so that turpentine cannot evaporate. In artisanal workshops they usually pour out with the help of a small saucepan with a spout, in large productions - with special filling machines. In order to keep the cream cool below 40 | C during work, immerse the pan with the cream in a basin with hot water (50 | C). The temperature in the room should be around 15 |, then the cooling of the cream in the tins goes better and a more beautiful surface of the cream is obtained.
Some varieties of cream have a characteristic pattern in the form of ring-shaped or zigzag lines running from the edges of the tin to the center. They are formed only if the composition of creams include materials of better quality, such as carnauba wax. Even with a small amount of carnauba wax in an ointment, this characteristic pattern can be called on the surface of the cream. For this purpose, arrange the flow of air to the cream poured into the cans, fanning the ointment with a fan.
Below are a few recipes for turpentine creams. It depends on the experience of the master to select such a mixture of waxes in order to get the best in quality and at the same time the cheapest ointment.
Here are some tried and tested turpentine shoe polish recipes:
1) 30 parts of carnauba wax, 15 parts of paraffin (48-50 | C), 105 parts of turpentine, 3 parts of oleic or stearic acid, 2 1/4 parts of aniline dye.
2) 5 parts of carnauba wax, 5 parts of yellow beeswax, 5 parts of Japanese wax, 17 parts of paraffin, 68 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic or stearic acid, 1 part of aniline dye.
3) 5 parts of carnauba wax, 12 parts of candelilla wax, 10 parts of paraffin, 65 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic acid, 1 part of aniline dye.
4) 8 parts of carnauba wax, 8 parts of candelilla wax, 12 parts of paraffin, 68 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic acid, 1 part of aniline dye.
5) 30 parts of shellac wax, 15 parts of paraffin, 105 parts of turpentine, 3 1/4 parts of oleic acid, 2 parts of aniline dye.
6) 10 parts of shellac wax, 20 parts of paraffin, 60 parts of turpentine, 1.5 parts of oleic acid, 1.5 parts of aniline dye,
7) 10 parts of ceresin, 5 parts of spermaceti, 30 parts of turpentine, 1 part of aniline dye.
Aniline dyes, as is known, are available in two varieties: soluble in fats and soluble in water and alcohol. For turpentine creams, aniline dyes that are soluble in fats are used exclusively, and for water creams, aniline dyes that are soluble in water are used.
For black creams nigrosine WLA, WL, KS and C is the most commonly used.
For yellow creams, methanil yellow, orange II, yellow II, autol orange, persian yellow, persian brown. By mixing these colors you can get any shade.
Colored turpentine creams are prepared in the same way as black ones, with the only difference being that the materials for colored creams are lighter and cleaner.
For white creams take zinc white of better quality, and to destroy the yellowness add a little ultramarine (blue wash).
Ii. Aqueous creams differ from turpentine in that the solvent in them is not turpentine, but water. In the preparation of aqueous creams for the saponification of wax used potash. For the preparation of water ointment artisanal method does not require any special dishes. You can work in an ordinary enameled pot on the stove or on the stove. Since this method does not use turpentine, the work is completely safe in terms of fire.
A mixture of waxes is put into the pot and melted, stirring well. So that the wax does not burn, the temperature should not be higher than 95 | C. A 10% solution of potash is poured into another boiler and, when the dissolved potash boils, it is gradually added to the melted wax thoroughly, stirring. If you immediately pour in a lot of potash, then a lot of foam will rise in the cauldron, which can go over the edge. In this case, you should sprinkle it with water and the foam will quickly settle. The mixture is heated until it becomes homogeneous. In the rest of the water, which must be added to the wax, dissolve aniline dye, soluble in water. Finally, the paint solution is added to the hot washed wax, carefully stirred and poured into tin boxes.
Here are two tried recipes for water creams;
1) 4 parts of carnauba or shellac wax, 16 parts of beeswax, 3 parts of potash, 4 parts of aniline dye, 100 parts of water.
2) 16 parts of carnauba wax, 6 parts of Japanese wax, 3.5 parts of potash, 4 parts of aniline dye, 120 parts of water.
Color creams are prepared in the same way, but instead of black aniline dye nigrosin WLA, WL, methanil is used for yellow creams extra yellow, orange on; for brown creams - brown havanna GM and others.
Water creams for shoes are much cheaper than turpentine, and their preparation is much safer in terms of fire. Well-prepared water creams are just as good for cleaning shoes as turpentine. They also have the advantage of not smelling like turpentine.
It is better to pour colored water creams into glassware, as in tins the color of the ointment may change.
III. Mixed creams. There is also a third kind of cream - mixed cream, which is saponified saponified wax, then diluted with turpentine.
Here is the recipe for this cream.
4 pieces of carnauba wax; 16 parts of beeswax, 3 parts of potash, 2 parts of aniline dye, 60 parts of water, 30 parts of turpentine.
Iv. Liquid creams. Liquid creams or dressing for shoes are colored aqueous alkaline solutions of shellac, which are applied to the skin with a brush or sponge and which, when dried, give an excellent gloss.
The dishes in which the dressing is prepared should be made of copper or well-finished; in no case should the solution come into contact with iron. The finishing agent should also not be stored in tins, since in combination with iron, shellac will be released from the solution in the form of flakes.
