The Netherlands has created a 3D atlas of embryonic development
An embryo (ancient Greek) or embryo is an early stage in the development of an animal and a person, starting from a fertilized egg ( zygote ). Embryonic development, which usually occurs in the egg membranes or special organs of the mother's body, ends with the emergence of the ability to self-feed and active movement.
The Netherlands scientists created a three-dimensional atlas of prenatal human development in the first two months after conception . Reports about it 3D Embryology .
Germinal, or embryonic, development of a living organism occurs either in the egg membranes outside the mother's body, or inside it.
In the course of this development, a multicellular organism arises from the egg, consisting of various organs and tissues, which is capable of independent existence. In all animals, embryonic development includes fertilization of the egg or, in the case of parthenogenesis, its activation, followed by the stages of crushing, gastrulation, organogenesis, followed by release from the egg membranes or birth.
Fertilization takes place either in the mother’s body or in the aquatic environment. Fertilization is followed by crushing eggs, during which it is consistently and repeatedly divided into blastomeres - first large, and then smaller and smaller cells. As a result, there is a multicellular organism - blastula. The chain of divisions of fragmentation creates prerequisites for the emergence of differentiation, that is, differences between parts of the embryo. The primary differentiation is caused by the unequal composition of the cytoplasm of cells originating from different parts of the egg. The ability of embryonic cells to move is also important for the formation of organs of an adult organism.
At the stage of gastrulation, germinal layers are separated, and as a result, a three-layer structure arises - the ectoderm (outer layer), the endoderm (inner layer), mesoderm (intermediate layer).
Although in the early stages of development, embryonic cells can develop in different directions, under the influence of a number of factors they are gradually determined (they acquire the ability to develop in only one particular direction).
At the stage of organogenesis, which is mainly provided by various cell movements and differentiation of the cells themselves, the germ layers are divided into the rudiments of organs and systems, during which the large rudiments differentiate into smaller ones, and as a result an increasingly complex structure of the whole organism is created . For example, from the part of the ectoderm that forms the bud of the nervous system, the brain stands out. From the latter, the rudiments of the eyes are isolated, in which the retina stands out, and in it specialized visual cells — sticks and cones — differentiate. The embryonic development of various groups of animals takes place unequally: a large yolk sac is formed in fish embryos, the yolk sac and special organs are characteristic of allantois and amnion, and in addition to mammals, the trophoblast and placenta are characteristic of birds.
3D atlas of embryonic development
Scientists at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam identified and labeled 150 structures and organs of the body of the embryo, and then reconstructed their three-dimensional computer models.
The research results were grouped into a single atlas of embryo development from 15–17 to 56–60 days after conception.
All models were classified according to stages of development and turned into an interactive 3D-PDF format, which is freely available.
You can download models from the project site. The level of development of the embryo is distributed in stages, by going to which you can see the model and its individual parts.
Atlas allows us to consider both the embryo as a whole and its individual structures, organs and systems.
For a more complete understanding, scientists have indicated the size of the embryo in millimeters and compared with the palm of an adult.
As noted, the work on the creation of the atlas has been conducted since 2009. A group of embryologists took part in it with the assistance of 75 students.
Download All: http://3datlas.3dembryo.nl/3Datlas_pdf_all_v2016-03.zip (~ 84 MB)
3D Atlas of Human Embryology - data
- Date: 24 November 2016
- Contact: 3Dembryo@amc.nl
- Site: http://3datlas.3dembryo.nl/
This website is for downloading data of the 3D Atlas.
This is a collection of micrographs of the collection.
3D-PDF files: Download Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.
3D-pdf files: https://get.adobe.com/reader Download Adobe Reader X (or newer) on MS Windows or Mac OS for 3D interaction.
3D tiff files: http://www.irfanview.com IrfanView tiff files. Use CTRL + PageDown / PageUp for scrolling trough the gray and label stack.
Amira files: http://www.amira.com/ Use Amira files for the use of the gray and label files. The label files also contain the label names.
Via 3dembryoatlas.com & hromadske.ua & wiki