How to install Windows, partition the hard disk, what is BIOS, drivers, system update
Installing Windows is simple if you know what to choose and which buttons to press. And only at first glance it seems that only advanced computer scientists can install the operating system or split the hard disk into several sections. But first things first.
There are two options for installing Windows: a full installation (from scratch) and an upgrade. First of all, let's see what type of installation is suitable for what cases.
Full installation is required if:
- you have a brand new computer without an operating system;
- the operating system previously installed on your PC is in an inoperable state due to a virus attack or your experiments with its settings;
- You want to install the new version of Windows instead of the old one without saving the programs and settings.
When fully installed, a new copy of Windows is installed on the computer without saving your files, programs, and settings.
Windows Update will help in cases where:
- the operating system is unstable after your experiments with it;
- after removing the virus, the Internet stopped working on the computer, any of the OS properties you needed turned off (for example, a printer connected according to all the rules does not want to work).
The update allows you to keep your documents, as well as Windows programs and settings in working condition.
Whichever Windows installation option you choose, you must have a boot disk with the correct version of Windows and a disk with drivers and proprietary software for your PC or laptop.
The boot disk contains the Windows operating system itself and a basic set of drivers. It is called bootable because with it you can boot the computer and install the OS, even if it has a pristine-free hard disk without a single program.
What is a driver?
Drivers are programs that allow Windows to work with the devices (hardware) of your PC: a motherboard, a video card, a sound card, etc. The driver disk is usually issued when buying a PC or laptop. In the case of the latter, I can also give you a disk with proprietary utilities of the laptop manufacturer and an operating system recovery disk. Why do we need these discs? The answer is quite simple: in the basic assembly of Windows there are not drivers for all devices on your computer. As a result, after installation, fresh Windows cannot recognize the video card or network adapter, and you will have to look for the necessary drivers on the Internet. Therefore, in normal computer stores, when buying a PC, you will always be given a disk with drivers for the motherboard and video card, at least. Keep them in a safe place. in case of reinstalling Windows, they will help you avoid many problems, including idle sound or poor picture quality on the monitor screen.
We also recommend to save all your documents, programs, music, movies, etc. for any Windows installation. in a safe place: on CD, USB flash drive, removable hard disk. Please note that saving programs from the Program Files folder in most cases is pointless - they only work on the currently installed Windows. On the new system, you can hardly run them.
But let's finish the theoretical educational program and move on to practice.
Full installation of Windows
With a full installation of Windows you will have the opportunity to format the hard drive clean and split it into several sections. Let's do this fascinating and not at all difficult business.
First of all, we need to somehow boot from a bootable Windows CD / DVD. To do this, the BIOS must put the CD / DVD number one in the boot list. But first, a few words about the BIOS itself.
What is BIOS?
BIOS is translated as Basic Input Output System (from English "Basic Input / Output System"). The BIOS is responsible for many settings of the PC hardware, the allocation of system resources of the computer and the simplest input / output data. Physically, the BIOS is in the form of a microcircuit and is located on the computer's motherboard. In this microcircuit is BIOS firmware utility - BIOS Setup. It also allows you to change the BIOS settings, including the order in which the computer boots.
To enter the BIOS Setup at the very beginning of the PC boot, press on the keyboard and hold down the "Del" or "F2" key. What exactly to press the computer when you turn on it usually writes itself, for example, "Press DEL to enter Setup". The main thing is not to miss the moment and see this inscription in time.
Booting from CD-ROM can be enabled in the “Boot” section or in the “BIOS FEATURES SETUP” section or “Advanced BIOS Features” - depending on the BIOS version, the partitions will be called differently. For the BIOS version shown in the screenshot, highlight “CD-ROM Drive” and press the “+” button on the keyboard to move it up the list. If you have a different BIOS version, carefully read the hints on the bottom or on the right side of the BIOS Setup Utility window. Although they are mostly in English, the names of the control keys can be understood.
Save the settings and exit the BIOS by selecting “Save & Exit Setup” or by pressing “F10” on the keyboard. In various versions of the BIOS, this item may be called "Exit Saving Changing" or "Exit & Save Changes". When asked to save changes, click “Yes”.
Now insert the Windows boot disk into the CD drive and reboot the computer. Next time you boot, you will see the Windows Installer window. Wait a few seconds for it to download the files necessary for installing the operating system.
Carefully read what Windows Installer will give you, and press “Enter” on the keyboard to continue.
Accept the Windows license agreement by pressing F8 on the keyboard.
Now we face an important task - to divide the hard disk into several sections. Our entire disk is perceived by Windows as an unpartitioned area, which the operating system will gladly tell us about.
For convenience and security, you need to create two partitions in this unlabeled area: C and D. In the future, Windows will perceive them as two different disks. We will install the operating system itself on section C, and select section D for storing documents, installers of programs, music, etc. If in the future we have to reinstall the OS again, we will also install it on section C, and all the information on section D will remain safe and sound. You can create not 2, but 3 or more sections. It all depends on the size of the hard disk of your PC.
