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Rubber and gutta percha

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70. Artificial rubber - I method. 71. Artificial rubber - II method. 72. Artificial rubber - III method.
73. Artificial rubber - IV method. 74. Artificial gutta percha - I method. 75. Artificial gutta percha - II method.
76. Treatment of old rubber - I method. 77. Treatment of old rubber - II method. 78. Preservation of rubber products.
79. Gutta Percha putty for the skin. 80. Mastic for the repair of rubber products. 81. Universal putty.
82. Marine glue. 83. Glue for gluing rubber to metal and wood. 84. Putty for rubber products.
85. Rubber putty for glass. 86. Elastic rubber varnish. 87. Varnish for rubber products.
88. Varnish for rubber galoshes. 89. Glue for repairing rubber products. 90. Repair of rubber galoshes.
91. Repair of rubber sleeves. 92 Repair of rubber shoes. 93. Adhesion of rubber soles to boots.
94. Repair of rubber hand pumps. 95. Repair of rubber cushions, balls, etc. 96. Repair of rubber raincoats.
97. Repair of rubber tubes.
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70. Artificial rubber - 1 way.

For the manufacture of artificial rubber, vegetable oils are almost always used, especially various types of repellent oil (but not linseed oil). There are two varieties of artificial rubber: white and brown. The first requires a purely white color, a dry and elastic structure, the absence of any chemically active substances and possibly a small content of sulfur and sulfur compounds. For the manufacture of white rubber is best to use refined rapeseed oil, and for each operation should not take a very large amount, for example, not more than 30 kg. The oil is placed in a shallow vessel of enameled iron and 17% of sulfur chloride is rubbed into it, which should not show any signs of decomposition (for example, the release of sulfur). This operation, in order to avoid harmful effects on the respiration of vapors of chlorous sulfur and developing sulfuric acid, should be carried out in a well-ventilated room or even better in the open air. After adding all the chlorine sulfur, the mixing of the mass with a wooden spatula is still going on: the mass gradually darkens, loses its transparency and, with the use of good grades of oil, gets a greenish tinge; then it heats up and emits vapors of hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and water; in 10-15 minutes (the slower the reaction, the better) it starts to thicken and after that it completely freezes in a minute. The hardened mass is crushed, and the pieces are passed several times through a couple of shafts, and each time the shafts converge more and more, so that after the 3-4th time the whole mass leaves thoroughly wrinkled. The still warm composition is laid out in a thin layer on special sticks and is ventilated for several weeks, until the acute odor is completely lost. For the manufacture of white artificial rubber, it is required to add at least 17% sulfur to the oil; when this proportion is reduced by only 0.5%, the mass remains sticky. If the oil is not of the best quality or chlorine sulfur is wet, then the latter should be added more (but not more than 18%). From this it is clear that the weighing of sulfur must be carried out very carefully. The proportion of it is determined each time by trial on a small sample (about 1 kg) of oil.
Brown rubber, which exists a lot of varieties, is made of oil and sulfur color. The best of them have a specific gravity below 1; the first place is occupied by the so-called "para francais", which has the lowest sulfur content and has the required elasticity.
For simple varieties, usually rapeseed oil is used, subjected to preliminary oxidation by air at 130-140'C; In this operation, the oil first heats up within 24 hours without access of air to remove water, and then, when heated, an air stream is introduced through the tube, reaching almost to the bottom of the vessel; the air treatment lasts 5-6 days, after which the oil forms a beautiful rubber with 20% sulfur. The oil is combined with sulfur at 160 | In the boiler directly above the fire with constant stirring. After an hour, when all the sulfur is distributed in the oil, mixing stops, but heating continues for an hour or two, since the chemical bond between sulfur and oil is very slow. At the end of the reaction, the oil begins to foam and the heating should be immediately interrupted; the foam is gradually removed and placed in the second vessel, where it soon freezes, after which the solid mass is processed by the shafts in the cold, and not in heat, like white rubber.
Instead of rapeseed oil, ricin (castor) oil is often used, which, however, gives a rubber of lower grade. For the production of "floating grades" of rubber, i.e. having a specific gravity below 1, only a mixture of ricin oil with some mineral is suitable; so, for example, an excellent rubber is obtained by heating ricin oil and sulfur with 1/3 (weight of the first) mixture of 5 g of light mineral oil and 1 part of paraffin. If you require a particularly viscous product, painted in a dark color, then half of this mineral mixture is replaced by a mixture of 4 parts of asphalt and 1 part of paraffin, instead of paraffin, there is also ceresin or petrolatum.

