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Recipes glowing colors

Recipes glowing colors

The phenomenon of phosphorescence can be well observed on alkaline earth metal sulfides. It lies in the fact that some substances, being previously subjected to lighting, then continue to glow for a while in the dark. The essence of the phenomenon consists in the excitation of electrons of a phosphorescent substance under the influence of extraneous illumination and their subsequent return to lower energy levels, accompanied by the emission of light. Phosphorescent substances are thus, as it were, a battery of light energy.

Practically luminous compounds (otherwise, "phosphors", or "phosphors") are prepared by fusing a mixture of individual components, if possible chemically pure. In addition to the substances necessary for the formation of phosphors, they usually introduce substances into the initial mixture that serve exclusively to lower its melting point (flux).

Good phosphors glow quite brightly, and the duration of their glow is measured in hours. The production of luminous paints from them to cover various night signals is based on this, and a small part is used in art (paintings, masks, etc.).

For the preparation of high-quality phosphors, substances of a class not lower than “HCh” (chemically pure) are required, as well as the thorough grinding of substances and their mixing. The mixtures are melted in a clean porcelain crucible, closing with a porcelain lid (not too tight). For heating, a muffle furnace with a temperature controller is used.

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

The composition for the preparation of phosphors can include toxic substances (here they will be labeled with *). They should be stored in containers with a special label and in a lockable cabinet.

When sulphides come into contact with acids, poisonous gas hydrogen sulphide with a disgusting smell of rotten eggs is released. Its danger is increased by the fact that it paralyzes the olfactory center.

Alkali and alkaline earth metal sulfides destroy nails and hair when they come in contact with them, therefore, they should not be allowed to fall on any parts of the body, and after working with them, wash hands thoroughly.

When sintering mixtures in a furnace, harmful gases are emitted (the mixture foams), so the heating should be carried out in the open air or in a well-ventilated room, and the crucible should be filled no more than 1/3 before placing it in the furnace.

Purple

Calcium oxide CaO - 20   g , sulfur S - 6   g , lithium sulfate Li 2 SO 4 - 1.5   g, 1   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of bismuth nitrate Bi ( NO 3 ) 3 . Pot at a temperature of 700 ° C for 40   minutes

Blue colour

Calcium oxide CaO - 20   g barium hydroxide ** B a ( O H ) 2 - 20   g , sulfur S - 8   g , cadmium sulfate K 2 SO 4 - 1   g sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4 - 1   g , lithium sulfate Li 2 SO 4 - 2   g , 2   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of bismuth nitrate Bi ( NO 3 ) 3 . Turn 40   minutes at a temperature of 800 ° C.

Blue color

Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 - 100   g magnesium oxide Mg O - 25   g , sulfur S - 50   g , sucrose C 12 H 22 O 11 - 10   g sodium fluoride * NaF - 3   g , potassium sulfide K 2 S - 2.5   g, sodium sulfide Na 2 S - 2.5   g, (0.5%) alcohol solutions: thorium nitrate Th ( NO 3 ) 4 - 1.6   ml, thallium nitrate *** TlNO 3 - 1.6   ml, bismuth nitrate Bi ( NO 3 ) 3 - 3.6   ml, rubidium nitrate RbNO 3 - 8   ml. Boil at a temperature of 1100 ° C for 150   minutes

Aquamarine

Calcium oxide CaO - 10   g , strontium oxide SrO - 20   g , calcium tungstate CaWO 4 - 1   g , sulfur S - 8   g , sulfates of potassium and sodium K 2 SO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 - by 1   g , lithium sulfate Li 2 SO 4 - 2   g , 2   ml of 0.5% solution of bismuth nitrate Bi ( NO 3 ) 3 in alcohol. Turn 40   minutes at a temperature of 800 ° C.

Purple flower

Potassium oxide CaO - 100   g , sulfur S - thirty   g , 10   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of bismuth nitrate Bi ( NO 3 ) 3 . Roll on 30   minutes at a temperature of 1200 ° C.

Light green color

Strontium carbonate SrCO 3 - 40   g , sulfur S - 6   g Arsenic ( III ) sulphate *** As 2 S 3 - 1   g , lithium carbonate Li 2 CO 3 –1   g, 2   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of thallium nitrate *** T1 N O 3 . Lurch 45   minutes at a temperature of 1200 ° C.

Yellow

Strontium hydroxide Sr ( OH ) 2 - 15   g , barium carbonate ** Vaso 3 - 25   g , calcium tungstate CaWO 4 - 1   g cepa S - 10   g , lithium sulfate Li 2 SO 4 - 1   g 3   ml of 0.4% alcohol solution of copper sulfate * CuSO 4 , 3   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of thorium nitrate Th ( NO 3 ) 4 . Pot at 800 ° C for 40   minutes

Red tones

To obtain pure red tones, the initial substances of the class OS . CH (especially pure), clean dishes and the absence of dust in the air are required.

Red color

Barium oxide BaO - 40   g , sulfur S - 9   g , lithium phosphate Li 3 PO 4 - 0.7   g, 3   ml of 0.4% alcohol solution of copper sulfate * CuSO 4 . Kite 40 minutes at a temperature of 800 ° C.