To create a partition, press the “C” key on the keyboard and enter the size of the partition being created. It will depend on the size of your hard drive. If the disk has a size of 500 GB, then under Windows you can allocate 150 GB, if 80 GB, then 30-40 MB is enough.
Having entered the size of the first section, press “Enter” on the keyboard and you will see the result of your work. Here it is, just created section C.
It remains to create a partition D: select in the list Unpartitioned area ...
... and again press the "C" key on the keyboard. Enter the size of the partition D and press "Enter" on the keyboard. The second section is ready!
Now select the partition on which Windows will be installed - partition C. Press "Enter" on the keyboard.
The installer will offer to format the partition. For Windows XP and Vista, the partition must be formatted in NTFS (from the English New Technology File System, the file system of the new technology). Highlight the option "Format partition in NTFS system" and press "Enter" on the keyboard.
A few seconds or minutes you will have to watch how Windows formats the partition C.
At the end of this process, Windows will start copying files to the hard disk, and you will have to watch it again.
Copying everything you need, Windows restarts the computer.
If at the next boot you see this inscription on the screen ...
... do not take any action. Since you haven’t canceled the boot from the CD-ROM yet, Windows gave you a choice: press the key and boot from the CD-ROM or wait a couple of seconds and continue the installation.
And now, finally, in front of you is not a blue and scary screen, but quite a pretty picture - the installation of Windows continues!
Now you have to answer the questions of the operating system and ask some of its settings.
The first question is setting the language and regional standards. If Windows has chosen the Russian language and Russian keyboard layout, feel free to click "Next". Otherwise, click "Configure ..." and tell the operating system which language you like.
The second question is your name and organization. It is advisable to drive this data in English. If you have a home computer, in the "Organization" field you can enter home. Click "Next".
The third question is the product key. The key is usually written on a box or a Windows disk or in your license. Click "Next".
The fourth question is the computer name and administrator password. Enter the computer name in English only and without spaces, for example, comp1, vera, Mycomp, server, etc. The computer name should not be very long. If you have several computers, their names should not be repeated. Administrator password at this stage can not enter. Click "Next".
The fifth and final question is setting the date and time. Specify the current time of your location, date, and select your time zone. If you want Windows to automatically change the clock on the computer when daylight saving time comes back, check the “Automatic daylight saving time and back” checkbox. Click "Next".
On this Windows issues are over. A few more minutes you will have to watch as the installation of the operating system continues.
Finally, installing Windows on your computer is complete! Congratulating yourself on this long-awaited event, click "Next."
Check "Protect your computer now ..." if you have high-speed Internet and you want Windows to update automatically. Otherwise, check “delay this action”.
You can also get a hint about the value of the automatic update by clicking the question mark in the lower right corner of the window and selecting the appropriate item.
Once again, clicking the "Next" button will take you to the screen with user data settings. Enter the names of users who will work in Windows. If you are the only user of the computer - enter only one name in the first field.
Names must be entered in English and without spaces. Although Windows allows usernames to be entered in Russian, it is better not to do this in order to avoid problems in the future. Click "Next".
Finally, the initial Windows setup is complete. Click "Finish" and you will get into a fresh and clean operating system.
Remember, at the initial stage of the installation of Windows, we divided the hard disk into sections. During the installation, we formatted partition C on NTFS and installed Windows on it. Section D remained unformatted. Correct this misunderstanding: select "Start" - "My Computer" and double-click on the disk D.
The system prompts you to format the disk. Click "OK".
Check that the “File system” field is NTFS, and click “Start.”
Windows will warn you that formatting will erase all data from the disk. Since there is nothing on it yet, then you have nothing to lose. Feel free to click "OK", starting the process of formatting the disk D.
After formatting the D drive, you can store your data on it. And on drive C you will have Windows installed. So far there are only three system folders, but very soon in the process of work there will appear a lot of other things.
Remember, at the very beginning of the article we said that drivers are necessary for the operation of the iron filling of a PC. You can find out whether Windows has recognized all devices by right-clicking on the “My Computer” icon and selecting the “Properties” item. Go to the “Hardware” tab and click the “Device Manager” button.
Question marks will mark those devices that Windows did not recognize. It's time to get the driver disk and install them. First, the driver on the motherboard devices, then on the video card, sound, network, etc. With native drivers, your PC hardware will work much better.
Now you can proceed to installing programs, setting up the Internet and performing other actions on your computer. In the meantime, we touch the issue of updating the system.
Windows Update — installs over an existing OS, saving documents, programs, and settings. This installation can be run directly from the operating system - just insert the Windows boot disk into the computer's CD drive.
From the proposed actions, select "Install Windows".
In the "Type of installation:" select "Update."
If you select “New installation” as the installation type, then run the full installation (we considered it earlier) and your programs and settings will not be saved. They may remain in the Program Files folder (if you do not format the disk during the installation process), but the new Windows will not work.
Accept the license agreement and enter the license key for Windows.
Refuse the offer to download the Windows update from the Internet and click "Next". You will have to watch the Windows update process for a few minutes. Fortunately, it is much faster than installing from scratch.
After updating Windows, most programs will work as before, but the configurations of the Internet and network may get lost, and you will have to configure them again.