How to install Windows, partition the hard drive, what are BIOS, drivers, system updates
Installing Windows is a snap if you know what to choose and which buttons to press. And only at first glance it seems that only advanced computer scientists can install the operating system or split the hard drive into several partitions. But first things first.
There are two options for installing Windows: a full installation (from scratch) and an update. First of all, we will figure out what type of installation is suitable for which cases.
A full installation is necessary if:
- you have a brand new computer without an operating system;
- the operating system previously installed on your PC is inoperable due to a virus attack or your experiments with its settings;
- You want to install a new version of Windows instead of the old one without saving programs and settings.
When fully installed, a new copy of Windows is installed on the computer without saving your files, programs and settings.
Updating Windows will help in cases where:
- the operating system is unstable after your experiments with it;
- After removing the virus, the Internet stopped working on the computer, any devices or the properties of the OS you need turned off (for example, a printer connected by all rules doesn’t want to work).
The update allows you to save your documents, as well as programs and Windows settings in working condition.
Whichever option you choose to install Windows, you must have a boot disk with the correct version of Windows and a disk with drivers and proprietary software for your PC or laptop.
The boot disk contains the Windows operating system itself and a basic set of drivers. It is called bootable because you can boot a computer from it and install the OS, even if it has a pristine clean hard drive without a single program.
What are drivers?
Drivers are programs that allow Windows to work with the devices (hardware) of your PC: motherboard, video card, sound card, etc. A driver disk is usually issued when you purchase a PC or laptop. In the case of the latter, I can also give you a disc with proprietary utilities of the laptop manufacturer and an operating system recovery disc. Why are these discs needed? The answer is quite simple: in the basic assembly of Windows there are drivers for not all devices on your computer. As a result, after installation, fresh Windows cannot recognize the video card or network adapter, and you will have to look for the necessary drivers on the Internet. Therefore, in normal computer stores, when buying a PC you will always be given a driver disk for the motherboard and video card, at least. Store them in a safe place, as if you reinstall Windows, they will help you avoid many problems, including idle sound or poor picture quality on the monitor screen.
We also recommend that you save all your documents, programs, music, movies, etc. during any installation of Windows. in a safe place: on a CD, USB flash drive, removable hard drive. Please note that in most cases, saving programs from the Program Files folder is pointless - they only work on currently installed Windows. On the new system, you are unlikely to be able to run them.
But, let's end theoretical educational program and move on to practice.
Full installation of Windows
With a full installation of Windows, you will have the opportunity to format the hard drive clean and split it into several partitions. We will deal with this fascinating and not at all complicated matter.
First of all, we need to somehow boot from the bootable CD / DVD drive with Windows. To do this, the BIOS must put the CD / DVD number one in the boot list. But first, a few words about the BIOS itself.
What is a BIOS?
The BIOS translates as Basic Input / Output System (from the English “Basic Input / Output System”). The BIOS is responsible for many settings of the hardware of the PC, the distribution of the system resources of the computer and the simplest input / output of data. Physically, the BIOS is made in the form of a microcircuit and is located on the motherboard of the computer. The BIOS setup utility BIOS Setup is “flashed” in this chip. It then allows you to change the BIOS settings, including the boot order of the computer.
To enter the BIOS Setup at the very beginning of the PC boot, press the keyboard and hold down the "Del" or "F2" key. What exactly to press the computer when turning on usually writes itself, for example, "Press DEL to enter Setup". The main thing is not to miss the moment and see this inscription in time.
You can enable booting from a CD-ROM in the “Boot” section or in the “BIOS FEATURES SETUP” or “Advanced BIOS Features” sections - depending on the BIOS version, partitions will be named differently. For the BIOS version shown in the screenshot, highlight “CD-ROM Drive” and press the “+” button on the keyboard to move it up the list. If you have a different BIOS version, carefully read the prompts at the bottom or on the right side of the BIOS Setup utility window. Although they are mostly in English, the names of the control keys can be understood.
Save the settings and exit the BIOS by selecting “Save & Exit Setup” or by pressing “F10” on the keyboard. In various BIOS versions, this item may be called “Exit Saving Changing” or “Exit & Save Changes”. When asked about saving changes, click “Yes.”
Now insert the Windows boot disk into the CD drive and restart the computer. The next time you boot, you will see a Windows Installer window. Wait a few seconds until it downloads the files necessary for installing the operating system.
Read carefully what the Windows installer will give you, and press “Enter” on the keyboard to continue.
Accept the Windows License Agreement by pressing F8 on your keyboard.
Now we face an important task - to divide the hard drive into several partitions. Our entire disk is perceived by Windows as an unallocated area, which the operating system will gladly inform us of.
For convenience and safety, it is necessary to create two partitions in this unallocated area: C and D. In the future, Windows will perceive them as two different disks. We will install the operating system on partition C, and partition D on storage of documents, installers of programs, music, etc. If in the future we again have to reinstall the OS, then we will also install it on partition C, and all the information on partition D will be safe and sound. You can create not 2, but 3 or more sections. It all depends on the size of the hard drive of your PC.
