Drying oil and paints
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105. Cooking varnish. 106. Surrogate drying oils. 107. Lightening flaxseed oil. 108. Printing inks.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences. 110. Paint to protect iron from rust.
105. Cooking varnish.
Since the cooking of drying oil requires a special boiler and is fire hazardous, we present a method of preparing drying oil without cooking. For 20 parts by weight of flaxseed oil, 1 part of gleta (lead oxide) and 1 part of lead sugar (lead acetate) are taken. Lead sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water. At room temperature, 2 parts of water will be required, and if you take hot water, then much less. Half of the lettuce is added to the solution of lead sugar and the mixture is stirred. The remaining dose of gluta is carefully dissolved with a small amount of linseed oil. When the litharge dissolves in oil, add the rest of linseed oil to it and continue to stir, then add the above-mentioned mixture of lead sugar and mix thoroughly, about 2 hours, after which it is allowed to settle. Oil will float up, and water with lead salts dissolved in it will settle down below. Then the oil is drained and filtered through a cloth. It turns out light, transparent drying oil, somewhat more liquid than boiled. Such drying oil always contains a small amount of lead salts, which are undesirable for light paints and oil varnishes, since lead tends to darken over time. This is explained by the fact that lead combines with hydrogen sulfide. To remove lead from drying oil, proceed as follows: take a 25% solution of sulfuric acid, pour it into drying oil and stir for half an hour. First, the drying oil becomes cloudy and takes on a milky hue, but soon again becomes transparent, and lead salts settle to the bottom.
106. Surrogate drying oils.
100 parts of casein are mixed with 10-15 parts of a soap solution and 20-50 parts of slaked lime. This mass is thoroughly mixed, and 25-40 parts of turpentine are gradually added to it. Then it is diluted with water to approximately the same consistency as ordinary oilseed oil has. To avoid the precipitate of casein lime, which is formed during long-term storage, a little ammonia is added to it. This product, being much cheaper than ordinary oilseed oil, can, however, be successfully replaced. It dries quickly. In a mixture with paint, it can be used for painting buildings, wooden walls, etc. Its dried layer does not dissolve in water. In addition, it adheres very well to metal surfaces.
107. Lightening flaxseed oil.
1. Clarification is carried out by heating, for which the crude oil is kept at a temperature of 275 | C for 30 minutes. The faster such heating is performed, the faster and more perfect the coagulation of protein substances will occur. This coagulation best occurs at a temperature of 275-310 | C. But, despite all of the above, it is better to heat the oil slowly until the foaming stops. After heating, the oil is allowed to cool, and the precipitate, which has a light brown color, settles to the bottom. Then the oil can be drained or filtered. If heating is carried out in an iron boiler, then the oil acquires a reddish color, similar to the color of drying oil; if it is heated in an aluminum boiler, the result is a light yellow-amber oil.
2. A mixture of equal parts of crude oil and hot water is passed into steam for 1-2 hours. After this, the oil is allowed to settle, then the water will collect at the bottom of the vessel, the clear oil will float up, and the sediment will occupy the middle position between the water and the oil. After 5 days, a transparent layer of oil is lowered into the boiler and heated for 2 hours to 110 | C to remove the remaining water. It is recommended to add 1% sulfuric acid to the mixture of oil and water before passing the steam. In this way, oil is bleached at the same time, which, in addition, lightens much faster. You can also add a few more pounds of cloth clay or barite sulfate, which will entrain the sediment to the bottom and thus reduce the clarification time. This precipitate can be used to make putty, and the craftsmen who make it with pleasure acquire these precipitates. The oil processed by this method has a very light color.
3. Shake 250 parts of linseed oil in a glass flask with a solution of 5 parts of potassium permanganate in 125 parts of water, leave to stand for 24 hours in a warm place and then add 7.5 parts of ground sodium sulfite, and after complete dissolution - 10 parts of hydrochloric acids. After the mixture is discolored with good stirring, the oil is washed with water, to which a little chalk has been added, until the reaction of the flowing water ceases to be acidic; to release water, the oil is filtered through anhydrous Glauber's salt.
108. Printing inks.
A good printing ink should have a brilliant color, be uniform, strong, and durable. It should dry quickly, be easily washed off the font, not spread out on the paper, not soak the paper through, not have an unpleasant smell.
