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Rubber and gutta percha

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70. Artificial rubber - I method. 71. Artificial rubber - II method. 72. Artificial rubber - III method.
73. Artificial rubber - IV method. 74. Artificial gutta percha - I method. 75. Artificial gutta percha - II method.
76. Treatment of old rubber - I method. 77. Treatment of old rubber - II method. 78. Saving rubber products.
79. Gutta-percha putty for skin. 80. Mastic for the repair of rubber products. 81. Universal putty.
82. Sea glue. 83. Glue for gluing rubber to metal and wood. 84. Putty for rubber products.
85. Rubber putty for glass. 86. Elastic rubber lacquer. 87. Varnish for rubber products.
88. Varnish for rubber overshoes. 89. Glue for the repair of rubber products. 90. Repair of rubber overshoes.
91. Repair of rubber hoses. 92 Repair of rubber shoes. 93. Pasting rubber soles to boots.
94. Repair of rubber hand pumps. 95. Repair of rubber pads, balls, etc. 96. Repair of rubber raincoats.
97. Repair of rubber tubes.
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70. Artificial rubber - 1 way.

For the manufacture of artificial rubber is almost always used vegetable oils, especially various varieties of turnkey oil (but not flax). There are two types of artificial rubber: white and brown. From the first required pure white color, dry and elastic structure, the absence of any chemically active substances and possibly a low content of sulfur and sulfur compounds. For the manufacture of white rubber, it is best to use purified rapeseed oil, and for each operation you should take a not very large amount of it, for example, not more than 30 kg. The oil is placed in a shallow vessel of enameled iron and 17% sulfuric chloride is rubbed into it, which should not show any signs of decomposition (for example, the release of sulfur). This operation, in order to avoid harmful effects on respiration of chlorine sulfur vapor and developing sulfuric acid, should be carried out in a well-ventilated room or even better outdoors. After adding the entire amount of chlorine sulfur, mixing of the mass with a wooden spatula is still going on: the mass gradually darkens, loses its transparency and, when using good grades of oil, gets a greenish tint; it then heats up and emits vapors of hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and water; in 10-15 minutes (the slower the reaction, the better) it begins to thicken and after that it completely freezes after a minute. The hardened mass is crushed, and the pieces are passed several times through a pair of shafts, and each time the shafts converge more and more, so that after 3-4 times the whole mass goes thoroughly washed out. Still warm, the composition is laid out in a thin layer on special sticks and ventilated for several weeks, until complete loss of the pungent smell. For the manufacture of white artificial rubber is required to add to the oil at least 17% sulfur; when this proportion is reduced by only 0.5%, the mass remains sticky. If the oil is taken not the best quality or chlorine sulfur is wet, then the latter should be added more (but not more than 18%). From this it is clear that sulfur must be weighed very carefully. Its proportion is determined every time by experience on a small sample (about 1 kg) of oil.
Brown rubber, of which there are many varieties, is made from oil and sulfur. The best of them have a specific weight below 1; the first place is occupied by the so-called "para francais", which has the lowest sulfur content and has the required elasticity.
For simple varieties, rapeseed oil is usually taken, subjected to preliminary oxidation by air at 130-140 ° C; during this operation, the oil is first heated for 24 hours without air access to remove water, and then, when heated, the air stream is introduced through a tube that reaches almost to the bottom of the vessel; air treatment lasts 5-6 days, after which the oil forms a beautiful rubber with 20% sulfur. The connection of oil with sulfur occurs at 160 | in the boiler directly above the fire with constant stirring. After an hour, when all the sulfur was distributed in the oil, mixing ceased, but heating continued for another hour or two, since the chemical compound between sulfur and oil occurs very slowly. By the end of the reaction, the oil begins to foam and the heating must be immediately interrupted; The foam is gradually removed and placed in the second vessel, where it soon hardens, after which the solid mass is treated with shafts in the cold, and not in the heat, like white rubber.
Instead of rapeseed oil, ricin (castor) oil is also often used, which, however, gives lower-grade rubber. For the manufacture of "floating varieties" of rubber, i.e. possessing a specific weight below 1, only a mixture of ricinous oil and some mineral is suitable; for example, excellent rubber is obtained by heating ricinous oil and sulfur with 1/3 (weight of the first) mixture of 5 g of light mineral oil and 1 part of paraffin. If a particularly dark colored colored product is required, then half of this mineral mixture is replaced by a mixture of 4 parts of asphalt and 1 part of paraffin, instead of paraffin, ceresin or petroleum jelly is also used.

