Drying oil and paints
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105. Preparation of drying oil. 106. Surrogate varnish. 107. Clarifying linseed oil. 108. Printing inks.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences. 110. Paint for the protection of iron from rust.
105. Preparation of drying oil.
Since cooking varnish requires a special boiler and is dangerous in the fire relation, we give the method of cooking oil without cooking. 20 parts by weight of linseed oil are taken 1 part of the gland (lead oxide) and 1 part of lead sugar (acetic acid lead oxide). Lead sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water. At room temperature, you need 2 parts of water, and if you take hot water, it is much less. Add half the glue to the lead sugar solution and agitate the mixture. The remaining dose of glue diligently dissolve with a small amount of linseed oil. When the glue dissolves in the oil, add the remaining linseed oil to it and continue stirring, then add the above mentioned mixture of lead sugar and carefully, for about 2 hours, stir and then allow the mixture to settle. The oil will float upward, and below it will be water with the lead salts dissolved in it. Then the oil is drained and filtered through the web. It turns out bright, transparent drying oil, somewhat more liquid than boiled. This linseed oil always contains a small amount of lead salts, which are undesirable for light paints and oil varnishes, since lead has a tendency to darken over time. This is explained by the fact that lead combines with hydrogen sulphide. To remove lead from drying oil, proceed as follows: take a 25% solution of sulfuric acid, pour it into linseed oil and stir for half an hour. First the drying oil becomes turbid and takes a milky hue, but soon it becomes transparent again, and the lead salts settle to the bottom.
106. Surrogate varnish.
100 parts of casein are mixed with 10-15 parts of a soap solution and 20-50 parts of hydrated lime. This mass is thoroughly mixed, and 25-40 parts of turpentine are gradually added to it. Then it is diluted with water to approximately the same consistency as conventional oil linseed oil. To avoid sedimentation of casein lime, which is formed during prolonged storage, a little ammonia is added to it. This product, being much cheaper than the ordinary oil varnish, can, nevertheless, successfully replace it. It dries quickly. In a mixture with paint it can be used for painting buildings, wooden walls, etc. The dried layer does not dissolve in water. In addition, it is very well held and on metal surfaces.
107. Clarifying linseed oil.
1. Clarification is carried out by heating, for which the crude oil is kept at a temperature of 275 ° C for 30 minutes. The faster this heating is produced, the faster and more perfect will be the coagulation of protein substances. This coagulation best occurs at a temperature of 275-310 | C. But, despite all of the above, it is better to heat the oil slowly until the foaming stops. After heating, the oil is allowed to cool, and the precipitate having a light brown color settles to the bottom. Then the oil can be drained or filtered. If heating is carried out in an iron boiler, the oil acquires a reddish color, similar to the coloring of varnish; if it is heated in an aluminum boiler, the result is a light yellow-amber oil.
2. A mixture of equal parts of crude oil and hot water is passed into steam for 1-2 hours. After this, the oil is allowed to settle, then the water will gather at the bottom of the vessel, the clear oil will float upward, and the sediment will occupy the middle position between the water and the oil. After 5 days, a clear layer of oil is released into the boiler and heated for 2 hours to 110 | C to remove the remaining water. It is recommended to add 1% sulfuric acid to the mixture of oil and water before passing the steam. In this way, the bleaching of the oil is simultaneously carried out, which, in addition, is much more quickly clarified. You can also add a few more pounds of briar clay or barium sulphate, which will entrain the sediment to the bottom and thus reduce the time of clarification. This sediment can be used for making putty, and the masters making it, with pleasure, acquire these deposits. The oil treated by this method has a very light color.
3. 250 parts of linseed oil are shaken in a glass flask with a solution of 5 parts potassium permanganate for 125 parts of water, left to stand for 24 hours in a warm place and then 7.5 parts of ground sodium sulphate are added and after complete dissolution 10 parts hydrochloric acid acid. After the mixture is discolored with good stirring, the oil is washed with water, to which a little chalk is added, until the reaction of the running-off water ceases to be acidic; To free it from water, the oil is filtered through anhydrous Glauber's salt.
108. Printing inks.
A good ink must have a brilliant color, be homogeneous, strong, durable. It should dry quickly, it is easy to wash off the font, do not spread out on paper, do not soak through the paper, do not have an unpleasant smell.