71. Artificial rubber - II method.

The proposed novel method for obtaining a composition similar to rubber or gutta-percha is to treat a mixture of gelatin, dvuhromovokalievoy salt and glycerin. These materials, in order to slow the action of the chrome peel on gelatin, are mixed in anhydrous state; under such conditions, the chemical action indicated is so slow that the composition can be molded or processed according to the intended purpose; then the chemical action can be enhanced by heating.
To prepare the composition, gelatin and hrompeak are taken in the form of a thin, completely dry powder in the proportion of about 10 parts of gelatin per part of the chrome peel and mixed thoroughly. To this, anhydrous glycerin is added, the proportion being adjusted depending on the desired flexibility or elasticity of the product. The composition thus obtained is molded or processed to impart the desired size, shape or appearance to the product, and then undergoes severe heating.
To facilitate molding, the composition after mixing of the materials can be mixed or rolled over rollers.
If it is necessary to increase or decrease the volume or elasticity of the product, the composition can be mixed with any neutral substance in a powdery or granular form. For example, if you want to increase the volume without a corresponding increase in weight, you can use a plug as an additional material. For the preparation of the above composition, it is also possible to first mix the powdered chrome spirit with anhydrous glycerin and then add the powdered gelatin.
The use of components in the dry state has the following advantages: 1) there is no reduction in volume due to evaporation, since the size and weight of the manufactured object are accurately determined in advance; 2) there is no loss of time for drying or evaporation, so that items can be manufactured in a short time; 3) the chemical interaction between the chrome and gelatin, i.e. oxidation, is accomplished, as already said, very slowly, leaving enough time for molding or other processing of the mass.

72. Artificial rubber - III method.

This plastic substance used in place of rubber is known under the name of textileoid and is obtained as follows: any oil is treated with carbon dioxide (predominantly carbonic lead) and nitric acid; the liquid is drained, the residue is saturated with alkali, the soap obtained is decomposed by acids; the liberated resinous substance is purified by dissolving in alcohol, ether, and the like. and evaporation of the solvent. The mass is then dissolved in a solvent and admixed with the following substances: zinc oxide, magnesia, kaolin and other metal oxides and earth, resins, cellulose (paper pulp or wood sawdust), nitrocellulose, albumin, gelatin, fibrin, etc. in the oxidized state. Textiloid can be given any shape, so that it completely replaces rubber. It is used for making oilcloth, leather, linoleum, artificial amber, ivory, etc.

73. Artificial rubber - IV method.

In an open vessel, with constant stirring and constant air pumping, dissolve 1 part of old rubber (trimmings, spoiled rubber goods) in 4-12 parts of oil (especially linseed oil) or oil residues. After complete dissolution, the undissolved parts are separated by settling from the mass. Then add a little bit of groundworm to the solution and evaporate until the mass becomes sticky (evaporation lasts 2-6 hours); after that it is cooled and in this form it goes on sale. This mass can be used as an ordinary rubber for the production of various items, for the production of linoleum, but in a mixture with sand and tarpaulins.

74. Artificial gutta percha - I method.

For the manufacture of artificial gutta-percha, the raw rubber mass is taken in a mixture with carnauba wax and, if necessary, with oils having a high boiling point, is first subjected to a weak, and then constantly intensified heating, not attaining, however, the melting point of the wax. Moreover, the mixture is carefully poured into a completely homogeneous, gutta-percha, which does not require vulcanization at all, and is nevertheless a firm and elastic product. This treatment does not require the use of solvents, either for rubber or for wax. Oil applied in other cases is added to the mass before stirring.

