Human anatomy in pictures
Human anatomy is a very complex subject. It is with the knowledge of the structure of the human body that doctors, nurses and other medical workers begin their journey. Anatomy reveals to us the secrets of the structure of the human body, both outside and inside. It makes it clear how proportional the human body, its individual parts, organs, their macro. and microscopic structure. Human anatomy sets itself the task of studying the main stages of the development of the human body in the process of evolution, the individuality of the body structure, and the structure of various human organs in its different age periods, the formation of the human body in the surrounding nature. Against the background of all animals, man is very exalted. People had their own speech, intellect, developed consciousness characteristic of a person. Man naturally differs from animals due to his social essence, which is given by social conditions, socio-historical experience, a set of social relations. Modern man made work, social needs. The growth of social needs has led to a series of metamorphosis of structural features, to biological progress.
Atlas of human anatomy Sinelnikov
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The structure of the human body
All living things belong to the animal world. On this basis, anatomy studies the structure of man , taking into account the biological patterns that are characteristic of all living organisms, especially mammals - higher vertebrates. In the structure of the human body can distinguish the individual characteristics, age, characteristic of a particular sex. In childhood, adolescence, and even youth, organs are still growing, the differentiation of tissue elements continues. Already in adulthood, changes in the body are less active, the structure of the body becomes more stable. But I want to note that during this period there is a restructuring in the organs, according to the conditions of life, the influence of the external environment.
Some information about the structure of the human body in connection with the experience of embalming corpses was obtained in ancient Egypt, contained in the medical book of the Chinese emperor Gwang Ti (about 3 thousand years BC). In the Indian Vedas (1st millennium BC), it was stated that a person has 500 muscles, 90 tendons, 900 ligaments, 300 bones, 107 joints, 24 nerves, 9 organs, 400 vessels with 700 branches.
One of the founders of anatomy, Aristotle, studying the anatomy of animals, pointed out the difference between tendons and nerves, introduced the term "aorta". Representatives of the Alexandrian School of Physicians (3rd century Don. E.) Performed autopsies and vivisection of convicts sentenced to death. They opened the diaphragm, studied the skeleton and entrails, made an idea of the lymphatic vessels, nerves, heart valves, brain membranes, etc. K. Galen (2 in.), Based on previously obtained, often unreliable, data, as well as autopsies of animals , systematized anatomical information. His anatomical views served as the basis of medicine for almost 1.5 thousand years, since the church in the Middle Ages forbade the autopsy and the study of anatomy.
The heyday of science and art in the Renaissance was accompanied by the development of anatomical research. The main provisions of the teachings of K. Galen were revised and the basis for the development of modern anatomy was created. In the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci, A. Vesalius, G. Fallopy, B. Evstakhiy and others obtained the first systematic data on the structure of various organs of the human body. Anatomical studies formed the basis or contributed to the emergence of a number of major discoveries in biology. The discovery in 1628 by W. Garvey of the blood circulation in the body was a turning point in the study of the circulatory system.
The description of the lymphatic vessels of the mesentery by the Italian anatomist G. Azelli served to further develop the theory of the lymphatic system. M. Malpighi in 1661 opened the circulation in the capillaries, confirming the unity of the arterial and venous parts of the bloodstream. The Frenchman C. Bisha (18th century) laid the foundation for the study of tissues and created the prerequisites for the development of the science of the microscopic structure of tissues and organs - histology. J. Cuvier summarized numerous data on comparative animal anatomy and paleontology, which made it possible to establish the principle of correlation in the development of organs.
The discovery by M. Schleiden (1838) and T. Schwann (1839) of the cell as a structural unit of tissue in plants and animals testified to the unity of the organic world and contributed to the improvement of the methodological techniques of microscopic anatomy. The cell theory was later widely used in the development of R. Virchow's pathological anatomy. H. Mendel (1865), who discovered the law of hereditary transmission of symptoms, laid the foundation for genetic studies of the mechanisms of formative processes. The evolutionary theory developed by C. Darwin ensured the development of the evolutionary direction in anatomy.
The structure of the human body, its organs and systems studies anatomy. To understand the characteristics of a person's structure, it is necessary to know how his organs arose and developed phylogenetically. A significant role in understanding this is given to comparative anatomy and evolutionary morphology - the sciences that investigate the structure of various animals, as well as fossil remains. The vital processes occurring in the body, studying physiology.
The human body is formed by a huge number of cells. They are located in the human body is not random, but are combined into certain groups - tissues. In the human body there are four main types of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. Epithelial tissue forms the integuments of the body and well protects the internal organs located under it. Connective tissue consists of cartilage, bone and fatty matter, and blood and lymph make up the internal environment of the body. Muscle tissue provides movement of the human body and the work of its internal organs. Finally, nerve tissue forms the nerves, brain and spinal cord.
Tissues form organs: the stomach, heart, kidneys, etc. Each of the organs has a certain shape, structure, location, and performs its own work. Interconnected organs, united by common work, constitute a system of organs. All human organs are divided into several systems: musculoskeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, sexual and endocrine. Consider the main characteristics of the above systems.