Human Anatomy in Pictures Online
Human anatomy is a very complex subject. It is with knowledge of the structure of the human body that doctors, nurses and other medical workers begin their journey. Anatomy reveals to us the secrets of the structure of the human body, both outside and inside. Anatomy makes it clear how proportional the human body is, its individual parts, organs, their macro and microscopic structure.
Atlas of human anatomy Sinelnikova
The most complete, detailed and high-quality information on the structure of the human body is in the Sinelnikov Atlas (human anatomy in pictures) .
Medical University students give you the Atlas Sinelnikova Online Atlas for free use.
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The structure of the human body
Human anatomy sets itself the task of studying the main stages of the development of the human body in the process of evolution, the individual structure of the body, and the structure of various human organs in its different age periods, the formation of the human body in environmental conditions. Against the background of all animals, man is very elevated. People began to have their own speech, intellect, and a consciousness characteristic of a person developed. Man naturally differs from animals due to his social essence, which is given by social conditions, socio-historical experience, and the totality of social relations. Modern man has done labor, social needs. The growth of social needs led to a series of metamorphoses of structural features, to biological progress.
All living things belong to the animal world. Based on this, anatomy studies the structure of man , taking into account the biological patterns that are characteristic of all living organisms, especially mammals - higher vertebrates. In the structure of the human body, we can distinguish individual characteristics, age, characteristic of a particular sex. In childhood, adolescence, and even adolescence, organs still grow, and the differentiation of tissue elements continues. Already in adulthood, changes in the body are less active, the body structure becomes more stable. But I want to note that during this period, there is a restructuring in the organs according to living conditions, the impact of the external environment.
Some information about the structure of the human body in connection with the experience of embalming corpses was obtained in Ancient Egypt, contained in the textbook of the Chinese emperor Gwang Ti (about 3 thousand years BC). In the Indian Vedas (1st millennium BC. E.) it was indicated that a person has 500 muscles, 90 tendons, 900 ligaments, 300 bones, 107 joints, 24 nerves, 9 organs, 400 vessels with 700 branches.
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One of the founders of anatomy Aristotle, studying animal anatomy, pointed out the difference between tendons and nerves, coined the term "aorta". Representatives of the Alexandrian school of doctors (3rd century B.C.) performed autopsies and vivisections of criminals sentenced to death. They opened the diaphragm, studied the skeleton and viscera, made up the idea of lymphatic vessels, nerves, heart valves, brain membranes, etc. K. Galen (2 c.), Based on previously obtained, often unreliable, data, as well as on autopsies of animals , systematized anatomical information. His anatomical ideas served as the basis of medicine for almost 1.5 thousand years, because the church in the Middle Ages forbade autopsy and the study of anatomy.
The heyday of science and art in the Renaissance was accompanied by the development of anatomical research. The main provisions of the teachings of K. Galen were revised and the basis for the development of modern anatomy was created. In the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci, A. Vesalius, G. Fallopius, B. Eustachius and others received the first systematic data on the structure of various organs of the human body. Anatomical studies formed the basis or contributed to the emergence of a number of major discoveries in biology. The discovery in 1628 by W. Harvey of the blood circulation in the body was a turning point in the study of the circulatory system.
The description of the lymphatic vessels of the mesentery by the Italian anatomist G. Azelli served the further development of the doctrine of the lymphatic system. M. Malpigi in 1661 opened the circulation in the capillaries, confirming the unity of the arterial and venous parts of the bloodstream. Frenchman C. Bichat (18th century) laid the foundations of the doctrine of tissues and created the prerequisites for the development of the science of the microscopic structure of tissues and organs - histology. J. Cuvier summarized numerous data on the comparative anatomy of animals and paleontology, which made it possible to establish the principle of correlation in the development of organs.
The discovery by M. Schleiden (1838) and T. Schwann (1839) of a cell as a structural unit of tissues in plants and animals was evidence of the unity of the organic world and contributed to the improvement of methodological techniques of microscopic anatomy. The cell theory was subsequently widely used in the development of R. Virchow pathological anatomy. G. Mendel (1865), who discovered the law of hereditary transmission of characters, laid the foundation for genetic studies of the mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The evolutionary theory developed by C. Darwin ensured the development of the evolutionary direction in anatomy as well.
The structure of the human body, its organs and systems is studied by anatomy. To understand the structural features of a person, it is necessary to know how his organs arose and developed phylogenetically. A significant role in understanding this is given to comparative anatomy and evolutionary morphology - sciences that study the structure of various animals, as well as fossil remains. The life processes that occur in the body are studied by physiology.
The human body is formed by a huge number of cells. They are not randomly located in the human body, but are combined into certain groups - tissues. In the human body, four main types of tissues are distinguished: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous. Epithelial tissue forms the integument of the body and well protects the internal organs located beneath it. Cartilage, bones and fatty substance are made up of connective tissue, and blood and lymph make up the internal environment of the body. Muscle tissue provides the movement of the human body and the work of its internal organs. Finally, nerve tissue forms the nerves, brain and spinal cord.
Tissues form organs: the stomach, heart, kidneys, etc. Each of the organs has a specific shape, structure, location, and performs its characteristic work. Connected organs, united by a common work, make up a system of organs. All human organs are divided into several systems: musculoskeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, sexual and endocrine. Consider the main characteristics of the above systems.