75. Artificial gutta percha - II method.

Take 48 kg of digging, crushed into powder, 5-14 kg of sulfur color and 50-55 buckets of kerosene, heated to complete dissolution at a temperature of 122-150 | C, continuously interfering, and cooled to 38 | C. Then 3 kg of casein (or cottage cheese) is dissolved in a weak aqueous solution of ammonia (with the addition of a small amount of wood alcohol), poured into the prepared mass as above, and again heated at a temperature of 122-150 ° C until a mass of liquid consistency is obtained. Then 15-25% solution of tannic acid, ink-nut or catechu, 100 g of ammonia is added to the mass and boiled for a long time, after which the mass is cooled, washed, kneaded in hot water, rolled and dried.

76. Treatment of old rubber - I method.

From the old, unusable already used rubber, a product is prepared which can be used as ordinary rubber and which, in comparison with the latter, has a much greater resistance to tearing, due to the release from the rubber during processing of plant protein substances.
The old unsuitable rubber is washed first to completely remove all dirt adhering to it, then it is immersed for several days in a liquid of the following composition. In 3-4 buckets of boiling water, 300 g of emetic stone is dissolved and 1 kg of tannic acid or a corresponding amount of substances containing tannic acid is added to the solution. If the processed rubber becomes sticky, then the emetic stone is replaced with 600 g of calcium sulphate (the solution is prepared on cold water). When processing rubber, which occupies the middle position between sticky and non-sticky, 250 g of calcium sulfurous calcium are added to this solution of the emetic stone. In this or that solution, the rubber is left to a proper softening, then it is removed and dried in warm air. Finally, it is rolled between the rollers into more or less thin sheets, from which the necessary things are made, as from ordinary rubber. Rubber, processed by this method, has the property not to attract moisture to itself.

77. Treatment of old rubber - II method.

The old rubber is thoroughly crushed, mixed with equal parts by weight of technical castor oil and the mixture is heated to 180-210 | C until the rubber dissolves. After cooling, the mixture is poured into a double volume of 90% alcohol. Then from this mixture rubber is released and settles on the bottom in the form of a viscous mass, and castor oil dissolves in alcohol. After that, the rubber is separated from the rest of the mixture and washed with a small amount of fresh alcohol (to remove the residues of castor oil) until the drop on the paper, after evaporating the alcohol, leaves a trace. Since the resulting rubber mass contains some more alcohol, it is washed first in warm water with a small amount of alkali admixture, and then with clean water from the tap. Rinsed (laminated) in thin sheets of rubber soon completely loses its moisture and acquires excellent qualities.

78. Preservation of rubber products.

First of all, they must be protected from the effects of light and heat and therefore it is especially recommended to keep them in a well-ventilated cool room (basement, etc.). To prevent the effect of air, small rubber objects can be stored in liquids. According to the experiments carried out on the preservation of rubber hoses, the best results were obtained from the following liquids: a 10% aqueous solution of glycerin and lime water.

79. Gutta Percha putty for the skin.

Take: 100 parts of gutta percha, 100 parts of black tar (pitch) or asphalt, 15 parts of turpentine oil. This compound should be consumed hot.

80. Mastic for the repair of rubber products

For sealing holes and cracks in rubber products, the following mastic is recommended:
26 parts of carbon disulphide,
2 parts of gutta-percha,
4 parts of rubber,
1 part of fish glue.
Full hardening of the mastic occurs within 24 hours.

81. Universal putty.

In a tin can, 4 parts of pitch with 4 parts of gutta-percha are melted and mixed well.

82. Marine glue.

This adhesive is used to coat surfaces that are constantly in contact with water. It is prepared from 1 part of rubber, 4 parts of asphalt and 12 parts of coal tar. The cut rubber is dissolved in tar and then asphalt is added.

83. Glue for gluing rubber to metal and wood.

It is known that ordinary glue is not suitable for this purpose, but a very special composition is required. A good glue for this can be prepared by dissolving 1 part by weight of gum millet in 10 parts of ammonia. Gummilac dissolves in ammonia very slowly: it takes at least a month to completely dissolve the indicated amount. The resulting solution has the ability to soften the surface of the rubber. Thus, when they want to glue rubber on iron or wood, lubricate the surface of the rubber to be glued with the said solution and then strongly press against the iron or wood; The softened surface of rubber adheres tightly to them and keeps very firmly on drying.