The water used for making the dressing should not be hard, but rather use distilled water. Preparing the dressing as follows: potash is dissolved in a copper pot, then shellac is gradually added to the boiling solution. Saponification occurs quickly, and when the entire shellac is dissolved, it is allowed to cool and to resurface the shellac wax. The wax is removed by filtration or simply removed with a spoon. This wax, of course, should not be thrown away; it can be used to make turpentine and aqueous creams (see above). Then add to the still hot solution the required amount of aniline dye soluble in water, and mix thoroughly until the paint disperses. Since the dressing can be moldy during long storage, it is useful to add a small amount of formalin. The dressing machine is poured into glass bottles, and a sponge is attached to the cork with copper (not iron) wire, with which the dressing is smeared on shoes. Here are a few tried and tested dressings:
1) 10 parts of shellac, 2 parts of potash, 2 parts of nigrosine, 100 parts of water.
2) 68 parts of shellac, 15 parts of borax, 10 parts of nigrosine, 400 parts of water.
3) 20 parts of shellac, 8 parts of liquid ammonia, 4 parts of nigrosine, 120 parts of water, 50 parts of castor-oil soap.
227. Finishing for shoes.
The finish replaces the cream and differs from the latter in that to obtain shine, after smearing it, it does not require rubbing with a brush.
Black finish. Take 20 parts of shellac, 10 parts of borax to 140 parts of water, heat in a water bath with constant stirring until dissolved, and add 20 parts of sugar, 12 parts of glycerin and 5 parts of water nigrosine. Pre-cleaned with soap and water, leather objects are smeared with a brush or sponge, which is moistened in the dressing.
Yellow finish. Take 2 parts of yellow wax, 1 part of stearin, 1 part of linseed oil, melt in a water bath, add 6 parts of turpentine, I part of yellow golden ocher. At the same time dissolve 1 part of solid soap in 10 parts of water and, with constant stirring, mix this solution with the above mixture until a uniform mass is obtained, to which 8 parts of water are gradually added. By cooling the mass with it fill the bottle with a wide neck.
228. Lubricant for leather and belts.
Take 60 parts of olein, 20 parts of the resin, 50 parts of vaseline oil, 5 parts of castor oil, melt and stir until cooled.
229. Lubrication strap and harness.
First, prepare the following compounds:
1) In pure fish oil or blubber, add 1/3 of the lard and cook it all together so that the fat is mixed with the blubber; then cool in a tin.
2) Boil a simple gray soap in water until it is completely dissolved and allow to cool in a tin so that a soft ointment is obtained.
3) Dissolve a little sandal in a bottle of vitriol.
First of all, you should wash the belt with tepid water and soap with a strong brush so that all the old ointment or tar, as well as dust and dirt come off. Then the still raw skin is smeared with the first compound, rubbing it with sukonka. When the ointment is rubbed dry into the belt, then to get a gloss, it is rubbed dry with the same cloth with the second composition. Rubbed and rusty places on the belt are smeared slightly with a third compound. The latter, however, should be done as little as possible, since frequent use of the composition can damage the skin.
Lubricate the belts should always be damp, never hang them in the sun, and leave in a damp place without fear of mold, which can always be wiped with a rag. The most harmful for the belt and harness: tar, heat and sun. If the belts or the harness were smeared with tar before, then you should not wash them off once and you need to wash them several times. Cracked or pereperyy belts, of course, can not be restored, and for new you can not take the skin, which was smeared with tar, which is easily recognizable by smell. New belts need to be lubricated rarely and kept in a cool place. Long lay new belts and harness well lubricated with boiled hemp oil.
The above recipe was tested for many years and always gave excellent results.
230. Making the skin waterproof.
To make the skin waterproof, use liquid and solid fats, which are used either alone or mixed with each other. They must meet the following requirements: penetrate as deeply as possible into the skin, make the latter flexible and soft and not inform it of any undesirable features. For such ointments, which make the skin impenetrable, all vegetable and animal fats and oils, which have a weak acid reaction, and various types of wax with or without resin are suitable. Drying oils, although mentioned in many recipes for a similar purpose, should be excluded, as they make the skin stiff and brittle over time. The use of glycerin is useless, as it is extracted from the skin with water. Mineral oils are also not suitable. Over time, from the action of water, the impermeability of the skin is lost, so the lubricant should be repeated from time to time. We offer the following means to make the skin impenetrable. Dissolve yellow beeswax in gasoline to saturation, heat the solution in a water bath and add 1/10 part of the spermaceti to it in the melted form. The frozen mass is stored in jars and is used as follows; Having melted in a water bath, it is applied to the skin with a brush or a brush. The skin should be dry and slightly heated. The ointment penetrates deep into the skin and, in addition, forms a thin layer on its surface. The latter does not interfere with the cleaning with a cream.
There is another composition that was tested on a number of experiments and gave very good results: it is a mixture of 50 parts by weight of lamb fat melted on a light fire, 49 parts of linseed oil and 1 weight part of turpentine. The composition is applied to dry and not cold skin. This ointment is especially suitable for hunting shoes and, moreover, in places of wet, swampy, and for loose, deep snow; in all such cases, it perfectly protects shoes from moisture.
Here is a good composition for imparting shoes impermeability. They take 1/4 liter of linseed oil and, warming it up on a light fire, dissolve in it 50 g of fat, 5 g of wax, 5 g of wood resin. This lightly warmed mixture carefully lubricates the shoes. The skin from this becomes not only very soft and flexible, but also completely impermeable to water.
Any leather footwear can be made waterproof by putting it for a few hours in water, in which gray soap is dissolved in as large a quantity as possible. After drying, the shoes not only maintain their original softness, but become even softer; moreover, the soap solution that has penetrated into all the pores of the skin fills them with fatty acid, which does not let water through at all.