3D atlas of embryonic development created in the Netherlands
An embryo (other Greek) or an embryo is an early stage in the development of an animal and a person, starting from a fertilized egg ( zygote ). The embryonic development, which usually occurs in the egg shells or special organs of the mother’s body, ends with the appearance of the ability to self-feed and actively move.
Dutch scientists created a three-dimensional atlas of human prenatal development in the first two months after conception . It is reported by 3D Embryology .
The embryonic, or embryonic, development of a living organism occurs either in the egg shells outside the mother's body, or inside it.
During this development, a multicellular organism arises from an egg cell, consisting of various organs and tissues, which is capable of independent existence. In all animals, embryonic development includes the fertilization of an egg or, in the case of parthenogenesis, its activation, followed by the stages of crushing, gastrulation, organogenesis, followed by exit from the egg membranes or birth.
Fertilization occurs either in the mother's body or in the aquatic environment. Fertilization is followed by crushing an egg, during which it is sequentially and repeatedly divided into blastomeres - first large, and then more and more small cells. As a result, a multicellular organism arises - a blastula. The chain of fragmentation divisions creates the prerequisites for the emergence of differentiation, that is, differences between the parts of the embryo. The primary differentiation is determined by the unequal composition of the cytoplasm of cells arising from different parts of the egg. The ability of the embryonic cells to move is also important for the formation of organs in the adult body.
At the gastrulation stage, the germ layers separate and, as a result, a three-layer structure arises - ectoderm (outer layer), endoderm (inner layer), mesoderm (intermediate layer).
Although in the early stages of development embryonic cells can develop in different directions, under the influence of a number of factors, they gradually determinate (acquire the ability to develop in only one specific direction).
At the stage of organogenesis, which is provided mainly by a variety of cellular movements and differentiation of the cells themselves, the germinal leaves are divided into the beginnings of organs and systems, during which large rudiments differentiate into smaller ones, and as a result, an increasingly complex structure of the whole organism is created . For example, from the part of the ectoderm that forms the rudiment of the nervous system, the brain stands out. The rudiments of the eyes are separated from the latter, in which the retina is secreted, and specialized visual cells — rods and cones — are differentiated in it. The embryonic development of different groups of animals proceeds differently: a large yolk sac forms in the embryos of fish, the yolk sac and special organs, allantois and amnion, are characteristic of birds, and mammals, in addition, also have trophoblast and placenta.
3D atlas of embryonic development
Scientists at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam identified and labeled 150 structures and organs of the body of the embryos, and then reconstructed their three-dimensional computer models.
The research results were grouped into a single atlas of embryo development from 15-17 to 56-60 days after conception.
All models were classified according to the stages of development and turned into an interactive 3D-PDF format, which is freely available.
You can download models from the project website. The level of development of the embryo is divided into stages, going to which you can see the model and its individual parts.
The atlas allows us to consider both the embryo as a whole and its individual structures, organs and systems.
For a more complete understanding, scientists indicated the size of the embryo in millimeters and compared with the palm of an adult.
As noted, work on the creation of the atlas has been ongoing since 2009. A group of embryologists with the assistance of 75 students took part in it.
Download All: http://3datlas.3dembryo.nl/3Datlas_pdf_all_v2016-03.zip (~ 84 MB)
3D Atlas of Human Embryology - data
- Date: 24 November 2016
- Contact: 3Dembryo@amc.nl
- Site: http://3datlas.3dembryo.nl/
This website is for downloading data of the 3D Atlas.
Microphotographs of specimens of the Carnegie Collection are made available with permission of the caretakers of this collection.
3D-PDF files: Download the 3D-PDFs and use Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.
3D-pdf files: https://get.adobe.com/reader Download the 3D-pdf's and use Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.
3D-tiff files: http://www.irfanview.com IrfanView can be used for easy viewing of multipage tiff files. Use CTRL + PageDown / PageUp for scrolling trough the gray and label stack.
Amira files: http://www.amira.com/ Use Amira for combined use of the gray and label files. The label files also contain the labelnames.
Via 3dembryoatlas.com & hromadske.ua & wiki