71. Artificial rubber - II method.

The proposed new method of obtaining a composition similar to rubber or gutta-percha, consists in processing a mixture of gelatin, dvuhromovokalievoy salt and glycerin. These materials, for slowing down the action of chromic on gelatin, are mixed in a dry state; under such conditions, the indicated chemical action occurs so slowly that the composition can be molded or processed according to the intended purpose; after that, the chemical action can be enhanced by heating.
To prepare the composition, gelatin and bromide are taken in the form of a fine, completely dry powder in the proportion of about 10 parts of gelatin to one part of bromine and are thoroughly mixed. Anhydrous glycerin is added to this, and the proportion is adjusted depending on the desired flexibility or elasticity of the product. The composition thus obtained is molded or processed to give the product the desired size, shape or appearance, and then subjected to intense heating.
To facilitate molding, the composition after mixing materials can be mixed or rolled through rollers.
If you want to increase or decrease the volume or elasticity of the product, the composition can be mixed with a neutral substance in a powder or granular form. For example, if you want to increase the volume without a corresponding increase in weight, then a stopper can be used as an additional material. For the preparation of the above composition, you can also first mix powdered bromine with anhydrous glycerin and then add powdered gelatin.
The use of the components in the dry state has the following advantages: 1) there is no decrease in volume due to evaporation, since the size and weight of the manufactured item are precisely defined in advance; 2) there is no loss of time for drying or evaporation, so that items can be made in a short time; 3) chemical interaction between chrompeak and gelatin, i.e. oxidation, takes place, as already mentioned, very slowly, leaving enough time for molding or other processing of the mass.

72. Artificial rubber - III method.

This plastic substance used instead of rubber is known as textiloid and is obtained as follows: any oil is treated with a carbonate metal (mainly lead carbonate) and nitric acid; the liquid is drained, the residue is saturated with alkali, the resulting soap is decomposed with acids; the resinous substance released is purified by dissolving in alcohol, ether, etc. and evaporation of the solvent. The mass is then dissolved in any solvent and mixed (it is possible and not to dissolve, but directly mix) the following substances: zinc oxide, magnesia, kaolin and other metal oxides and earth, resin, cellulose (pulp or sawdust), nitrocellulose, albumin, gelatin, fibrin, etc. in the oxidized state. Textile can be given any shape, so that it completely replaces the rubber. It is used for the production of oilcloth, leather, linoleum, artificial amber, ivory, etc.

73. Artificial rubber - IV method.

In an open vessel, with constant stirring and constant pumping of air, dissolve 1 part of old rubber (trimming, spoiled rubber product) in 4-12 parts of oil (especially flaxseed) or oil residue. After complete dissolution by sedimentation, its undissolved parts are separated from the mass. Then add a little red pepper to the solution and evaporate until the mass becomes sticky (evaporation lasts 2-6 hours); after that it is cooled and in this form it goes on sale. This mass can be used as an ordinary rubber for the manufacture of various items, for the manufacture of linoleum, and mixed with sand and tarpaulins.

74. Artificial gutta percha - I method.

For the manufacture of artificial gutta-percha, a raw rubber mass is taken in a mixture with carnauba wax and, if necessary, with oils having a high boiling point, is first exposed to weak and then constantly increasing heating, which, however, does not reach the melting point of the wax. Moreover, the mixture is carefully minimized, turning into a completely homogeneous, possessing all the properties of gutta-percha, which does not require vulcanization at all and yet is a hard and elastic product. This treatment does not require the use of solvents for rubber or wax. Otherwise applied oils are added to the mass before stirring.