Bright red color

Barium carbonate B aCO 3 - 100   g , sulfur S - 15   g , borax Na 2 B 4 O 7 - 2.5 g, lithium phosphate Li 3 PO 4 - 2.5   g, 2   ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of rubidium nitrate RbNO 3 . 4 ml of 0.5% alcohol solution of copper nitrate * Cu ( NO 3 ) 2 . Pot 45 minutes at a temperature of 1200 ° C.

Brief information about luminous substances

·   Glow may occur due to the slow oxidation of a substance in air (for example, white phosphorus, luciferin in some insects, microbes, fungi, fish). Such substances without oxidant access (for example, oxygen) do not glow. With an increase in temperature, the luminescence of such substances increases (white phosphorus is highly toxic and self-ignites at a temperature of 18-25 ° C).

·   Some substances may glow from friction or shaking (for example, crystalline chelidonine, some sulphides activated by manganese, etc.). This glow is called triboluminescence.

·   Substances that glow in the presence of radiation or invisible to the eye X-rays are used to make compositions with a constant glow. As a radioactive substance, for example, paraffin is used, in the molecules of which some of the atoms of ordinary hydrogen (protium) are replaced by atoms of super-heavy radioactive hydrogen (tritium). Due to the presence of radioactive elements in the composition of such visible light sources are dangerous to health.

·   The fourth class of luminous substances are those that shine thanks to the stored energy. Their luminescence can continue very intensively even several hours after preliminary lighting. The recipes of such compositions are given above. Compared with other light composites, they have a number of advantages: they do not oxidize, do not contain radioactive impurities, can shine independently of the access of air, do not require any friction or shaking, unlike triboluminescents. Their only drawback is that they need from time to time "recharging" for the accumulation of energy.

After removing the crucible from the furnace, without opening, set aside to cool. Then open, remove the crust and grind the alloy into a powder. To prepare the paint, the powder must be mixed with nitrolac or another film-forming substance that does not contain water and acids.

The coating of various items, souvenirs, paintings luminous paints

Objects covered with luminous paints are landmarks in a dark room, which provides energy savings. In the wall clock numerals, hands, covered with luminous paints, give time information in the dark. Souvenirs, paintings, covered with such paints, create a spectacular effect.

The following are recipes and method of making glowing colors.

The main component of the luminous paints are sulfur salts: zinc sulphide, barium sulphide and others. All substances included in the composition of the luminous paints must be chemically pure . In the preparation of the need to adhere to the following sequence: first, the salts are mixed with starch, then with solutions, after which the resulting mixture is dried. Next, the dry mixture is combined with sulfur and oxides with thorough mixing in a porcelain crucible. This crucible is placed in an oven having a chimney, and the mixture is calcined in it at a temperature of 1200 ° C for 25-30 minutes. The heated mixture will have a bright red color at the beginning and straw yellow at the end. The cooled mixture is ground in a mortar and sieved through the smallest sieve. The result is a powder of luminous paint.

To cover items, paint powders are diluted with thinners. It must be remembered that a diluted paint should be applied immediately to prevent it from drying out. Apply the paint should not be on clean metal or object, but on the places previously treated with varnish or oil paint, using a soft brush, sharp sticks or goose feather.

The density of paint should be such that it slowly drains from the brush or wand. Luminous paints are afraid of dampness and moisture. Their luminescence is limited depending on the recipe, so the objects on which the luminous mass is applied should be restored (charged), i.e. irradiate with daylight or an electric lamp, which is why the paint will again glow intensely.

Note When compiling recipes for the unit taken 1 cm 3 because the beaker is used (measuring cylinder).

Recipe violet-blue (long glow) (cm 3 )

Calcium oxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    40

Sulfur crystalline (powder). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Carbon dioxide lithium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Starch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Potassium sulphate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Sodium Sulphate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Aqueous-alcoholic solution

bismuth nitrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2     Half interest

Aqueous-alcoholic solution                                                                                            solution -

tantalum nitrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2      activator

Recipe orange-red (medium intensity) (cm 3 )

Barium carbonate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

Sulfur crystalline (powder). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Sugar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Borax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0,3

Sulfate salt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0,3

Phosphorus lithium salt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3

Nitric acid copper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5     0.5% solution-

Lead nitrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0,5     activator

The simplest recipe is yellow (cm 3 )

Carbonated strontium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

Sulfur crystalline (powder). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .thirty

Anhydrous sodium carbonate (soda). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Liquid glass (silicate glue), turpentine can be used as a thinner for all the above luminous paints. You can dilute the luminous paint dammar varnish, which consists of: 52% dammar resin, 43% xylene and 5% castor oil. The resin is poured with xylene and thoroughly mixed, after dissolving the resin, castor oil is added. The mixture obtained is filtered through suede. The varnish has a straw-yellow color, evaporates easily, therefore, it should be stored in a glass container with ground glass stopper. If a sediment appears in the pot over time, then the varnish needs to be filtered again. 2.5 parts of the luminous paint is dissolved in 1 part of dammar varnish, and the mixture is thoroughly mixed.