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If there is no water in the country

If there is no water in the country

candidate sephoznauk . Researcher of the Tajik Forest Experimental Station N.F. LUKIN

How is this done in practice? First of all, maintaining the top layer of soil in a constantly loose state and mulching its surface with various low-heat water materials: sawdust, dry grass, straw, pieces of toli, slate, etc. The size of the treated area for bushes, seedlings and young trees 6 m ) should be 2x2 m. For higher and more powerful trees, this area is increased to a size of 3x3 m.

Even an inexperienced summer resident knows that soil mulching improves its water-air regime and is therefore absolutely useful for all plants, both annual and for many years .

In addition, for individual gardening and horticulture the heat-removing screen of plastic film covered with a layer of soil 3- 5 cm . Neither color nor film thickness do not play a role, just a new, more dense film will last longer. Especially if you put a double . At the same time, it must be remembered that it is impossible to cover the entire area with a film completely without gaps: the soil will choke.

A transparent film, just laid on the soil, will give a greenhouse effect. This is a trap for heat. Filling the film with a layer of soil, we get the opposite effect: all the heat absorbs and strongly radiates the top layer of soil. The film also passes heat deep into the soil badly. This is also a trap, but not for heat, but for vaporous moisture.

Before spreading the film, the soil needs to be dug up onto shovels bayonet, mixed with a two-three-year dose of organic and mineral fertilizers, and properly leveled with a rake.

Then lay the film pieces of 2x2 m under the trees in a continuous canvas, making slots for trunks near shrubs or grapes. Backing off 10 cm from the edges of the film, digging the grooves with a width and depth of 1-2 bayonets of the shovel, and using the removable ground to fill the film. The inner wall of the groove should be as vertical and unconsolidated as possible - through it, steam will be sucked under the film. Such a device will immediately begin to work, so you can do it at any time of the year, if the earth is not frozen.

For the winter, the film is not removed. The sediments are collected and absorbed by the soil in the grooves. The film does not interfere with the winter-spring soil moisture. In the spring you need to inspect, straighten and slightly loosen the top layer of soil.

The beds can be of any length. You can arrange them parallel to each other, leaving gaps for channels.

The figure shows the scheme for planting tomatoes in the Dushanbe Botanical Garden. The total width of the ridge - 2 m , grooves - 50 cm , blank fillings 2x10 = 20 cm, film canvas - 130 cm (see fig.). Two rows of tomatoes were located in 25 cm from the edge of the canvas and one row - in the middle. The distance in the rows - 30 35 cm .

When planting, the top layer of soil was raked, a cut was made in the film. The roots were placed under the film. The height of tomatoes in August reached an average of 60- 70 cm , and fruit ripening began in July. The bushes successfully survived a three-five-month drought and very high temperatures of about 37-40 degrees. In such a hard mode, tomatoes are shallow, although they have good taste. If the heat does not exceed 35 degrees, tomatoes develop normally.

By analogy with tomatoes, one can grow a tank with lazhany, pepper and other vegetables, except root vegetables.

The following year, the same ridges can be used without digging, only to remove last year's tops. You can plant in the old seats. If the small fruits do not suit you, you can make watering in the grooves. Water in this case will be all tightened under the film, and for watering it will need three to five times less, and watering should be infrequent. If the droughts are short-term - two to four weeks - then watering is not required at all.

Under the conditions of the most severe heat in the soil, a very even, although rather harsh humidity regime is established under the film: 10-14 percent (by weight). Daily temperature fluctuations are reduced threefold, which is conducive to the rapid development of beneficial soil population, which is strongly loosening the soil. The soil under all types of mulch successfully retains its friability and porosity and does not need digging.

In the conditions of southern Ukraine and other arid regions, the picture is likely to be similar. In the case of prolonged rains in the summer, it is nevertheless necessary, apparently, to provide for a possible descent of water along the grooves, to prevent the film from flooding from above. Otherwise, the roots may suffocate and rot.

If the film turns out to be operational in 3-4 years, then the grooves can be used for fertilizer application: they already have active roots. It is better to cover the grooves with dry grass after weeding the plot.