75. Artificial gutta percha - II method.

Take 48 kg of copal, powdered, 5-14 kg of sulfur and 50-55 buckets of kerosene, heated to complete dissolution at a temperature of 122-150 | C, continuously interfering, and cooled to 38 | C. Then dissolve 3 kg of casein (or cottage cheese) in a weak aqueous solution of ammonia (with the addition of a small amount of wood alcohol), pour into the prepared as above, mass and heat it again at a temperature of 122-150 | C until a mass of liquid consistency is obtained. Then 15-25% solution of tannic acid, inking-nut or catechu, 100 g of ammonia is added to the mass and boiled for a rather long time, after which the mass is cooled, washed, kneaded in hot water, rolled and dried.

76. Treatment of old rubber - I method.

A product is prepared from an old rubber that is not suitable for use, which can be used as an ordinary rubber and which, compared to the latter, has a much greater tear resistance due to the release of rubber from the processing of vegetable protein substances.
The old unusable rubber is first washed until all the dirt adhering to it is completely removed, then it is immersed for several days in a liquid of the following composition. In 3-4 buckets of boiling water, 300 g of emetic stone is dissolved and 1 kg of tannic acid or the corresponding amount of tannic acid is added to the solution. If the treated rubber becomes sticky, then an emetic stone is replaced with 600 g of calcium sulphate (the solution is prepared in cold water). When processing the rubber, which occupies a middle position between the sticky and non-sticky, 250 g of calcium sulphate are added to the indicated solution of the emetic stone. In one or another solution, the rubber is left to a proper softening, then it is removed and dried in warm air. Finally, it is rolled between the rollers into more or less thin sheets, from which they make the necessary things, like from ordinary rubber. Rubber treated by this method tends not to attract moisture to itself.

77. Treatment of old rubber - II method.

Old rubber is thoroughly crushed, mixed with equal parts by weight of technical castor oil and the mixture is heated to 180-210 | C until the rubber is dissolved. After cooling, the mixture is poured into a double v. Volume of 90% alcohol. Then rubber is extracted from this mixture and settles to the bottom in the form of a viscous mass, and castor oil is dissolved in alcohol. After that, the rubber is separated from the rest of the mixture and washed with a small amount of fresh alcohol (to remove castor oil residues) until the drop, which has been placed on the paper, after evaporation of the alcohol leaves no trace. Since the resulting rubber mass contains some more alcohol, it is washed first in warm water with an admixture of a small amount of alkali, and then with clean water from the tap. Vyvaltsovannaya (laminated) in thin sheets of rubber soon completely loses moisture and gets excellent quality.

78. Saving rubber products.

First of all, they must be protected from the action of light and heat and therefore it is especially recommended to keep them in a well-ventilated cool room (basement, etc.). To prevent the action of air, small rubber objects can be stored in liquids. According to the experiments made on the preservation of rubber hoses, the following results gave the best results: 10% aqueous glycerin solution and lime water.

79. Gutta-percha putty for skin.

Take: 100 parts of gutta-percha, 100 parts of black resin (pitch) or asphalt, 15 parts of terpentine oil. This composition should be consumed hot.

80. Mastic for the repair of rubber products

To seal holes and cracks in rubber products, mastic of the following composition is recommended:
26 parts of carbon disulfide,
2 pieces of gutta percha,
4 pieces of rubber
1 part fish glue.
Full hardening mastic occurs within 24 hours.

81. Universal putty.

In a tin, 4 parts of a pitch are melted with 4 parts of gutta percha and mixed well.

82. Sea glue.

This adhesive is used to coat surfaces that are constantly in contact with water. It is prepared from 1 part of rubber, 4 parts of asphalt and 12 parts of coal tar. The cut rubber is dissolved in tar and then asphalt is added.

83. Glue for gluing rubber to metal and wood.

It is known that ordinary glue is not suitable for this purpose, but a very special composition is required. A good glue for this can be prepared by dissolving 1 weight part of gummilk in 10 parts of ammonia. Gummilac dissolves in liquid ammonia very slowly: it will take at least a month to completely dissolve the indicated amount. The resulting solution has the ability to soften the surface of the rubber. Thus, when they want to stick rubber on iron or wood, lubricate the surface of the rubber to be glued with the specified solution and then strongly press it against the iron or wood; the softened surface of the rubber adheres tightly to them and, after drying, holds very firmly.

