Drying oil and paint
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105. Preparation of drying oil. 106. Surrogate oil. 107. Brightening flaxseed oil. 108. Printing ink.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences. 110. Paint to protect iron from rust.
105. Preparation of drying oil.
Since the drying of the drying oil requires a special boiler and is dangerous in the fire relation, we present the method of preparation of drying oil without cooking. For 20 parts by weight of flaxseed oil, 1 part platelet (lead oxide) and 1 part lead sugar (lead acetate oxide) is taken. Lead sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water. At room temperature, you will need 2 parts of water, and if you take hot water, it is much less. To the solution of lead sugar, add half of the lettuce and shake the mixture. The remaining dose of golet diligently dissolved with a small amount of flaxseed oil. When the gel has dissolved in the oil, the rest of the linseed oil is added to it and continue to stir, then the above-mentioned mixture of lead sugar is added and carefully, about 2 hours, stirred, and then allowed to stand. The oil will float to the top, and below it will stand water with lead salts dissolved in it. Then the oil is drained and filtered through a sheet. It turns out light, transparent linseed oil, somewhat more liquid than boiled. Such linseed oil always contains a small amount of lead salts, which are undesirable for light paints and oil paints, since lead tends to darken over time. This is explained by the fact that lead combines with hydrogen sulfide. To remove lead from drying oil, proceed as follows: take a 25% solution of sulfuric acid, pour it into the drying oil and stir for half an hour. First, the linseed oil becomes cloudy and takes on a milky hue, but soon becomes transparent again, and the lead salts settle to the bottom.
106. Surrogate oil.
100 parts of casein are mixed with 10-15 parts of a soap solution and 20-50 parts of hydrated lime. This mass is thoroughly mixed, and 25-40 parts of turpentine are gradually added to it. Then it is diluted with water to approximately the same consistency that ordinary oil linseed has. To avoid precipitation of casein lime, which is formed during prolonged storage, a little liquid ammonia is added to it. This product, being much cheaper than ordinary oil drying oil, can, however, successfully replace it. It dries quickly. Mixed with paint, it can be used for painting buildings, wooden walls, etc. The dried layer does not dissolve in water. In addition, it is very well kept on metal surfaces.
107. Brightening flaxseed oil.
1. Clarification is performed by heating, for which the crude oil is kept at a temperature of 275 | C for 30 minutes. The faster such heating is performed, the faster and more perfect the coagulation of protein substances will occur. This coagulation occurs best at a temperature of 275-310 | C. But, despite all of the above, it is better to heat the oil slowly until foaming stops. After heating, the oil is allowed to cool, and the precipitate, having a light brown color, settles to the bottom. Then the oil can be drained or filtered. If heating is carried out in an iron pot, the oil becomes reddish, similar to drying oil; if it is heated in an aluminum pot, the result is a light yellow-amber oil.
2. A mixture of equal parts of crude oil and hot water is allowed to steam for 1-2 hours. After this, the oil is allowed to settle, then the water will collect at the bottom of the vessel, the clear oil will float to the top, and the sediment will take a middle position between the water and the oil. After 5 days, a clear layer of oil is drained into the boiler and heated for 2 hours to 110 ° C to remove the remaining water. It is recommended to add 1% sulfuric acid to the mixture of oil and water before passing steam. This method also produces bleaching of oil, which, moreover, is lightened much faster. You can also add a few more pounds of cloth clay or barite sulfate, which will carry sediment to the bottom and shorten the time for clarification. This sediment can be used for making putty, and the masters who make it are happy to acquire these sediments. The oil processed by this method has a very light color.
3. Shake 250 parts of flaxseed oil in a glass flask with a solution of 5 parts of potassium permanganate in 125 parts of water, leave to stand for 24 hours in a warm place and then add 7.5 parts of crushed sodium sulfite, and after complete dissolution - 10 parts of salt acid. After the mixture becomes discolored with good agitation, the oil is washed with water, to which a little chalk is added, until the reaction of the flowing water is no longer acidic; for the release of water, the oil is filtered through anhydrous Glauber's salt.
108. Printing ink.
A good printing ink should have a brilliant color, be uniform, strong, durable. It should dry quickly, easily wash off the font, not spread out on paper, not soak the paper through, not have an unpleasant smell.
For printing ink the best linseed oil is taken, as bad varieties give a red tone and have an unpleasant smell. Oil cleaning is made by prolonged heating with 3% strong sulfuric acid. Heating is carried out at a temperature of not more than 100 | C. Then the oil is settled, drained without sediment and washed with warm water until the last traces of sulfuric acid disappear, which is tested by litmus paper. The oil purified in this way has a light yellow color with a complete absence of odor.
