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98. Drilling glass. 99. Guidance of the mat on the glass. 100 Stamping of glass. 101. Cutting glass tubes.
102. Tempering the glasses. 103. Pencils for writing on glass, porcelain and metal. 104. Labels on the glass.
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98. Drilling glass.

A thin steel drill, heated to white, is hardened in mercury or a piece of sealing wax and honed. Then, prepare a saturated solution of camphor in turpentine, moisten the drill bit, which is placed on the calyx, and quickly drill the glass, which is wetted at the drilling point with the said solution. This way you can drill a glass 1 cm thick in less than one minute.
In order to drill a hole in the glass, we recommend to take a trihedral file, lower it into turpentine and carefully drill a hole.
You can also drill a glass on a lathe with a copper rod, lubricating it with oil and sprinkling with emery. Particular attention should be paid to the hole when the drilling process comes to an end and only the last thin layer remains, as the glass can easily crack.

99. Guidance of the mat on the glass.
To make the window panes opaque, you should dissolve the yellow "special" wax in turpentine and add a little dessicant (drying) to this mixture so that it will dry out more quickly. This mixture is smeared with window panes, evenly smoothing it with a tampon from a silk cloth with cotton wool. If you want to get a color surface, you can add to the mixture some dry paint in the powder.

100. Stamping of glass.

For this purpose, two solutions are prepared: one of 100 g of water, 12 g of sodium fluoride and 2 g of potassium fluoride, and the other of 100 g of water, 20 g of hydrochloric acid and 5 g of zinc chloride. Equal parts of each solution are mixed before use and applied with a rubber stamp on the glass, which must previously be well wiped.

101. Cutting glass tubes.

To cut glass tubes, you can use the following method: wrap the tube in which they want to cut it, a fairly wide strip of paper so long that it wraps the tube several times, and glue the ends, and pay attention to ensure that the edge of the paper exactly matches with the place of the proposed cut. Next to this piece of paper, the second strip of paper is adhered exactly in the same way so that a very narrow space of bare glass of uniform width along the circumference between them is obtained, along which the cut must pass. Strips, before wrapping, it is useful to moisten a little. Then place a narrow space between the pieces of paper above the fire (cylinder of a kerosene lamp or alcohol burner). The tube is rotated over the flame, until the space of the unprotected glass between the pieces of paper warms up sufficiently strong, so that a drop of cold water, lowered to this place, causes a clean and even cut. Paper wrapping a glass tube, prevents the penetration of heat to the surfaces covered by them, and therefore the flame acts particularly intensively on an unprotected strip of glass. Before directing the flame to the glass tube, it is necessary to dry the pieces of paper that have been pinched onto the tube, because the dampness on the glass can lead to a rupture of it on the wrong line.

102. Tempering the glasses.

It is known how often glasses burst, sometimes even without any apparent reason, but in most cases due to a sharp temperature change, when, for example, hot water is poured into a cold glass or vice versa. In view of this, we consider it useful to cite the following simple and repeatedly tested method of hardening, by means of which glasses can be given the ability to withstand abrupt changes in temperature. To this end, glasses, wrapped individually in straw, are placed in a metal (fish) cauldron, in which water is poured at room temperature and placed on a stove so that the water gradually boils. Then, holding the glasses in boiling water for 5-6 hours, the boiler is removed from the fire and covered with some blanket, so that the water cools down gradually. When the water temperature is equal to the room temperature, the glasses can be considered already quite hardened and very well can withstand, without bursting, sudden changes from hot water to cold water or vice versa.

103. Pencils for writing on glass, porcelain and metal.

Pencils of this kind can be prepared from the following composition: 4 parts by weight of spermacet, 3 parts of fat and 2 parts of wax. Then, depending on what color pencils want to have, 6 parts of dry paint are added to this mixture. The mass thus produced remains to be molded in the form of sticks, and the pencils are ready. They can equally well write and make notes without damaging the glass, porcelain or metal.

104. Labels on the glass.

In some cases, it is useful, instead of paper labels, pasted on glass bottles and jars, to make matte inscriptions directly on the glass. Such label labels are more convenient not only in that they are stronger than paper ones, but it is not so easy to substitute them. In view of this, we consider it useful to bring the following composition, recommended for etching on the glass of matt label inscriptions. In 0.5 liters of water, dissolve 36 g of sodium fluoride, 7 g of potassium sulfate. At the same time another solution is being prepared: 14 g of zinc chloride are dissolved in 0.5 l of water and 65 g of hydrochloric acid are added. When used, both these solutions are mixed in equal proportions and using a soft feather or a thin brush paint letters on the glass. After half an hour, a matte inscription-label is made on the glass with a brush or pen.