84. Putty for rubber products.

First of all, the fracture surface should be cleaned with a stiff brush of dust and dirt, and then smeared with putty consisting of:
30 parts of carbon disulfide,
4 pieces of gutta percha,
8 pieces of rubber
2 pieces of fish glue.
This putty is applied to the surfaces to be glued with a not very thick layer using a spatula or a slightly heated knife, then both surfaces are pressed against each other and tied with string so that they do not separate. After 36-48 hours, the surfaces finally stick together; then the twine is removed and smoothed glued place. This putty is also suitable for fixing bicycle and car rubber tires.

85. Rubber putty for glass.

1) 1 part of rubber
12 pieces of mastic
4 parts of dammar resin,
50 parts of chloroform,
10 parts gasoline.
2) 12 pieces of rubber
120 pieces of mastic
500 parts of chloroform.
This putty applied to the glass adheres instantly and forms an elastic layer.
3) 2 pieces of rubber
6 pieces of mastic
100 parts of chloroform.
This putty is cooked in the cold for several days. Transparent putty must be induced quickly, because it thickens very quickly.
These three recipes can be used to produce waterproof glue if you increase the amount of rubber by 4.5 times, gasoline by 6 times, and chloroform by 5 times.

86. Elastic rubber lacquer.

Take 3 parts of quicklime, add 4 parts of water; 10 parts of sulfur rubber previously melted are added to the hot mass. Then add 10 parts of boiling flaxseed oil to the mixture. After cooling, the varnish has a pasty consistency. Objects are heated before lubrication.
Or take 1 part of rosin, 1 part of dammar resin, melt them and add 1 part of finely cut rubber and, with constant stirring, heat to dissolve. Finally, add 2 parts of hot flaxseed oil.

87. Varnish for rubber products.

According to the experiments, the best solvent of rubber in the manufacture of varnishes is camphor oil. Take 30 g of the best rubber and cut it with a sharp wet knife into small pieces. The sliced ​​pieces are placed in a wide-necked flask and filled with 1 liter of camphor oil; lightly plugging the bottle with a stopper, leaving it for a few days in a moderately warm place (but not in the sun). Every day the contents of the flask are shaken several times. After dissolving the entire rubber, the liquid is filtered through a sheet to separate insoluble substances and other impurities from it.
Приготовленный таким образом каучуковый раствор является довольно густым и уже сам по себе может употребляться в виде лака. Но особенно хорош он, если к нему добавить копаловый лак, который прекрасно смешивается с каучуковым раствором. Такой лак обладает большой вязкостью, эластичностью и способностью противостоять атмосферным влияниям и действию кислот, щелочей и т.д.

88. Лак для резиновых галош.

700 г каучука,
1,4 кг сосновой смолы,
2,5 кг скипидара,
200 г костяного угля.
Сначала довольно сильно нагревают каучук со скипидаром, расплавляют затем в растворе смолу и, наконец, размешивают в горячей массе костяной уголь.

89. Клей для ремонта резиновых изделий.

Берут 90 г чистого бензина, 15 г сероуглерода и 7,5 г эфира, смешивают в бутыли и кладут туда мелконарезанную, невулканизированную резину. Затем закупоривают бутылку и ставят на несколько часов в теплое место. После полного растворения резины клей взбалтывают и тогда он готов к употреблению.
Note. Не нужно забывать, что бензин и сероуглерод чрезвычайно летучи и при малейшем приближении к огню возможен взрыв, поэтому все операции с этим клеем следует производить днем и вдали от огня. Следует также воздерживаться от курения во время работы.

90. Ремонт резиновых галош.

Галоши тщательно моют, высушивают и подчищают мелким напильником. Затем вырезают соответствующего размера заплатку, смазывают клеем для резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89), прижимают к нужному месту (если нужно, обвязывают бечевками) и дают подсохнуть в течение двух часов, после чего покрывают зачищенное место или всю галошу резиновым лаком (см. рецепт No 88).

91. Ремонт резиновых рукавов.