For printing ink, the best linseed oil is taken, since bad grades give a red tone and have an unpleasant odor. The oil is cleaned by continuous heating with 3% strong sulfuric acid. Heating is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 100 | C. Then the oil settles, drains without sediment and is washed with warm water until the last traces of sulfuric acid disappear, which is tested by a litmus test. The oil thus purified has a light yellow color with a complete absence of smell.
When cooking, it must be borne in mind that the oil refined with sulfuric acid boils very rapidly, so it is advisable to take all measures so that the escaped oil does not touch the flame. To avoid this, the boiler must be filled no more than half. Heating goes quickly, and the oil boils, making a special rattling sound when bubbling, produced by water vapor escaping from the oil.
When the oil is freed from water, it will boil calmer, gradually darken and thicken. With further heating, the oil begins to decompose into gases (vapors). First, bubbles appear in warmer places, i.e. at the walls of the boiler. Then the oil swells, spreading a pungent, unpleasant odor to the decomposition products. At this time, you need to monitor the oil in order to prevent the formation of large gas bubbles inside the mass that can throw oil out of the boiler.
If the firebox does not allow a quick decrease in fire, then you need to pour less oil, and keep part of it in stock so that too boiling oil in the boiler can be cooled by pouring in cold oil. Regulating the heating of the oil so that the oil boils more slowly and does not boil out of the boiler, it is necessary to boil it until the cooled drop of oil stretches between the fingers in a thread up to 10 cm in length. When this is achieved, the drying oil is ready and it is allowed to cool.
The larger the print should be (for example, for posters) and the sooner the paint should dry (for example, for newspapers), the less drying oil should be boiled. For artistic printing, drying oil is boiled thicker and therefore the paint is more expensive.
When cooking varnish for printing ink, you can add some substances to it, such as, for example, pine resin, which reduces the boiling time, or soap, which gives the ink a property that is easier to wash off from the font, or Parisian blue, which gives the black ink a better tone. All these impurities must be in a completely clean, dry and powdered form. They are added to the drying oil when the decomposition of the oil begins and small bubbles appear at the walls of the boiler. For 50 parts of oil, 20 parts of resin, five parts of soap and 0.5 parts of Parisian blue are taken. With such admixtures, drying oil is called typographic varnish.
Sometimes, expensive linseed oil is replaced with cheaper products when cooking printing varnish: 1) hemp oil, and the product comes out no worse, but has an unpleasant smell, and 2) tar oil, which has recently been extracted in large sizes by distillation of cheap resins, and pretty cheap ink. 1000 parts of resin oil, 400 parts of resin, 100 parts of soap.
To obtain black ink, the printing varnish is ground with soot. For the best varieties of paint, they take better, more expensive soot and in sufficient quantities, for cheaper varieties they take soot less and a cheaper grade. In the latter case, the paint is not black, but grayish with a red tint.
Rubbing soot with varnish is the most difficult operation in the manufacture of printing ink. Soot should be evenly mixed with varnish. This is achieved by continuous grinding of the mixture.
We give three more recipes for cheap printing varnish with undigested linseed oil.
These are cheap newspaper varnishes. Quick drying is achieved with tar oil, and the density is achieved with the addition of thick terpentine. The manufacturing method is very simple: they melt the resin, add resin oil, add pieces of soap, terpentine and boil for about 3 hours, with stirring, after which the varnish is allowed to settle.
Colored typographic varnishes. To obtain a fine powder of paint you need to have a mill for grinding paints, disk or roller. The latter is preferable, since the mass is finer rubbed. Common paints are used, and the varnish is made from 16 parts of kerosene, 4 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of printing varnish, 1 part of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The components are stirred, allowed to stand for 2 hours and then mixed with printing varnish. For gold paint take: 10 parts of kerosene, 10 parts of glycerin, 4 parts of varnish, 1 part of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The cooking method is the same.
109. Simple and inexpensive paint for fences.
For painting fences, etc. durable and at the same time inexpensive is the following composition. A dry mixture is prepared from 50 parts of chalk, 10 parts of some paint (ocher, umber, etc.), 10 parts of alum, 25 parts of dextrin and 5 parts of finely planed soap. When used, the mixture prepared in this way is dissolved in cold or warm water to the required density. This paint covers fences, etc. items. Such paint very well resists dampness and other atmospheric influences and is very durable.
110. Paint to protect iron from rust.
Instead of the usual staining of iron with oil paints, it is recommended to cover it with paints (which should include white), diluted on turpentine. Experience has shown that the first method is significantly inferior to the latter, since turpentine with whitewash penetrates iron pores and wells much better and therefore protects it from rust damage incomparably better both in air and in water.