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If there is no water in the cottage

If there is no water in the cottage

candidate septicoscience . Research Fellow of the Tajik Forest Experimental Station N.F. LUKIN

How is this done in practice? First of all, by keeping the top layer of soil in a constantly loose state and mulching its surface with various low heat-impregnated materials: wood sawdust, dry grass, straw, pieces of roofing material, slate, etc. The size of the cultivated area for shrubs, seedlings and young trees (up to 5- 6 m ) should be 2x2 m. For higher and more powerful trees this area is increased to a size of 3x3 m.

Even an inexperienced summer resident knows that mulching the soil improves its water and air regime and is therefore useful absolutely for all plants, both annuals and many years .

In addition, for individual gardening and gardening the most useful is the heat-removing screen made of polyethylene film covered with a layer of soil with a thickness of 3- 5 cm . Neither color nor film thickness plays a role, just a new, denser film will last longer. Especially if you put a double . At the same time, we must remember that it is impossible to cover the whole area with film entirely without lumens: the soil will suffocate.

Transparent film, just bedded on the soil, will give a greenhouse effect. This is a trap for heat. Covering the film with a layer of soil, we get the opposite effect: all heat absorbs and intensively radiates the cover layer of the soil. The film does not pass through the soil warmly into the soil. This is also a trap, but not for heat, but for vaporous moisture.

Before spreading the film, the soil should be dug into the spade bayonet, mixed with a two to three-year dose of organic and mineral fertilizers, and properly leveled with rakes.

Then the film is lined with pieces of 2x2 m under the trees with a continuous cloth, making slits for the trunks near the bushes or grapes. Stepping back 10 centimeters from the edges of the film, grooves are digging with a width and depth of 1-2 spade bayonets, and the extractable earth is used to fill the film. The inner wall of the groove should be as vertical and uncompacted as possible - through it under the film and steam will be sucked. Such a device will immediately start working, so you can do it at any time of the year, if the ground is not frozen.

For the winter, the film is not removed. Precipitation is collected and absorbed by the soil in the grooves. The film does not prevent the winter-spring moistening of the soil. In the spring, we need to inspect, adjust and slightly loosen the cover layer of the soil.

The beds can be of any length. They can be arranged parallel to each other, leaving gaps for the grooves.

The figure shows the scheme by which tomatoes were planted in the Dushanbe Botanical Garden. The total width of the ridge - 2 m , grooves - 50 centimeters , empty zakrajki 2x10 = 20 sm, a film of a film - 130 cm (see the figure). Two rows of tomatoes were located in 25 centimeters from the edge of the canvas and one row in the middle. The distance in the ranks is 30- 35 centimeters .

When planting, the cover layer of the soil was raked, a slit was made in the film. The roots were placed under the film. The height of tomatoes by August reached an average of 60- 70 centimeters , and ripening of fruits began in July. The bushes successfully survived a three to five-month drought and very high temperatures of 37-40 degrees. With such a tough regime, tomatoes are tiny, although they have good taste qualities. If the heat does not exceed 35 degrees, the tomatoes develop normally.

By analogy with tomatoes, it is possible to grow a tank of lazhans, pepper and other vegetables under the film , except for root crops.

The following year, these same ridges can be used without digging, only to remove last year's tops. You can plant in old seats. If small fruits do not suit you, then you can water in the grooves. The water in this case will be fully tightened under the film, and for irrigation it will take three to five times less, and even watering should be infrequent. If the droughts are short-term - two to four weeks - then watering will not be required at all.

In the conditions of the most severe heat in the soil under the film, a very even though rather rigid moisture regime is established: 10-14 percent (by weight). The daily fluctuations in temperature are reduced threefold, which favors the rapid development of a useful soil population, which is intensively loosening the soil. The soil under all types of mulch successfully retains its looseness and porosity and does not need any digging.

In the southern Ukraine and other arid regions, the picture is likely to be similar. In cases of prolonged rains in the summer, nevertheless, it is probably necessary to foresee the possible descent of water along the grooves, and prevent the flooding of the film from above. Otherwise, the roots may suffocate and rot.

If the film will work after 3-4 years, then the grooves can be used to apply fertilizers: they are already suitable active roots. The grooves themselves should be covered with dry grass after weeding the site.