84. Putty for rubber products.

The surface of the break must first be cleaned with a stiff brush from dust and dirt, and then greased with a putty consisting of:
30 parts of carbon disulphide,
4 parts of gutta-percha,
8 parts of rubber,
2 parts of fish glue.
This putty is applied to the glued surfaces with a not very thick layer with a spatula or a slightly warmed knife, then both surfaces are pressed against each other and tied with a string so that they do not separate. After 36-48 hours, the surfaces are finally glued together; then the string is removed and the glued place is smoothed. This putty is also suitable for repairing bicycle and automobile rubber tires.

85. Rubber putty for glass.

1) 1 part of rubber
12 pieces of mastic,
4 parts of dammarovoi resin,
50 parts of chloroform,
10 parts of gasoline.
2) 12 parts of rubber,
120 parts of mastic,
500 parts of chloroform.
This putty applied to the glass, adheres instantly and forms an elastic layer.
3) 2 parts of rubber,
6 pieces of mastic,
100 parts of chloroform.
This putty is prepared in the cold for several days. Transparent putty should be induced quickly, because it very quickly thickens.
These three recipes can serve to produce a waterproof glue if you increase the amount of rubber 4.5 times, gasoline 6 times, and chloroform 5 times.

86. Elastic rubber varnish.

Take 3 parts of quicklime, add 4 parts of water; 10 parts of sulfur rubber, pre-melted, are added to the hot mass. Then add 10 parts of boiling flax oil to the mixture. After cooling, the varnish has a dough-like consistency. The objects are preheated before lubrication.
Or take 1 part of rosin, 1 part of the dammarovoy resin, melt them and add 1 part of the finely cut rubber and, with constant stirring, heat until dissolved. Finally, add 2 parts of hot linseed oil.

87. Varnish for rubber products.

According to the experiments, the best solvent of rubber in the manufacture of varnishes is camphor oil. Take 30 grams of the best rubber and cut it with a sharp wet knife into small pieces. The cut pieces are placed in a wide-necked bottle and poured with 1 liter of camphor oil; gently closing the bottle with a cork, leave it for several days in a moderately warm place (but not in the sun). Every day the contents of the bottle are shaken several times. By dissolving all rubber, the liquid is filtered through a web to separate insoluble substances and other impurities from it.
Приготовленный таким образом каучуковый раствор является довольно густым и уже сам по себе может употребляться в виде лака. Но особенно хорош он, если к нему добавить копаловый лак, который прекрасно смешивается с каучуковым раствором. Такой лак обладает большой вязкостью, эластичностью и способностью противостоять атмосферным влияниям и действию кислот, щелочей и т.д.

88. Лак для резиновых галош.

700 г каучука,
1,4 кг сосновой смолы,
2,5 кг скипидара,
200 г костяного угля.
Сначала довольно сильно нагревают каучук со скипидаром, расплавляют затем в растворе смолу и, наконец, размешивают в горячей массе костяной уголь.

89. Клей для ремонта резиновых изделий.

Берут 90 г чистого бензина, 15 г сероуглерода и 7,5 г эфира, смешивают в бутыли и кладут туда мелконарезанную, невулканизированную резину. Затем закупоривают бутылку и ставят на несколько часов в теплое место. После полного растворения резины клей взбалтывают и тогда он готов к употреблению.
Note. Не нужно забывать, что бензин и сероуглерод чрезвычайно летучи и при малейшем приближении к огню возможен взрыв, поэтому все операции с этим клеем следует производить днем и вдали от огня. Следует также воздерживаться от курения во время работы.

90. Ремонт резиновых галош.

Галоши тщательно моют, высушивают и подчищают мелким напильником. Затем вырезают соответствующего размера заплатку, смазывают клеем для резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89), прижимают к нужному месту (если нужно, обвязывают бечевками) и дают подсохнуть в течение двух часов, после чего покрывают зачищенное место или всю галошу резиновым лаком (см. рецепт No 88).

91. Ремонт резиновых рукавов.