Растрескавшийся снаружи резиновый рукав очищается теплой водой при помощи щетки от грязи и тщательно высушивается. Затем его кладут на доску и на трещины наносится клей для ремонта резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89) до тех пор, пока все трещины не заполнятся им. Каждый новый слой наносится по высыхании предыдущего. Когда последний слой станет засыхать, рукав в этом месте обертывают холщовой тесьмой, смоченной вышеупомянутым клеем.
Если рукав дал трещины на внутренней своей поверхности, то описанный способ непригоден, так как в починенном месте образуется утолщение, вокруг которого собирается грязь и может образоваться "пробка". В таком случае вырезают испорченный кусок и сращивают оба конца, вставляя их в короткий кусок резинового рукава большего диаметра, плотно охватывающего починенный рукав.

92. Ремонт резиновой обуви.

Резиновая заплата, которую хотят наклеить на резиновую обувь, и поврежденное место протираются шкуркой, чтобы поверхность обоих стала шероховатой; затем смазывают обе поверхности клеем для ремонта резиновых изделий (см. рецепт No 89), после чего оставляют их в покое на полчаса и потом крепко сжимают. Чтобы ремонт сделать прочнее, следует вулканизировать заплату холодным способом. Для этого промазывают ее после вышеописанной операции сероводородом, к которому добавлено немного хлористой серы, а затем уже быстро нажимают на поврежденное место.

93. Приклейка резиновых подошв к сапогам.

Для приклейки резиновых подошв к кожаной обуви пригодны следующие замазки.
I. Разрезают 10 частей каучука на мелкие кусочки, кладут их в жестянку, помещенную в водяную баню и нагретую до 30|С, и добавляют 140 частей сернистого углерода. Когда каучук растворится, добавляют смесь, приготовленную следующим образом: сплавляют 10 частей каучука с 10 частями истолченной канифоли и затем добавляют 35 частей скипидара. Эту замазку следует хранить в герметически закупоренной склянке.
Ii. При сплавлении равных частей обыкновенной смолы и гуттаперчи получается замазка, которую применяют горячей и которая хорошо пристает к коже, резине и разным другим материалам.
III. Растворяют 10 частей гуттаперчи в 100 частях бензина. Раствор этот сливается в склянку, содержащую 100 частей олифы, и все сильно взбалтывается.

94. Ремонт каучуковых ручных насосов.

Для исправления разрывов в каучуковых насосах, употребляемых для поливки улиц, растений и т. д., рекомендуется следующий состав: мелконарезанный каучук растворяют в скипидаре, в хлороформе, в бензине или в керосине; каучук в названных жидкостях растворяется неполностью, но размягчается до такой степени, что приобретает консистенцию тестообразной массы. Затем слегка нагревают пробитые и разорванные края насоса и накладывают размягченный в одной из названных жидкостей каучук, после чего края сдавливают. Если после первой заклейки не получится полной заделки, каучуку дают высохнуть и операцию повторяют. При тщательной манипуляции поврежденные части исправляются полностью, так что насос вновь становится пригоден для продолжительного употребления.

95. Ремонт резиновых подушек, мячей и т.д.

Названные резиновые изделия с более или менее толстой оболочкой исправляют следующим способом. Сначала поверхность их необходимо хорошо очистить от пыли и грязи, затем берут канифоль и растворяют ее в 90|-ном спирте до получения густой массы. Полученной смесью тщательно промазывают трещины и дают замазке как следует затвердеть. Этим способом можно починить старые резиновые подушки, наколенники, мячи и т.п. резиновые изделия.

96. Ремонт резиновых плащей.

Для исправления резиновых плащей и других тонких резиновых оболочек берут кусочек тонкого листового каучука, по величине соответствующий месту, подлежащему ремонту, и намазывают его с одной стороны, а также и прилегающее место на поверхности предмета скипидаром. Смазанные поверхности накладывают друг на друга и кладут на сутки под пресс. Исправленные места после этого оказываются столь же непроницаемыми для воды, как они были и раньше в неповрежденном виде.
Note. Следует заметить, что свежий листовой каучук удобнее всего резать острым, смоченным водой ножом.

97. Ремонт резиновых трубок.

Небольшие отверстия смачиваются на краях бензином, а затем заполняются куском размягченной в бензине резины, которая затем сглаживается горячим железом. После ремонта трубка может еще долго служить, а само место ремонта можно, при некотором навыке, сделать совершенно незаметным для глаз. Для предохранения от высыхания и растрескивания резиновые трубки необходимо всегда держать при комнатной температуре.