To create a section, press the C key on the keyboard and enter the size of the section to be created. It will depend on the size of your hard drive. If the disk has a size of 500 GB, then under Windows you can allocate 150 GB, if 80 GB, then 30-40 MB is enough.
Having entered the size of the first section, press “Enter” on the keyboard, and you will see the result of your work. Here it is, just created section C.
It remains to create a section D: select the Unmarked area from the list ...
... and again press the “C” key on the keyboard. Enter the size of the partition D and press Enter on the keyboard. The second section is ready!
Now select the partition on which Windows will be installed - partition C. Press "Enter" on the keyboard.
The installer will offer to format the partition. For Windows XP and Vista, the partition must be formatted in NTFS (from the English "New Technology File System", the file system of the new technology). Highlight the option “Format partition in NTFS” and press “Enter” on the keyboard.
For a few seconds or minutes, you will have to observe how Windows formats partition C.
At the end of this process, Windows will start copying files to the hard drive, and again you will have to watch it.
After copying everything you need, Windows will restart the computer.
If at the next boot you see such an inscription on the screen ...
... do not take any action. Since you have not yet canceled the booting from the CD-ROM, Windows has given you a choice: press the key and boot from the CD-ROM or wait a couple of seconds and continue the installation.
And finally, before you is not a blue and scary screen, but a pretty nice picture - the installation of Windows continues!
Now you have to answer questions of the operating system and set some of its settings.
The first question is language settings and regional standards. If Windows has chosen the Russian language and the Russian keyboard layout, feel free to click “Next”. Otherwise, click "Configure ..." and tell the operating system which language you like.
The second question is your name and organization. It is advisable to enter this data in English. If you have a home computer, you can enter home in the Organization field. Click "Next."
The third question is the product key. The key is usually written on a box or disk with Windows or in your license. Click "Next."
The fourth question is the computer name and administrator password. Enter the computer name only in English and without spaces, for example comp1, vera, Mycomp, server, etc. The computer name does not have to be very long. If you have multiple computers, their names should not be repeated. The administrator password can be omitted at this stage. Click "Next."
The fifth and final question is the date and time settings. Indicate the current time of your location, date and select the time zone. If you want Windows to automatically translate the clock on the computer when switching to daylight saving time and vice versa, tick off the checkbox "Automatic daylight saving time and back." Click "Next."
This ended Windows issues. A few more minutes you will have to watch how the installation of the operating system continues.
Finally, the installation of Windows on the computer is complete! Congratulating yourself on this long-awaited event, click Next.
Check the box “Protect your computer now ...” if you have high-speed internet and you want Windows to update automatically. Otherwise, check “Postpone this action."
You can also get a hint about the value of automatic updates by clicking the question mark in the lower right corner of the window and selecting the corresponding item.
Once again, by clicking the "Next" button, you will be taken to a screen with user data settings. Enter the usernames that will run on Windows. If you are the only computer user, enter only one name in the first field.
Names must be entered in English and without spaces. Although Windows allows you to enter user names in Russian, it is better not to do this in order to avoid problems in the future. Click "Next."
Finally, the initial setup of Windows is completed. Click "Finish" and you will be taken to a fresh and clean operating system.
Remember, at the initial stage of installing Windows, we partitioned the hard drive. During the installation process, we formatted partition C in the NTFS system and installed Windows on it. Section D remained unformatted. Correct this misunderstanding: select "Start" - "My Computer" and double-click on drive D.
The system will prompt you to format the disk. Click OK.
Verify that NTFS is listed in the File System field, and click Start.
Windows will warn you that formatting will erase all data from disk. Since there is nothing on it yet, then you have nothing to lose. Feel free to click "OK", starting the process of formatting drive D.
At the end of formatting drive D, you can store your data on it. And on drive C, you will have Windows installed. While there are only three system folders on it, but very soon in the process of work there will appear a lot of other things.
Remember, at the very beginning of the article, we said that drivers are needed for the PC hardware to work. You can find out whether all devices were recognized by Windows by right-clicking on the “My Computer” icon and selecting “Properties”. Go to the “Hardware” tab and click on the “Device Manager” button.
Question marks will indicate devices that Windows did not recognize. It's time to get the driver disk and install them. First, the driver for the device of the motherboard, then on the video card, sound, network, etc. With native drivers, your PC hardware will work much better.
Now you can proceed to install programs, configure the Internet and perform other actions on the computer. In the meantime, we will touch on the issue of updating the system.
Windows Update - installation on top of an existing OS with saving documents, programs and settings. Such an installation can be launched directly from the operating system - just insert the boot disk with Windows into the computer’s CD-drive.
From the proposed actions, select "Install Windows."
In the "Installation Type:" field, select "Update."
If you select “New installation” as the type of installation, run the full installation (we examined it earlier) and your programs and settings will not be saved. They may remain in the Program Files folder (if you do not format the disk during installation), but in the new Windows will not work.
Accept the license agreement and enter the license key for Windows.
Refuse the offer to download the Windows update from the Internet and click "Next". You will have to watch the Windows update process for several minutes. Fortunately, it is much faster than installing from scratch.
After updating Windows, most programs will work as before, but the Internet and network configurations may go awry and you will have to configure them again.