Home mini alcohol - a factory - the manufacture of alcohol
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1. Drawing and specification.
We offer you a sketch and a description of the operation of the plant for the production of high-quality alcohol from a mash made from sugar or various fruit raw materials.
The design of the installation is simple, does not require large investments. It is quite possible to make it in the conditions of a home workshop or a garage for a person who knows how to hold a metalwork tool. The installation consists of scraps of stainless steel pipes of various diameters connected together in a certain sequence by partitions using conventional soldering or welding and filled with filler.
Any room with 220 V power supply and running water for cooling is suitable for operation of the plant. In addition to electricity, you can use other sources of heating: gas or electric. Plate, cooking oven, hot steam, etc.
The installation can be performed in several variants depending on the performance and power consumption, as can be seen from the table:
1. All dimensions are in millimeters.
2. Since the installation can be made of pipes of other diameters, it is necessary that the clearance between the pipes (cylinders) at positions Nos. 5 and 8 be at least 6 mm, and between pos. Nos. 4 and 5 not less than 10 mm.
3. All parts of the plant are connected with each other by usual soldering or welding.
4. The rectification column in the upper part has 4-8 holes D = 8-10 mm for the exit of alcohol vapors into the space between the cylinders pos. No.4 and No.5.
5. Deviations on the linear dimensions during the assembly of the installation does not have a significant effect.
Note: The above dimensions correspond to installations with a capacity of 25-30 liters / day. 2.Recommendations on the manufacture of the installation:
Take a stainless steel pipe D = 57 mm (preferably thin-walled) with a length of 1500-2000 mm. The ends of the pipe are machined on a lathe or bench tool. Then, on one side at a distance of 40-60 mm in one cross section, drill 4-8 holes A = 8-10 mm.
Prepare the cylinders pos.№4 and №5 also from stainless pipes of appropriate diameters. If possible, the cylinders can be pierced by a lathe, if there is not then a thin-walled pipe.
Partitions number 2, item number 3 and item number 12 are cut from a stainless sheet 0.8-1.0 mm thick with scissors for cutting metal and cut with a chisel and then processed on a sharpener or file. Dimensions of the baffles and holes D 8 mm in place. Tubes for water and alcohol exit do not require special preparation and can be of any configuration and length.
Assembly of the installation begins with the fact that we solder or weld the partitions pos. 3 and pos. 12 to the cylinder pos. No.5 on both sides, so that the holes for the water pipes are from different sides.
Then the inner cylinder with partitions should be put on a pipe D = 57 mm at a distance of 5-6 mm from the holes D = 8-10 mm then soldered or welded. After that, the tube of pos. No. 11 is soldered to the partition pos. No. 3. Then the outer cylinder pos. No. 4 is put on the inner so that it rests on the partition of poses No. 12, on the other hand the septum is posed in pos. No. 2, then the details of pos. No. 4, No. 2 and No. 12 are connected by soldering or welding. The water outlet pipe (pos. 11) is soldered to two parts pos. №2 and №3. At the same time, the tubes are soldered at positions Nos. 7 and 13. Next, the grid of pos. No. 9 is soldered in the lower part of the tube, pos. The space between the cylinders pos. No. 4 and No. 5 remains empty and is a refrigerator for alcohol vapors. The space between the pipe D = 57 pos. No. 8 and the inner cylinder pos. No. 5 is designed for cold water flow under pressure, thereby cooling the alcohol vapors located in the dephlegmator (empty zone in the pipe D = 57 at position No. 8) and the refrigerator.
After all the connecting operations have been completed, the installation must be pressurized. For what it is necessary to muffle the pipe D = 57 pos. №8 from both sides with stoppers or plugs, fill it with compressed air through the tube to exit the alcohol pos. № 13 and anoint the soap solution with all the seams. If any seam passes, you will see a bubble. Pressurization of the water cavity is easier. To the water supply pipe, connect the water under pressure, the water drain pipe is muffled. Water should not leak through seams and the more so to flow or to drip through a tube for the exit of alcohol. The pressure test is over. Now the installation is attached to a container of 40 - 200 liters in various ways, connect the hoses for water. Hoses are desirable to have polyethylene D / y = 8 mm.
As a container used cans, pressure cookers, canisters, milk flasks and other containers made of stainless steel or food aluminum. If as a source of heat you choose a gas stove, it is necessary that the installation and the container is not high and the entire structure fits in height in the house or apartment. If the source of heat is electricity, it is necessary to install 2 to 4 pieces of different power in the bottom of the tank so that it is possible to regulate the boiling process. For example 2 - 3 pieces of 1 kW. and 1 pc. for 0.5 kW. The container must be leakproof, have a filler neck, drain valve for draining and a tube for the thermometer.
After all is ready in the pipe D = 57 pos. No. 8, filler is poured through the top, a heat insulator is inserted and the plug closes.
3. Description of the installation:
In the tank through the neck is filled with brewing or other alcohol-containing raw materials (home wine, beer, non-standard vodka, etc.) and heated. When the brew temperature rises to 80 ° C, the heating rate is lowered and such a stable boiling is achieved so that the heating is fully controlled. At a temperature of 82-84 oC, the installation will fully warm up and a raw alcohol (a high degree brew to 96 o) will flow from the alcohol outlet tube. The rate of alcohol yield depends on the heating of the brew. During the distillation, the temperature of the brew increases. The temperature is monitored by the thermometer, which is inserted into the tube on the tank. The tube on the inside is muffled. Before you insert a thermometer, pour water or vegetable oil into the tube. When the temperature reaches 98 ° C, distillation must be discontinued. at this temperature there is almost no alcohol in the brew, but intense evaporation of fusel oils begins. Distillation can be completed at a lower temperature, but then part of the alcohol will remain in the brew, and the amount of fusel oil will decrease.
We note that the raw spirit obtained in purity differs significantly from ordinary moonshine, but it is recommended to clean it to obtain a high-quality alcohol. You can not clean it, it all depends on the next steps, because at the further distillation there is as though "automatic" clearing of alcohol. It is enough to overtake two times (brag for alcohol - raw, and it for pure alcohol). But some factions (not high-quality ones) are distilled several times.
After the initial distillation, it is necessary to drain the workings from the container and rinse it. To produce alcohol in the tank, instead of brewing, load purified alcohol - raw (diluted with water to 40-60 o) and heat. When the temperature reaches 76 ° C, the heating rate is reduced and slowly brought to 78-82 ° C (the boiling point of the alcohol). After a while, alcohol will flow. The first fraction obtained, whose volume is about 3-8% of the volume of alcohol (40 ml per liter of raw alcohol), is further used only for technical purposes. It contains low-boiling impurities. The rate of alcohol withdrawal should be such that the strength was 96 degrees. Run the distillation to a temperature of 100-101 o). When the temperature reaches about 88 - 95 оС, the speed of the flow of alcohol will decrease and a characteristic unpleasant smell will appear. In this case, it is necessary to increase the rate of heating, so that the remains of alcohol, which are subject to repeated distillation with a new volume of raw alcohol, are released more quickly. The middle fraction should be of excellent quality, with a strength of 96 °, it is then used for its intended purpose.