Emergency help with asphyxia
In Europe, first aid in case of asphyxia is taught from childhood.
It is also often ironic - remember, there are such scenes in several comedies like "The Scariest Movie".
BUT .... all this would be funny if it were not so sad, and would not concern people dear to you, or even just by the will of fate, who happened to be near you in a fateful moment for them.
Instructions, where it is popularly described how to act in case of asphyxiation in the case of an adult and a child.
Choking (asphyxiation) is a difficulty in breathing, which causes a lack of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues of the body. Asphyxia is accompanied by cyanosis of the skin, for example, when the airways are squeezed from the outside (asphyxiation), their lumen is closed by edema, etc. An asthma attack in asthma usually occurs at night; in the afternoon - less often.
There are 2 types of choking (asphyxia):
- I. Nonviolent (bronchial, cardiac asthma, allergic laryngeal edema, etc.)
- Ii. Violent (divided into subspecies):
- Choking from closing (closing) of the respiratory tract or openings (drowning, entry of foreign bodies into the respiratory tract);
- Choking from squeezing of the neck organs (hanging, loopback, hand strangulation);
- Choking from squeezing the chest and abdomen with heavy or loose objects, as well as in a crush, in a crowd.
Symptoms and signs of choking (asphyxia):
- Asthmatic attack: the patient seeks to take a vertical position with a slope forward; breathes noisy, inhales and exhales with a "whistle", wheezes; at the end of the attack, there may be a separation of viscous sputum with mucus;
- Cardiac asthma attack: the patient also sits or stands, leaning forward, often and difficult to breathe; sputum separation does not occur;
- In case of allergic edema of the larynx, the patient clutches at his throat, he can hardly breathe often, his face turns red;
- Symptoms and signs of violent choking are usually visible to the naked eye: marks on the neck, in the mouth or nose, broken ribs.
What to do with choking (asphyxia):
- With an attack of bronchial or cardiac asthma, the patient must be seated (if he is not able to do this), provide fresh air, place his legs in a container with hot water (ankle-deep), or use hot-water bottles, put mustard plasters on his chest and back. below the shoulder blades, give eufillin (according to the instructions) or, if you can, make a subcutaneous injection of arenaline (0.2-0.5 ml of a 0.1% solution);
- In case of allergic edema of the larynx, you should immediately call a doctor, and before that you take an antihistamine (diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil - including injection, drink 1/4 tbsp. Calcium chloride or gluconate solution) in severe cases, intramuscularly inject 2 ml. prednisone;
- If choking is due to a foreign body entering the larynx, try to pull it out. If the foreign body is not visible, or is already in the respiratory tract, you need to tilt the patient forward, push the arms along the lower line of the ribs jerkily so that the air that remains in the lungs pushes the foreign body out. After successful extraction, it is imperative that you see the doctor so that he can examine the patient and prescribe a course of antibiotics to prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the lungs.
- In case of forced strangulation, the victim's body should be freed as soon as possible from objects that do not allow him to breathe, call a doctor, give a drink (if you are sure that the ribs are intact, the lungs are not damaged - that is, the strangulation only touched the neck).
What not to do when choking (asphyxia):
- Do not stay idle;
- Do not give to drink if there is a suspicion of lung damage;
How to say “suffocation” and “asphyxia” in a foreign language:
- in English: asphyxia - asthma (estma), asphyxia - asphyxia (esxia)
- in German: asphyxiation - erstickung (ersticung)
- in French: asphyxiation - etouffement (etufeman), asphyxia - asphyxie (asphyxia)
- in Spanish: asphyxiation - sofocacion (sofacacion), asphyxia - asfixia (asphyxia)
Assist with mechanical asphyxia
- In the case when asphyxia is caused by compression of the chest with heavy objects or tight clothing, you need to get rid of them and release the chest.
- Immediately you need to call an ambulance, to ensure a free flow of air to the victim.
- Lay the victim on the side, in order to avoid spasms, gagging, which can cause lung edema, circulatory respiration. Clinical death may occur.
- If suffocation comes from a foreign object (food, vomit), you should try to remove it from the throat with your fingers.
- In the case when simple coughing does not help, you need to bend the victim through the knee, a piece of furniture or simply tilt the body of his body forward and hit two or three times on the back.
- If a small child suffers from strangulation (up to three years), it is necessary to take his hands with both his hands in a position with his head down and, with careful shaking movements, release his airway.
- The Heimlich method is effective for asphyxiation: a sharp strong squeezing of the victim's diaphragm in the posterior position, clasping him with two locking hands in front.
First aid to the victim in an unconscious state
- If the victim has lost his breath, the possibility of strangulation from falling down of the tongue should be prevented. To do this, put a person on his back and throw his head back as far as possible. Then you need to lower, gently push forward the lower jaw, hold the tongue with your fingers using a piece of cloth (handkerchief, gauze) and in some way attach it to the lower jaw, for example, using a pin. To prevent puffiness of guttural tissues, ice should be applied to the neck area. Cooling will help avoid aggravating the situation.
- Providing first aid for asphyxia, every one or two minutes, you need to check the presence of pulse and respiration. If they are absent, you should proceed to mechanical ventilation. In case of cardiac arrest, an indirect heart massage should be performed.
- If you have witnessed the manifestation of asthma symptoms in a person (shortness of breath, wheezing, indiscriminate gestures, convulsions), first aid for asphyxia should be immediate. You need to act independently, without waiting for the arrival of an ambulance. Strangulation causes death in minutes.