Emergency care for asphyxiation
In Europe, first aid for asphyxia is taught from childhood.
They are also often ironic - remember, in several comedies such as "The Scariest Movie" there are such scenes.
BUT .... all this would be ridiculous if it were not so sad, and would not concern people dear to you, or even just by the will of fate who were with you at a fateful moment for them.
An instruction where it is popularly described how to act with asphyxiation in the case of an adult and a child.
Choking (asphyxia) is a difficulty in breathing that causes a lack of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood and body tissues. Choking is accompanied by blueness of the skin, for example, when squeezing the respiratory tract from the outside (suffocation), closing their lumen with edema, etc. Asphyxiation usually occurs at night; in the afternoon - less often.
There are 2 types of suffocation (asphyxia):
- I. Nonviolent (bronchial, cardiac asthma, allergic laryngeal edema, etc.)
- II. Violent (divided into subspecies):
- Choking from blocking (closing) the airways or holes (drowning, foreign bodies entering the airways);
- Asphyxiation from squeezing the organs of the neck (hanging, strangulation with a noose, strangulation with hands);
- Choking from squeezing the chest and abdomen with heavy or loose objects, as well as in a crush, in a crowd.
Symptoms and signs of suffocation (asphyxia):
- Asthmatic attack: the patient tends to take a vertical position with an inclination forward; breathes noisily, inhales and exhales with a "whistle", wheezes; at the end of the attack, there may be a separation of viscous sputum with mucus;
- An attack of cardiac asthma: the patient also sits or stands leaning forward, often breathing hard; sputum separation does not occur;
- With allergic edema of the larynx, the patient clutches his throat, often can hardly breathe, his face turns red;
- Symptoms and signs of violent suffocation are usually visible to the naked eye: marks on the neck, in the mouth or nose, broken ribs.
What to do with choking (asphyxia):
- In case of an attack of bronchial or cardiac asthma, the patient needs to be seated (if he himself is not able to do this), provide an influx of fresh air, place his legs in a container of hot water (ankle-deep), or use heating pads, put mustard plasters on his chest and on his back below the shoulder blades, give aminophylline (as instructed) or, if you can, give a subcutaneous injection of arenaline (0.2-0.5 ml of a 0.1% solution);
- In case of allergic laryngeal edema, you should immediately call a doctor, and before that take an antihistamine (diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil - including injection, drink 1/4 tbsp. Solution of calcium chloride or gluconate) in severe cases, inject 2 ml intramuscularly. prednisone;
- If suffocation is associated with a foreign body entering the larynx, try to pull it out. If the foreign body is not visible, or is already in the respiratory tract, you need to tilt the patient forward, push them in a jerky manner along the lower line of the ribs so that the air that remains in the lungs pushes the foreign body out. After successful extraction, you must definitely see a doctor so that he can examine the patient and prescribe a course of antibiotics to prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the lungs.
- In case of forced asphyxiation, the body of the victim should be freed as soon as possible from objects that do not allow him to breathe, call a doctor, give a drink (if you are sure that the ribs are intact, the lungs are not damaged - i.e., asphyxiation touched only the neck).
What NOT to do with suffocation (asphyxiation):
- Do not be inactive;
- Do not give drink if there is a suspicion of lung damage;
How to say “choking” and “asphyxia” in a foreign language:
- in English: choking - asthma (estma), asphyxia - asphyxia (esfixia)
- in German: choking - erstickung
- in French: suffocation - etouffement (etufeman), asphyxia - asphyxie (asfixi)
- in Spanish: choking - sofocacion (sofokasyon), asphyxia - asfixia (asfixia)
Assisting with mechanical asphyxiation
- In the case when asphyxia is caused by squeezing the chest with heavy objects or tight clothing, you need to get rid of them and free the chest.
- It is immediately necessary to call an ambulance, to ensure a free flow of air to the victim.
- Lay the victim on his side, in order to avoid spasms, vomiting, which can cause pulmonary edema, respiratory arrest. Clinical death may occur.
- If strangulation occurs from a foreign object (food, vomit), you should try to remove it from the throat with your fingers.
- In the case when simple coughing does not help, you need to bend the victim through the knee, a piece of furniture or simply tilt the body of his body forward and hit him two or three times on the back.
- If a small child suffers from strangulation (up to three years), then it is necessary to take his legs with both hands in the head position down and with gentle shaking movements to clear the airways.
- Effective for asphyxia is the Heimlich method: a sharp strong squeezing of the victim’s diaphragm in the rear position, clasping it with two hands locked in front of the castle.
First aid to an unconscious victim
- If the victim has lost his breath, the possibility of asphyxiation from retraction of the tongue should be prevented. To do this, put the person on his back and throw his head back as far as possible. Then you need to lower, gently push the lower jaw forward, hold the tongue with your fingers using a piece of tissue (handkerchief, gauze) and somehow attach it to the lower jaw, for example, using a pin. To prevent swelling of the laryngeal tissues, ice should be applied to the neck area. Cooling will help to aggravate the situation.
- When providing first aid for asphyxiation, it is necessary to check for pulse and breathing every one to two minutes. If they are absent, artificial lung ventilation should be initiated. In case of cardiac arrest, an indirect cardiac massage should be performed.
- If you witnessed a person exhibiting symptoms of suffocation (difficulty breathing, wheezing, promiscuous gestures, cramps), first aid for asphyxiation should be immediate. You need to act on your own, not waiting for the arrival of an ambulance. Asphyxiation leads to death in minutes.