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Glass

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98. Drilling glass. 99. Putting the mat on the glass. 100 Stamping glass. 101. Cutting glass tubes.
102. Hardening glasses. 103. Pencils for writing on glass, porcelain and metal. 104. Inscriptions labels on glass.
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98. Drilling glass.

A thin steel drill, heated to white, is hardened in mercury or a piece of sealing wax and honed. Then they prepare a saturated solution of camphor in turpentine, moisten a drill mounted on a brace with it, and quickly drill the glass, which is wetted at the drilling point with this solution. In this way, it is possible to drill glass 1 cm thick in less than one minute.
In order to drill a hole in the glass, we recommend that you take a three-sided file, put it in turpentine and carefully drill a hole.
You can also drill glass on a lathe with a copper rod, lubricating it with oil and sprinkling with emery. Particular attention should be paid to the hole when the drilling process comes to an end and only the last thin layer is left, since the glass can easily crack.

99. Putting the mat on the glass.
To make the window glass opaque, you should dissolve the yellow "special" wax in turpentine and add a little desiccant (drying) to this mixture so that it dries faster. This mixture is lubricated with window glass, evenly smoothing it with a cotton cloth swab. If you want to get a colored surface, you can add to the mixture some dry paint in the powder.

100. Stamping glass.

For this purpose, two solutions are prepared - one of 100 g of water, 12 g of sodium fluoride and 2 g of potassium fluoride, and the other of 100 g of water, 20 g of hydrochloric acid and 5 g of zinc chloride. Equal parts of each solution are mixed before use and applied with a rubber stamp on the glass, which should be well wiped beforehand.

101. Cutting glass tubes.

To cut the glass tubes, you can use the following method: wind the tube in which they want to cut it, with a fairly wide strip of paper of such length that it wraps the tube several times and glue the ends, and you should pay attention to that the edge of the paper exactly matches with the place of the alleged cut. Next to this piece of paper, the second strip of paper is glued in exactly the same way so that between them there is a very narrow space of naked glass of uniform width around the circumference, along which the cut must pass. Strips before wrapping, it is useful to moisten a little. Then a narrow space is placed between the pieces of paper above the fire (a cylinder of a kerosene lamp or an alcohol burner). The tube is rotated above the flame until the space of the unprotected glass between the pieces of paper warms up sufficiently, so that a drop of cold water dropped onto this place causes a clean and even cut. Paper wrapping the glass tube prevents the penetration of heat to the surfaces closed by them and therefore the flame acts especially intensively on the unprotected strip of glass. Before directing the flame to the glass tube, it is necessary to dry the pieces of paper wrapped on the tube, because the dampness on the glass can cause it to break along the wrong line.

102. Hardening glasses.

It is known how often glasses burst, sometimes even for no apparent reason, but in most cases due to a sudden change in temperature, when, for example, hot water is poured into a cold glass or vice versa. In view of this, we consider it not unhelpful to cite the following simple and repeatedly tested method of quenching, with the help of which glasses can be given the ability to withstand sharp changes in temperature perfectly. For this purpose, glasses, individually wrapped in straw, are placed in a metal (fish) pot, into which water is poured at room temperature and put on the stove so that the water gradually boils. Then, after keeping the glasses in boiling water for 5-6 hours, the boiler is removed from the heat and covered with some kind of blanket so that the water cools gradually. When the water temperature equals room temperature, the glasses can be considered as already fully tempered and withstand, without breaking, abrupt transitions from hot to cold water or back.

103. Pencils for writing on glass, porcelain and metal.

Pencils of this kind can be prepared from the following composition: 4 parts by weight of spermaceti, 3 parts fat and 2 parts wax. Then, depending on what color the pencils want, 6 parts of dry paint are added to this mixture. The mass produced in this way remains to be molded in the form of sticks, and the pencils are ready. They are equally good at writing and making notes without spoiling the glass, porcelain or metal itself.

104. Inscriptions labels on glass.

In some cases, instead of paper labels stuck on glass bottles and cans, it is useful to make frosted labels directly on the glass. Such labels-labels are more convenient not only in the sense that they are stronger than paper ones, but also to replace them is not so easy. In view of this, we consider it not unhelpful to cite the following composition recommended for etching frosted labels and labels on glass. 36 g of sodium fluoride, 7 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 0.5 l of water. At the same time another solution is prepared: dissolve 14 g of zinc chloride in 0.5 l of water and add 65 g of hydrochloric acid. When used, both of these solutions are mixed in equal proportions and with the help of a soft pen or a fine brush they draw letters on the glass. After half an hour, a frosted label made by brush or pen appears on the glass.