This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

In the Netherlands, a 3D atlas of embryonic development was created

3D атлас эмбрионального развития

An embryo (other Greek) or an embryo is an early stage in the development of an animal and a person, starting from a fertilized egg ( zygote ). Embryonic development, which usually occurs in the egg shells or special organs of the mother's body, concludes with the appearance of the ability to self-feed and actively move.

The Dutch scientists created a three-dimensional atlas of prenatal development of a man in the first two months after conception . This is reported by 3D Embryology .

Embryonic development

The human embryo. Picture of Leonardo da Vinci (about 1510-1513)
The human embryo. Picture of Leonardo da Vinci (about 1510-1513)

Embryonic, or embryonic, development of a living organism occurs either in the egg shells outside the mother's body, or inside it.

In the course of this development, a multicellular organism that consists of various organs and tissues that is capable of independent existence arises from the ovule. In all animals, embryonic development involves the fertilization of the egg or, in the case of parthenogenesis, its activation, followed by the stages of crushing, gastrulation, organogenesis followed by emergence from the egg membranes or birth.

Fertilization occurs either in the mother's body, or in the aquatic environment. After fertilization, the crushing of the egg follows, during which it is consistently and repeatedly divided into blastomeres - first large ones, and then more and more smaller cells. As a result, there is a multicellular organism - the blastula. The chain of cleavage divisions creates the prerequisites for the emergence of differentiation, that is, the differences between the parts of the embryo. The primary differentiation is due to the unequal composition of the cytoplasm of cells that originated from different parts of the egg. The ability of embryonic cells to move is also important for the formation of organs of an adult organism.

At the stage of gastrulation, the embryonic sheets are separated, and as a result, a three-layer structure emerges - the ectoderm (outer layer), the endoderm (inner layer), the mesoderm (intermediate layer).

Although in the early stages of development embryonic cells can develop in different directions, under the influence of a number of factors they gradually determine (acquire the ability to develop in only one definite direction).

At the stage of organogenesis, which is provided mainly by a variety of cellular movements and differentiation of the cells themselves, there is a division of the embryonic sheets into the rudiments of organs and systems, during which the large rudiments are differentiated into smaller ones, and as a result an increasingly complex structure of the whole organism is created . For example, from the part of the ectoderm that forms the rudiment of the nervous system, the brain is allocated. From the latter, the rudiments of the eyes are distinguished, in which the retina is allocated, and in it the specialized visual cells-rods and cones are differentiated. The embryonic development of different groups of animals is not the same: a large yolk sac develops in the embryos of fishes, the yolk sac and the special organs - allantois and amnion are characteristic for birds, and the mammal also has a trophoblast and placenta.

3D atlas of embryonic development

Scientists of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam identified and labeled 150 structures and organs of the body of embryos, after which their three-dimensional computer models were reconstructed.

The results of the studies were grouped into a single atlas of embryo development in the period from 15-17 to 56-60 days after conception.

All models were classified into development stages and transformed into an interactive 3D-PDF format that is freely available.

3D атлас эмбрионального развития

You can download the models from the project's website. The level of development of the embryo is divided into stages, switching to which you can see the model and its individual parts.

3D атлас эмбрионального развития

The Atlas allows us to consider both the embryo as a whole, and its individual structures, organs and systems.

3D атлас эмбрионального развития

For a more complete understanding, scientists have indicated the size of the embryo in millimeters and compared to the palm of an adult human.

As noted, work on the creation of the atlas has been carried out since 2009. Participation in it was accepted by a group of embryologists with the assistance of 75 students.


3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 7 (15-17 days) Specimen 8752
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 8 (17-19 days) Specimen 8671
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 9 (19-21 days) Specimen H712
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 10 (21-23 days) Specimen 6330
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 11 (23-26 days) Specimen 6784
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 12 (26-30 days) Specimen 8505A
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 13 (28-32 days) Specimen 836
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 15 (35-38 days) Specimen 3512
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 16 (37-42 days) Specimen 6517
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 17 (42-44 days) Specimen 6521
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 18 (44-48 days) Specimen 6524
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 20 (51-53 days) Specimen 462
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 21 (53-54 days) Specimen 7254
3D atlas of embryonic development
Stage 23 (56-60 days) Specimen 9226

3D Atlas of Human Embryology - data

3D атлас эмбрионального развития

This website is for downloading data of the 3D Atlas.

Microphotographs of specimens of the Carnegie Collection are available with permission of the caretakers of this collection.

3D-PDF files: Download the 3D-PDFs and use Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.

Stage-specimen 3D reconstruction 3D tiffs Amira files
3D.pdf grey.tif labels.tif
CS07-8752 3DAtlas_CS07-8752-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS07-8752-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS07-8752-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS08-8671 3DAtlas_CS08-8671-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS08_8671-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS08_8671-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS09-H712 3DAtlas_CS09-H712-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS09-H712-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS09-H712-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS10-6330 3DAtlas_CS10-6330-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS10-6330-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS10-6330-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS11-6784 3DAtlas_CS11-6784-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS11-6784-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS11-6784-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS12-8505A 3DAtlas_CS12-8505A-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS12-8505A-grey-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS12-8505A-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS13-836 3DAtlas_CS13-836-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS13-836-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS13-836-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS15-3512 3DAtlas_CS15-3512-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS15-3512-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS15-3512-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS16-6517 3DAtlas_CS16-6517-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS16-6517-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS16-6517-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS17-6521 3DAtlas_CS17-6521-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS17-6521-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS17-6521-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS18-6524 3DAtlas_CS18-6524-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS18-6524-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS18-6524-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS20-462 3DAtlas_CS20-462-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS20-462-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS20-462-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS21-7254 3DAtlas_CS21-7254-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS21-7254-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS21-7254-labels-v2016-01.tif
CS23-9226 3DAtlas_CS23-9226-v2016-03.pdf 3DAtlas_CS23-9226-gray-v2016-01.tif 3DAtlas_CS23-9226-labels-v2016-01.tif

3D-pdf files: Download the 3D-pdf's and use Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.

3D-tiff files: IrifanView can be used for easy viewing of multipage tiff files. Use CTRL + PageDown / PageUp for scrolling trough the gray and label stack.

Amira files: Use Amira for combined use of the gray and label files. The label files also contain the labelnames.

Via & & wiki