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What is an exploit and what does it eat?

Many people are interested in the question: "What is an exploit ?"
In this article I will try to give the maximally detailed answer to it. So:

Exploit Types
- The exploit can be a single file, which must either be run immediately or precompiled.
- The exploit can be an archive, more often with .tar or .tar.gz extensions, because most of them are written under UNIX systems. In these archives can lie anything:
* the same .pl files
* script or source code in C, Java? etc
* just a description of "cunning treatment"
* etc

The algorithm of action
* Scan the host (preferably scan using nmap)
* We look at open ports and what hangs on them
* Telnet to open ports and learn the version of demons
* Find a holey demon
* We are looking for an exploit
* We send it to the shell-account in the line
* Compile it
* Start the exploit

Exploit Exploitation
Suppose we found out that some demon is leaky. Urgently run in bugtrack's and archive vulnerabilities and find an exploit.
We are looking for a single version of the demon or the operating system version.

shell-account
Options:
1. You have a shell (not covered - go to the next header)
2. You do not have a shell and you want to fuck it

Actions:
- You can use the free shell (however, they have disabled many necessary things :) )

3. You have your own UNIX (go to the next header)

Compilation
Let's say that we found the one we need to integrate into C. Most exploits are written exactly in this programming language.

gcc file.c -o file - Compile the C code and get it when you exit the file
If you have an archive, then open it: tar -xvzf pack.tgz
cd [имя каталога]
./configure
make
make install
tar -xvzf pack.tgz
cd [имя каталога]
./configure
make
make install
tar -xvzf pack.tgz
cd [имя каталога]
./configure
make
make install
may need to read the Readme File before installing, if this is a specific exploit.

Launching the exploit
If the exploit is in Perl, then the command is used to start

perl exploit.pl [parameters|flags]
Если эксплоит на C, то
$./sploit [parameters]
perl exploit.pl [parameters|flags]
Если эксплоит на C, то
$./sploit [parameters]
Each exploit involves inserting its parameters, the purpose of which usually reports itself at startup.

Problems on free shells
On free shells, the following problems often occur:
- not enough rights
- it is not possible to connect .h libraries (which use all exploits)

The appearance of these problems is not surprising. If administrators allowed all functions of the shell, then it would not be a free service for getting to know the UNIX system and a springboard for massive attacks on the server. I hope, now you will not have any problems with this.

A few explanations:

1. What is a shell?
Literally the shell is translated as "shell". This is a program that accepts user commands from the command line, converts them into an understandable form for the operating system, and displays the response of the operating system in a form understandable to the user :) . Another shell name is the command interpreter. Here are some of the most usable shells: bash, sh, csh, tcsh, psh. They differ in that each shell has its own language for writing scripts (in related shells they are almost the same as bash and sh).
They also differ in functionality: some allow you to edit the command line. Almost every shell has its own built-in variables. If you do not know what your shell is, enter the command echo $ SHELL. If you want to change your default shell, enter the chsh command.

2. What is a daemon?
A daemon is a program that runs in the background and does not have a control terminal. Resident, in short: 0).