For the printing ink, the best linseed oil is taken, since bad grades give a reddish tone and have an unpleasant odor. Oil cleaning is carried out by prolonged heating with 3% strong sulfuric acid. Heating is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 100 | C. Then the oil settles, merges without sediment and is washed with warm water until the last trace of sulfuric acid disappears, which is tested with a litmus test. Purified in this way, the oil has a light yellow color with perfect odor.
When cooking, you should keep in mind that the sulfuric acid refined oil boils very violently, so it is advisable to take all measures so that runaway oil does not touch the flame. To avoid this, the pot must be filled no more than half. Heating goes quickly, and the oil boils, issuing a bubbling special rattling sound produced by volatilizing water vapor.
When the oil is freed of water, it will boil more calmly, gradually darken and thicken. With further heating, the oil begins to decompose into gases (vapors). First bubbles appear in more heated places, i.e. at the walls of the boiler. Then the oil swells, spreading the sharp, unpleasant odor of the decomposition products. At this time, you need to monitor the oil to prevent the formation of large bubbles of gas inside the mass, which can throw oil out of the boiler.
If the furnace does not allow quick reduction of the fire, then it is necessary to pour the oil less, and keep part of it in reserve, so that the infusion of cold oil can cool the boiling oil in the boiler too much. By adjusting the heating of the oil so that the oil boils slower and does not boil out of the boiler, it is necessary to boil it until the cooled drop of oil is stretched between the fingers in the thread to 10 cm in length. When this is achieved, the drying oil is ready and allowed to cool.
The larger the print should be (for example, for posters) and the sooner the paint must dry (for example, for newspapers), the less must be waxed drying oil. For the artistic press drying oil decays more densely and therefore the paint is more expensive.
When cooking oil for printing ink, you can add to it some substances, such as, for example, a pine resin that reduces the time of boiling, or soap, which makes the property easier to wash off the font, or Parisian blue, which gives the black paint the best tone. All these impurities must be completely purified, dry and shredded. They are added to linseed oil when the decomposition of oil begins and small bubbles appear on the walls of the boiler. 50 parts of oil are taken with 20 parts of resin, five parts of soap and 0.5 parts of Paris blue. With such impurities, linseed oil is called typographic varnish.
Sometimes expensive linseed oil is replaced with cheaper products when cooking the printing varnish: 1) hemp oil, the product is not worse, but has an unpleasant smell, and 2) resin oil, which recently began to be extracted in large amounts by distillation of cheap resins, quite cheap printing ink. 1000 parts of resin oil, 400 parts of resin, 100 parts of soap.
To obtain a black ink, the typographic varnish is ground with soot. For the best grades of paint, they take the best, more expensive soot and in sufficient quantity, for less expensive varieties, soot is used for less and cheaper varieties. In the latter case, the paint is not black, but grayish with a red tinge.
Rubbing soot with varnish is the most difficult operation in the manufacture of ink. The soot must be evenly mixed with varnish. This is achieved by prolonged trituration of the mixture.
Here are three more recipes for cheap typographic varnish with unvarnished linseed oil.
These are cheap varnishes for newspapers. Rapid drying is achieved by resin oil, and the density - by the addition of thick turpentine. The method of manufacture is very simple: melting resin, add resin oil, add soap, turpentine and cook for about 3 hours, with stirring, after which the varnish is allowed to settle.
Colored typographic varnishes. To obtain a fine paint powder, you need to have a mill for grinding paints, disk or roller. The latter is preferable, since the mass is thinned more thinly. The paints are ordinary, and the varnish is made of 16 parts of kerosene, 4 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of the printing varnish, 1 part of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The components are stirred, allowed to stand for 2 hours and then mixed with the printing lacquer. For the golden paint, take: 10 parts kerosene, 10 parts glycerin, 4 parts varnish, 1 part caustic ammonia and 1 part water. The method of preparation is the same.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences.
For painting fences, etc. strong and at the same time inexpensive is the following composition. Prepare a dry mixture of 50 parts chalk, 10 parts of some paint (ocher, umber, etc.), 10 parts of alum, 25 parts of dextrin and 5 parts of finely planed soap. When used, the mixture so prepared is dissolved in cold or warm water to the required density. This paint is covered with fences, etc. subjects. This paint very well resists dampness and other atmospheric influences and is very strong.
110. Paint for the protection of iron from rust.
Instead of the usual coloring of iron with oil colors, it is recommended to cover it with paints (which should include white), diluted in turpentine. Experience has shown that the first method is much inferior to the latter, since turpentine with white impurities penetrates into the pores and wells of iron much better, and therefore incomparably better protects it from damage by rust both in air and in water.