Растрескавшийся снаружи резиновый рукав очищается теплой водой при помощи щетки от грязи и тщательно высушивается. Затем его кладут на доску и на трещины наносится клей для ремонта резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89) до тех пор, пока все трещины не заполнятся им. Каждый новый слой наносится по высыхании предыдущего. Когда последний слой станет засыхать, рукав в этом месте обертывают холщовой тесьмой, смоченной вышеупомянутым клеем.
Если рукав дал трещины на внутренней своей поверхности, то описанный способ непригоден, так как в починенном месте образуется утолщение, вокруг которого собирается грязь и может образоваться "пробка". В таком случае вырезают испорченный кусок и сращивают оба конца, вставляя их в короткий кусок резинового рукава большего диаметра, плотно охватывающего починенный рукав.

92. Ремонт резиновой обуви.

Резиновая заплата, которую хотят наклеить на резиновую обувь, и поврежденное место протираются шкуркой, чтобы поверхность обоих стала шероховатой; затем смазывают обе поверхности клеем для ремонта резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89), после чего оставляют их в покое на полчаса и потом крепко сжимают. Чтобы ремонт сделать прочнее, следует вулканизировать заплату холодным способом. Для этого промазывают ее после вышеописанной операции сероводородом, к которому добавлено немного хлористой серы, а затем уже быстро нажимают на поврежденное место.

93. Приклейка резиновых подошв к сапогам.

Для приклейки резиновых подошв к кожаной обуви пригодны следующие замазки.
I. Разрезают 10 частей каучука на мелкие кусочки, кладут их в жестянку, помещенную в водяную баню и нагретую до 30|С, и добавляют 140 частей сернистого углерода. Когда каучук растворится, добавляют смесь, приготовленную следующим образом: сплавляют 10 частей каучука с 10 частями истолченной канифоли и затем добавляют 35 частей скипидара. Эту замазку следует хранить в герметически закупоренной склянке.
II. При сплавлении равных частей обыкновенной смолы и гуттаперчи получается замазка, которую применяют горячей и которая хорошо пристает к коже, резине и разным другим материалам.
III. Растворяют 10 частей гуттаперчи в 100 частях бензина. Раствор этот сливается в склянку, содержащую 100 частей олифы, и все сильно взбалтывается.

94. Ремонт каучуковых ручных насосов.

Для исправления разрывов в каучуковых насосах, употребляемых для поливки улиц, растений и т. д., рекомендуется следующий состав: мелконарезанный каучук растворяют в скипидаре, в хлороформе, в бензине или в керосине; каучук в названных жидкостях растворяется неполностью, но размягчается до такой степени, что приобретает консистенцию тестообразной массы. Затем слегка нагревают пробитые и разорванные края насоса и накладывают размягченный в одной из названных жидкостей каучук, после чего края сдавливают. Если после первой заклейки не получится полной заделки, каучуку дают высохнуть и операцию повторяют. При тщательной манипуляции поврежденные части исправляются полностью, так что насос вновь становится пригоден для продолжительного употребления.

95. Ремонт резиновых подушек, мячей и т.д.

Названные резиновые изделия с более или менее толстой оболочкой исправляют следующим способом. Сначала поверхность их необходимо хорошо очистить от пыли и грязи, затем берут канифоль и растворяют ее в 90|-ном спирте до получения густой массы. Полученной смесью тщательно промазывают трещины и дают замазке как следует затвердеть. Этим способом можно починить старые резиновые подушки, наколенники, мячи и т.п. резиновые изделия.

96. Ремонт резиновых плащей.

Для исправления резиновых плащей и других тонких резиновых оболочек берут кусочек тонкого листового каучука, по величине соответствующий месту, подлежащему ремонту, и намазывают его с одной стороны, а также и прилегающее место на поверхности предмета скипидаром. Смазанные поверхности накладывают друг на друга и кладут на сутки под пресс. Исправленные места после этого оказываются столь же непроницаемыми для воды, как они были и раньше в неповрежденном виде.
Note. Следует заметить, что свежий листовой каучук удобнее всего резать острым, смоченным водой ножом.

97. Ремонт резиновых трубок.

Небольшие отверстия смачиваются на краях бензином, а затем заполняются куском размягченной в бензине резины, которая затем сглаживается горячим железом. После ремонта трубка может еще долго служить, а само место ремонта можно, при некотором навыке, сделать совершенно незаметным для глаз. Для предохранения от высыхания и растрескивания резиновые трубки необходимо всегда держать при комнатной температуре.