When cooking it must be borne in mind that the oil purified with sulfuric acid boils very violently, so it is advisable to take all measures so that the escaped oil does not touch the flame. To avoid this, the boiler must be filled no more than half. Heating is fast, and the oil begins to boil, emitting a special raspy sound when bubbling, produced by water vapor escaping from the oil.
When the oil is free from water, it will boil quieter, gradually darken and thicken. Upon further heating, the oil begins to decompose into gases (vapors). At first, bubbles appear in hotter places, i.e. at the walls of the boiler. Then the oil swells, spreading the sharp, unpleasant smell of decomposition products. At this time, it is necessary to monitor the oil in order to prevent the formation of large gas bubbles inside the mass, which can throw the oil out of the boiler.
If the firebox does not allow rapid reduction of fire, then you need to pour less oil, and part of it to keep in stock so that the infusion of cold oil can cool the boiling oil too much in the boiler. Adjusting the heating of the oil so that the oil boils more slowly and does not boil out of the boiler, it is necessary to boil it until the cooled drop of oil stretches between the fingers in the thread up to 10 cm in length. When this is achieved, the linseed is ready and allowed to cool.
The larger the print should be (for example, for posters) and the sooner the paint should dry (for example, for newspapers), the less it should be boiled on the linseed oil. For art print, linseed oil is thicker and therefore the paint is more expensive.
When cooking a varnish for printing ink, you can add to it certain substances, such as, for example, pine resin, which reduces the time of boiling, or soap, which makes the paint easier to wash off the font, or Paris blue, which gives black paint the best tone. All these impurities must be in a perfectly clean, dry and crushed form. They are added to the drying oil when oil decomposition begins and small bubbles appear at the walls of the boiler. For 50 parts of oil take 20 parts of resin, five parts of soap and 0.5 parts of Parisian blue. With such impurities, the varnish is called typographic varnish.
Sometimes expensive linseed oil when cooking typographical varnish is replaced by cheaper products: 1) hemp oil, the product is not worse, but has an unpleasant smell, and 2) resin oil, which recently began to be mined in large sizes by distillation of cheap tar, and are obtained pretty cheap typographical inks. 1000 parts of resin oil, 400 parts of resin, 100 parts of soap.
Black printing ink.
For black printing ink, varnish is ground with soot. For the best grades of paint they take the best, more expensive soot and in sufficient quantity, for the cheap grades they take soot less and the cheaper one. In the latter case, the paint is not black, but grayish with a red tint.
Rubbing soot with varnish is the most difficult operation in the manufacture of printing ink. Soot should be evenly mixed with varnish. This is achieved by prolonged grinding of the mixture.
Here are three more recipes for cheap printing varnish with uncooked linseed oil.
These are cheap varnishes for newspapers. Quick drying is achieved with resin oil, and density - with the addition of thick turpentine. The method of manufacture is very simple: the resin is melted, resin oil is added, pieces of soap are added, turpentine and boiled for about 3 hours, with stirring, after which the lacquer is allowed to settle.
Color typographic varnishes. To obtain a thin powder paint, you must have a grinder for grinding paints, disk or roller. The latter is preferable, since the mass is ground slightly thinner. The paints are ordinary, and the lacquer is made of 16 parts of kerosene, 4 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of typographical varnish, 1 part of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The components are stirred, allowed to stand for 2 hours and then mixed with printing ink. For gold paint take: 10 parts of kerosene, 10 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of varnish, 1 part of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The method of preparation is the same.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences.
For painting fences, etc. strong and at the same time inexpensive is the following composition. Prepare a dry mixture of 50 parts of chalk, 10 parts of some paint (ocher, umber, etc.), 10 parts of alum, 25 parts of dextrin and 5 parts of finely planed soap. When used, the mixture prepared in this way is dissolved in cold or warm water to the desired thickness. This paint covers fences, etc. items. This paint is very good resistance to moisture and other atmospheric influences and is very durable.
110. Paint to protect iron from rust.
Instead of the usual dyeing of iron with oil paints, it is recommended to paint it with paints (which should include whitewash) diluted on turpentine. Experience has shown that the first method is much inferior to the latter, since turpentine with whitewash penetrates into the pores and boreholes of iron much better and therefore prevents it from rust damage both in air and in water much more perfectly.